|Anbirjeong, kaz Anbirjeong|
|Writing system||Talmic alphabet|
Anbirese (n gaz Anbirjeong /ən gǎz ànbirjəm/ [ànbírjəm]) is a major Talmic language descended from Tigol, inspired by Sino-Korean, Swedish, and Welsh. compared to its relatives Skellan and Ciètian, it has a relatively conservative verb system. On the planet of Tricin (Anbirese: n Smau /ən smau/), it is an analogue of German in terms of influence. Anbirese is the official language of the Talman nation Anbir and of former colonies in Cualuav and Txapoalli; it is the second-largest Talmic language in terms of number of speakers. Like most modern Talmic languages, Anbirese is a descendant of Thensarian. Like with German, there is a Standard Anbirese and various regiolects.
Thanks in large part to the printing press, Modern Anbirese rapidly gained prominence over a larger area in Northern Talma and came to serve as a lingua franca for northern mainland Talma. Today, Anbirese still enjoys status as a "cultured" language and is one of the most widely taught foreign languages in the Bitaletan world.
- 1 External history
- 2 Todo
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Dialectology
- 5 Orthography
- 6 Vocabulary
- 7 Morphology
- 8 Syntax
- 9 Sample text
Anbirese began as "Tsjoen", a Swedish and Sino Korean hybrid. The grammar is heavily based on my first Tiogall draft.
- ot, od > vat, vad
- Numbers: kjam, tjeodeor, nask, dyv, solj, stam, rvað, lað, berb, ngjor, jachim, kne
- scaimh 'mountain' > skeγ
- obey < TELIC + 'listen' (like in Þiús'k)
- Conjunctions that take pronominal suffixes, like Arabic ʔinna and ʔanna (or maybe Bhlaoighne)
- Swadesh list
- Tigol > Anbirese sound changes
plus, Anbirese has "accusativus in infinitivo"!
le could be omitted before indefinite nouns in modern Anbirese
but Maith Sivy always used it
that's one way of distinguishing archaic from modern Anbirese
another could be the use of the pronoun 'fiar'
which in modern Anbirese was completely replaced with 'scid'
ca-ephyth = of that
ca-leth = that (acc.)
ca-dzeth = in that; there
ma-, ca-, ta-, m-compounds: this, that, what, which
in that house = ca-dzen souar
or "dze cin souar"
both are valid
the first being more archaic
a verbalizer like -ować
- Verb prefixes:
- ar-: on, at > ar-
- (deut.) as-: telic > ys-
- (prot.) de-, (deut.) do-: in, at > dze-, do-
- é-: with, co- > e-
- fin-/sin- = well, thoroughly > fin-
- for-: causative, through > for-
- (prot.) ful-, (deut.) fol-: around, back > fl-
- imm-: immediately > im-, m-, n-, ŋ-
- (prot.) gel-, (deut.) gol-: up, out > gol-
- ro-: down > ro-
- sol-: a causative > sol-
- (prot.) su-, (deut.) so-: towards > su-
- (prot.) sur-, (deut.) sor-: back > sor-
- (prot.) u(cc)-, (deut.) oc-: from > oc-
- a e i o u > eo jeo ji u u
- ai ei oi ui > ae ji oe i
- á éa í(o) ó ú > a je ji o ou
- ái éi ói úi éu > ai je oi ui jau
- eá eó eói iú iúi > ja jo joi ju jui
- ae ao aoi > e eu eui
- ia ua uai > ja veo vae
- /k g x ŋ/
- /tɕ d͡ʑ tɕh ɲ/
- /t d th z n/
- /p b f v m/
- /s ɧ h/
- /r ɹ j ɴ̆~w/
- k χ ng /k x ŋ/
- kj χj ngj /tɕ ɕ ɲ/
- t θ n /t th n/
- tj θj nj /tɕ tɕh ɲ/
- c cj /ts tɕ/
- p f m /f m/
- s sj/stj/skj h /s ɧ h/
- r l lj j /r ɴ̆ j j/
At word-final position, the voicing distinction in unaspirated plosives is lost, and unaspirated plosives are unreleased.
sj = sje, etc.
- g ȝ /g Ø/
- gj ȝj /d͡ʑ j/
- d z /d z/
- dj zj /d͡ʑ ɹ/
- b v /b v/
- bj vj /bj vj/
- ng ngh /ŋ ŋʰ/
- nj nhj /ɲ ɲʰ/
- n nh /n nʰ/
- m mh /m mʰ/
i eu u e eo a o ae oe /i ɨ ü e ə~ʌ~ɔ a o~u ɛ~e ø/
Stress is weak to nonexistent in Modern Anbirese.
Pitch accent is phonemic in Standard Anbirese, and often distinguishes different grammatical forms of the same word.
Each word has one of two possible pitch accents:
- Rising (or low, or peaking): starts low and rises, peaks at the second syllable; unmarked
- High: high and level, falls off word-finally, transcribed with an acute accent
- skaen /skěn/ (rising tone) = 'a friend (sg)'; n skaen /ən skěn/ = 'the friend'
- skáen /skén/ (high tone) = 'friends (pl)'; n skáen /ən skén/ = 'the friends'
- ael (rising tone) = 'loves (present tense)'
- áel (high tone) = 'loved (past tense)'
A handful of dialects lack pitch accent.
- General fall: declarative clauses
- General rise: dependent clauses
- Interrogative: interrogative clauses
Anbirese is primarily spoken in Anbir, Musun and in overseas Anbirese colonies such as Euldondjama.
Anbir has more dialectal diversity.
Musunese Anbir is similar to Standard Anbirese Anbirese, but has no pitch accent and uses more analytic constructions.
Like other Talmic languages, Anbirese is written in the Talmic alphabet.
Anbirese is about as purist as German, though it has a fair helping of Swuntsim loanwords. Anbirese vocabulary often uses compounding to disambiguate words that were made similar by dueum beopchik. Like in other Talman languages, academic vocabulary has more Tseer and Windermere loans.
Like Qenian, Anbirese has lenition and nasal mutation.
Regardless of gender and number, the definite article is
- eo before nasals and resonants: eo mar [ə̀ mǎɾ] 'the tree'
- n before other consonants and before vowels: n χeozir [ə̀n xə̀ʑîɾ] 'the flower'; n abeot [nàbə̂t] 'the book'
TODO: definite article mutations by gender
|eclipsis||lenition||no mut.||no mut.||no mut.||eclipsis|
A common way to pluralize nouns is by tone change. This is the default paradigm for loans.
- mar /mǎɾ/ [mǎɾ] = a tree
- már /máɾ/ [mâɾ] = trees
However, many plurals use suffixes or other changes:
- íms /íms/ [îms] = a loved one
- imseot /ǐmsət/ [ìmsə̂t] = loved ones (some dialects use ímseot)
Musunese Anbirese always uses -eot for the plural.
Adjectives do not inflect at all.
Adverbs derived from adjectives are unchanged (as in German).
TODO: degree words
Finite verb inflection
Anbirese has 3 tenses:
- Present tense: -ig, subjunctive θri + IMPERATIVE
- Future tense: aeb + IMPERATIVE
- Past tense: regularly -in; induces split-ergativity
There is no aspect distinction.
- The -eod infinitive is used with some modal verbs.
- with djeobjeol, indicates purpose: "in order to VERB"
- with ok 'from', indicates stopping, avoiding, or preventing from VERBing
- with ast 'without', indicates "without VERBing" [Dialects may use the -a infinitive]
- The -a infinitive is mainly used to construct deranked time clauses (like the Biblical Hebrew bi- + infinite construct), and also
- with djeo 'in', indicates "while the action is taking place" or, when possessed, "while POSSESSOR is VERBing"
- with eor 'on', indicates "upon/as soon as the action is taking place" or, when possessed, "upon the POSSESSOR's VERBing"
- with nae 'by', indicates that the verb's action serves a purpose: "by VERBing"
- with ok 'from', indicates a reason clause
- with the accusative marker ljeo, indicates a complement clause. There are two possible syntaxes for the ljeo-complement clause:
- ljeo + SUBJECT + seo/s + VERB-a
- ljeo + VERB + SUBJECT (possessed verbal noun)
Anbirese has split-ergativity: past tense verbs display ergative alignment, and non-past tense verbs have accusative alignment.
That is, the subject is marked with the preposition u for transitive verbs, and is unmarked for intransitive verbs. In the case of transitive verbs, the ergative marking occurs regardless of whether or not there is a direct object.
Anbirese is zero copula in the present tense; ngu, si, jeo and thar can be used as present tense copulas.
The past tense copula is latheon and the infinitive is fath.
na, skid, ngu, si, jeo, me, tid, skid, thar = I, you, he, she, it, we (exc), we (inc), you, they
There is also an archaic 2nd person singular pronoun fjeor 'thou'.
- ljeo = accusative (ljeo + eo/n > ljeon) (only used with definite nouns in modern Anbirese)
- ljeo-na, (ljeo-s,) lj-u, l-i, lj-eoz, lj-eom, ljeof, ljeok, ljur
- djeo = in, at (djeo + eo/n > djeon)
- djeo-na, (deo-s,) dj-u, d-i, dj-eoz, dj-eom, djeof, djeok, djur
- ae = to, for (ae + eo/n > aen)
- aemna, (aebeos), aebu, aebi, aebeoz, aebeom, aebeof, aebeok, aebur
- -a = verbalizer
- ba- = sub-
- -eod = nominalizer
- -jeond/-eond = nominalizer
- -leon = nominalizer of adjectivesn̪̍
- ing- = verbalizer (Wdm.)
- bin- = nominalizer (Wdm.)
- More: Anbirese/Syntax
- Dasngig ba γχar djeo hsjeok eok blje nae fraeχleod eok meorjeond. Oskjeonin har nae n misrin eok eo stvarnga, eok pjeozjeo areor aeb heosrag djeo skrateon djeo ljest n jezeokleon.
- be_born-PRES all human PRED free and same INST dignity and right. endow-PAST 3PL INST DEF reason and DEF conscience, and part on-3PL to act ADV mutual in spirit DEF brotherhood
- All humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.