Austronesian Hebrew/Lexicography

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Word Gloss POS Root Pattern Hebrew Akkadian Ugaritic Other
gu noise n.m. ? *qu ?
zu this pron. - *qu זה
mouth n.m - *qu פה 𒅗 𐎔
po here adv. - qa פה - -
ŋu who, which pron. - *qu ש 𒊭 𐎄
we and conj. - qi ו 𒅇 𐎆
'ow or conj. - qa או 𒅇 𐎜
'abu father n.m. AB *qal אב 𒀊 𐎀𐎁 PAn *aba
kappu palm, sole, spoon n.f. KPP qaltu כף 𒀉 𐎋𐎔
'akku crow, raven n.m AKK qaltu 𒀝𒆪𒌋
'ebbīru calf, minotaur n.m. EBR qallitu אביר 𒀫 𐎛𐎁𐎗
'ilu god n.m AL *qil אל 𒀭 𐎛𐎍
ŋamāmi sky, heaven n.m. ŠMY qalu שמים 𒀭 𐎌𐎎𐎎
'anaku lead, plumbline n.m ANK qatalu אנך 𒀭𒈾
kokabu star n.m KB qāqalu כוכב 𒀯 𐎋𐎁𐎋𐎁 𐩫𐩥𐩫𐩨 (kwkb)
hemoru donkey, equid n.m. HMR qitālu חמור 𒀲 𐎈𐎎𐎗
ŋēkaru alcoholic drink n.m. ŊKR qitalu שכר 𒁉
dênu legal case n.m. DYN qitlu דין 𒁲𒉡𒌝 𐎄𐎐
'ittatu wife, woman n.f. ANT *qatl אשה 𒁮 𐎀𐎘𐎚
'adamu humanity; red clay n.m ADM *qatal אדם 𐎀𐎄𐎎
'ahabtu love n.f. AHB qatal אהבה 𐎀𐎅𐎁𐎚
ŋalomu peace, prosperity n.m. ŊLM qatālu שלם 𒁲 𐎌𐎍𐎎
lohu tablet, writing n.m. LWH qutu לוח 𐎍𐎈
bêtu house, building n.m. BYT *qatl בית bītu 𒂍 𐎁𐎚 𐩨𐩺𐩩 (byt)
hêkalu palace n.m. HKL qitalaru היכל 𒂍𒃲 𐎅𐎋𐎍
bâlu master, owner n.m BEL qatlu בעל 𒂗 𐎁𐎓𐎍
ŋabātu to hold out (the hand) v. ŊBT qatālu צבט (ፀበጠ) 𒂟 𐎕𐎁𐎀
malkatu woman chief n.f. MLK *qalt מלך 𒂷𒆪 𐎎𐎍𐎋𐎚
'ēmmu mother n.f. AMM qaltu אם 𒂼 𐎜𐎎
rabbu great adj. RBB *qall רב 𒃲 𐎗𐎁
'êŋu tree n.m. EŊH qatu עץ 𒄑 𐎓𐎕
ŋallortu plum n.f. ŊLR qattālu 𒄒 via Hurrian
kisso seat, throne n.m. KSA qutalu כסא 𒄖𒍝 𐎋𐎒𐎜
'alpu bull, ox n.m. ALP qaltu אלף 𒄞 𐎀𐎍𐎔
bubu fish trap n.m. B? ququ PAn *bubu
yaninu right side n.f. YNN qatilu ימין PMP *wanan
'aduq ouch! interj. ? qatul PAn *aduq
palê adobe house, hall n.m PLE qatel Pan *balay
manqu chicken n.f. MNQ qatlu PAn *manuk
sikantu (edible) fish n.f. SKN qitalu PAn *Sikan
cumpitu blowgun n.f. CMP qutli PAn *sumpit
barku knee n.f. BRK qatlu ברך 𒄭 𐎁𐎗𐎋
tobu good adj. TWB qātu טוב 𒄭 𐎉𐎁
damu blood n.m. DMM *qal דם 𒄷𒄭 𐎄𐎎
'ênu eye, spring, furrow n.f. EYN qatal עין 𒅆 𐎓𐎐
panû side of the face n.m PNH qatal פנים 𒅆 𐎔𐎐𐎎
'argāmānnu purple n.m. ??? ??? ארגמן 𒅈𒂵𒌋𒌋𒉡 𐎀𐎗𐎂𐎎𐎐
yāroqu greenery n.m. YRQ qātālu ירוק 𒅊 𐎊𐎗𐎖
'akālu eat, food n/v AKL qatālu אכל 𒅥 𐎀𐎋𐎍
hāratu to till, plowland n/k HRT qātalu חרש 𒀳 𐎈𐎗𐎘
dobû bear n.m. DBB qātālu דיב dabû 𐎄𐎁
qadqalu crown of the head n.m. QDL qatqal קדקד 𒊕𒁺 𐎖𐎄𐎖𐎄 (Pan *qulu)
halāku to walk, go v N*LK qatālu הלך 𒁺 𐎅𐎍𐎋
kalbu dog n.m. KLB qaltu כלב 𒌨 𐎋𐎍𐎁
libbu heart, center n.m. LBB *qill לבב libbu 𒊮 𐎍𐎁
pinnatu corner, vertebra n.f. PNN *qill פנה 𐎔𐎐𐎚
'amŋa last night adv. AMŊ qatla אמש 𒈪
māyāmi water (dl) n.m. MYA qataltu מים 𒀀 𐎎𐎊
qarnu horn n.m. QRN qatlu קרן 𒋛 𐎖𐎗𐎐
têlu hill, island n.m. TLL qātu תל tīlu 𐎚𐎍
'oznu ear n.f. AZN qātlu אוזן 𒉿 𐎜𐎄𐎐
yarqu moon, month n.f. YRQ *qatil ירח warḫu 𒌗 𐎊𐎗𐎃
sîbu dingo n.m. SAB qitlu זאב 𒉡𒌝𒈠𒄷
ŋapŋu sun, sunset, east n.f ŊPŊ qatlu שמש 𒌓 𐎌𐎔𐎌
ŋapŋonu Samson n.m. ŊPŊ qaltān שמשון
'abnu stone, rock n.m. ABN qatlu אבן abnum 𒉌𒌓 𐎀𐎁𐎐
'aqu brother n.m. AQ qatu אח aḫu 𒋀 𐎀𐎃
'aqotu sister n.f. AQ qatāl אחות aḫātu 𒊩𒌆 𐎀𐎃𐎚
'arŋu land, earth n.f. ARŊ *qatl ארץ (but ארעא) 𒆠 𐎀𐎗𐎕
ŋemu name, fame n.m. ŊM *qil שם 𒈬 𐎌𐎎
malku king, chief n.m. MLK qatl מלך 𒂷𒆪 𐎎𐎍𐎋
mowhu brain n.m. MWH qatlu מוח 𒌋𒅗 𐎎𐎈
naŋru vulture n.f. NŊR qatlu נשר 𒈾𒀾𒊒 𐎐𐎌𐎗
nûru kiln, oven n.m. NWR qatlu נור 𒉡𒌨 𐎐𐎗
yadu hand, arm n.f. YD qatu יד 𐎊𐎄
sākaru male, "manhood" n.m. SKR qātalu זכר zikaru 𒍑 𐎏𐎋𐎗
talgu snow, ice n.f. TLG fatly שלג šalgu 𐎘𐎍𐎂
toru bull, ox, cebu n.m. TR qatu שור šūru 𒋗𒌑𒊒 𐎘𐎗 prob. PIE
tôlbu mole n.m. TLB qātlu שועל šēlebu 𐎘𐎓𐎍𐎁
tûmu garlic n.f. TM qaty שום šûmu 𒋧 𐎘𐎎?
'êbdu servant, slave n.m. EBD qatlu עבד - 𐎓𐎁𐎄
tânatu fig n.f. TAN qatal תאנה tittu ?
bāraqu lightning n.m. BRQ qātalu ברק birqu 𒉏𒄈 𐎁𐎗𐎖
rôŋu head n.m. RAŊ *qatl ראש rēšu 𒊕 𐎗𐎛𐎌
bahru cove, bay, coast n.f BHR qatlu 𐩨𐩢𐩧 (bḥr)
ŋalotu three num. ŊLT *qatāl שלוש šalāš 𒐈 𐎘𐎍𐎘 Sabaean: s2lṯ
binu son n.m. BN *qil בן bīnu 𒉿𒉡 𐎁𐎐
bêttu daughter n.f. BN *qil בת
bîru well n.f. BN qitlu באר bīru 𐎁𐎛𐎗
gamolu camel n.m. GML qatalu גמל gammal 𒃵𒂷 -
labû lion, big cat n.m. LBA qatlu לביא lābu 𒊊 𐎍𐎁 𐎜
labitu lioness n.f. LBA qatli
leylu night n.f. LYL qitlu ליל liliātu 𒆥𒋝 𐎍𐎍
laŋonu tongue, language n.f. LŊN qatālu לשון lišānu 𒅴 𐎍𐎌𐎐
yowmu day n.m. YEM qāltu יום ūmu 𒌓 𐎊𐎎
not,no adv. ? לא 𐎍
ŋinu tooth n.f. ŊNN qitu שן šinnu 𒍝𒄢 𐎌𐎐
kûku owl n.f. KWK qut - akkû 𒀝𒆪𒌋 - ጉጉት (gugut)
halbu milk n.f. HLP qatlu חלב ḫilpu 𐎈𐎍𐎁
'êŋtu fire n.f. qatu אש išātu 𒉈 𐎛𐎌𐎚
dibōrtu bee n.f. DBR qitāl דבורה - cp. 𐎄𐎁𐎗 "plague"
qodŋu holy adj. QDŊ qātilu קדש qašdu 𐎖𐎄𐎌 𐩤𐩵𐩪
labānu white adj. LBN qatālu לבן - 𐎍𐎁𐎐
roqlu ewe n.f. RQL qātilu רחל laḫru -
yeynu wine n.f. WYN qatlu יין - 𐎊𐎐
taŋê nine num. TŊE qatlu תשע tišīt 𒑆 𐎚𐎌𐎓
tanâmi two num. TNH qatu שנים šinā 𒈫 𐎘𐎐
'âqāsu to grasp v. AQS qatalu אחז aḫāzu 𐎀𐎃𐎏
'amâtu maidservant n.f. AMH qat אמה 𐎀𐎎𐎚
nâru river n.f. NHR qatlu נחר nāru 𒀀𒇉 𐎐𐎈𐎗
āmāru to say v. AMR qatālu אמר 𐎀𐎎𐎗
'immīru lamb noun AMR *qittil אמר immeru 𐎛𐎎𐎗
su/sutu sheep/ewe noun S *qu שׂה šû 𐎄
ta (def. indir.) part. - את Pan *ta
'itti with,beside prep. את itti
be- in,by prep. B qa ב ? 𐎁
bôwa to go, come v. BWA qatālu בוא bâ'um 𐎁𐎆𐎀
he- (interrog.) part. ה
hāyu to be(come) v. HYH qatālu היה ewûm
ŋaray to struggle, contend verb ŊRY שׂרה 𒈗/šarrum 𐎌𐎗
yiŋrêlu Israel n.m. ŊRH+AL ישראל (cp. bēt ḫumrî) -
ke like, as prep. K qa כ kīma 𐎋𐎎
kul all, every n.c. KL qūtu כל kalûm 𐎋𐎍
le to, for prep. L qa ל (cp. ana) 𐎍
'êl on, upon prep. EL qat על eli 𐎓𐎍
'êŋû to do, make v. EŊY qatālu עשה 𐎓𐎌𐎊
mowtu death n.m. MWT *qatl מות mūtu 𒁮 𐎎𐎚
mêtu corpse n.m MWT *qil מֵת 𐎎𐎚
tōku midst n.m. TWK qatlu תוך
'eynu eye, spring n.f EYN qatlu עין īnum 𒅆 𐎓𐎊𐎐
'aylu deer noun AYL *qattal איל 𐎀𐎊𐎍
'ōru light n.f. AWR qatlu אור
būzu contempt n.f. BWS qatlu בוז
ŋīru song n.f. ŊYR *qitl שיר šēru 𐎌𐎗
heyqu bosom, embrace n.f. HYQ qatlu חיק ሐደቅ
'ohelu house, hut, home n.m AHL qatil אהל 𐎀𐎅𐎍
'almantu widow n.f. ALM qatlan אלמנה 𐎀𐎍𐎎𐎐𐎚
'eyltu Pistacia tree n.f. AYL qitl אלה 𐎀𐎍𐎐
'ayna where pron. AYN qatl אין 𐎀𐎐
'anqaru dolphin n.m NGR aqtal ??? 𐎀𐎐𐎃𐎗
diractu potable water n.f. DRC qital ??? 𐎄𐎙𐎕𐎚
mirartu cave, den, hole n.f. MRR qtl מער 𐎎𐎙𐎗𐎚
laqaŋtu whisper, charm n.f. LQŊ qatal לחש 𐎍𐎃𐎌𐎚
muqu grease, marrow n.m. MQY qut מח 𐎎𐎃
'anenqu mint n.f - - תנענע 𐎀𐎐𐎐𐎃
sipru document n.m. SPR *qitl ספר šipru 𐎒𐎔𐎗
'eglatu heifer n.f. ֵ EGL *qitl עגלה 𐎓𐎂𐎍𐎚
'orku long adj. ALK *qutl ארך 𐎜𐎗𐎋
'otpatu quiver n.f. ATP *qutl אשׁפה išpatu 𐎜𐎉𐎔𐎚
hadotu
hadotatu
new adj. HDT *qatal חדשׁ eššu 𐎈𐎒𐎘
malû full adj MLA *qatil מלא malītu 𐎎𐎍𐎛𐎚
qatnu small, thin adj. QTN *qatul קטן qatnu 𐎖𐎉𐎐
hodru room n.f HDR *qutul חדר 𐎈𐎄𐎗
hallōnu window n.f HLN qattul חלון
'adōnu lord n.m ADN *qatāl אדין 𐎀𐎄𐎐
marû/marītu fatling noun MRA *qatīl מריא 𐎎𐎗𐎜
'asīru prisoner n.m. ASR *qatīl אסיר 𐎀𐎒𐎗
ziro arm n.f. ZRA *qitāl זרוע zuruḫ 𐎏𐎗𐎓 Aram. דרע
qurūcu gold n.m QRC *qutāl חרוץ ḫurāṣu 𐎃𐎗𐎕
'opanu wheel n.m APN *qātal אופן 𐎀𐎔𐎐
rôyu herdsman n.m RAY *qatīl רעה rē'û 𐎗𐎓𐎊
homītu wall n.f HMY *qatīl חומה ḫumītu 𐎈𐎎𐎚
rûru cliff n.m. RWR *qutl צור 𐎙𐎗
'anyatu ship n.f. ANY *qatl אניה anaya 𐎀𐎐𐎊𐎚
cabītu gazelle noun CBY *qatl צבי ṣabītu 𐎕𐎁𐎊
pirû fruit n.f. PRY *qitl פרי 𐎔𐎗
'appu nose n.f ANP *qatl אף appu 𐎀𐎔
hittatu wheat n.f. HNT *qitl חטה uṭṭatu 𐎈𐎘𐎚
'ammatu elbow, cubit n.f. AMM *qall אמה ammatu 𐎀𐎎𐎚
môqu skull n.f MQQ *qull מֹחַ muḫḫu 𐎎𐎃
'ummatu clan, people n.f. AMM *qull אמה ummātu 𐎓𐎎𐎚



𒀀𒉿𒈝 = awīlum = אולי 2 K 24:15

Literature

The Five Books of Moses are also called the Torah, the Law, or the Pentateuch. The Samaritan Jews include Joshua in their short list of inspired books, and so they have a Hexateuch. And so it is quite natural that the Austronesian Israelites, who took everything in groups of seven or three, had a Septateuch.

  1. Genesis - called PAH:Toladatu
  2. Exodus -
  3. Leviticus
  4. Numbers
  5. Deuteronomy
  6. Joshua
  7. Judges

Much of the material as we have it now in the Masoretic Text was preserved on Mindoro, only updated for grammar. However, many portions were heavily redacted and altered. Onijah writes that while these seven books were known and named, they were each thought to consist of sections, which could be arranged differently, to produce three sets of seven. Each of these three groups is referred to in the plural and the singular with no consistency.

  1. "The Book(s) of the Father(s)" (Genesis 1 - Exodus 18)
    1. The Book of Heaven and Earth (1-11)
    2. The Book of Abraham (12-25)
    3. The Book of Jacob (25-35)
    4. The Book of Joseph (37-50)
    5. The Names of the Children of Israel (1-6)
    6. The Names of the Children of Levi (7-11)
    7. The Beginning of Months (12-18:27)
  2. "The Book(s) of Law(s)" (Exodus 19 - Numbers 9)
    1. The Book of the Covenant (19-24)
    2. Instructions for Tabernacle (25-34)
    3. Building the Tabernacle (35-40)
    4. The Book of Feasts (Leviticus)
    5. The Book of Purity (Leviticus)
    6. The Book of Israel (Numbers 1-)
    7. The Book of Holiness (Numbers -10)
  3. "The Book(s) of the Land(s)" (Numbers 10-Judges)
    1. Numbers
    2. Numbers
    3. Deuteronomy
    4. Deuteronomy
    5. Deuteronomy
    6. Joshua (1-12)
    7. Judges

Prophets

Just like modern Hebrew Bibles (or Tanakhs), the ancient Austronesian Israelites had a major section of their Scriptures called Prophets. Rather than dividing them into "Former" and "Later" Prophets as Middle Eastern Jews did (or Major and Minor Prophets as later Christians did), they only accepted seven prophets as canonical.

Here is the timetable of accepted and rejected prophets in Mindoro:

  • (1st) Samuel 1-15
  • Kings - Elijah - only the Elijah/Elisha cycle in the middle (1 Kings 12 - 2 Kings 17)
  • The 12
    • 8th Century Prophets to the Northern Kingdom
      1. Jonah
      2. Amos (stop @ 9:12)
      3. Hosea
    • 8th Century Prophets to the Southern Kingdom
      1. Micah (different 1:1; sans 4:6-13)
      2. Isaiah (mostly Deutero-Isaiah- redacted)
    • 7th Century Prophets to the Southern Kingdom
      1. Nahum
      2. Zephaniah
      3. Habakkuk
    • 7th to 6th Century Prophets to the Southern Kingdom
      1. Jeremiah (follow LXX + redaction)
      2. Ezekiel
      3. Obadiah
    • 6th to 5th Century Prophets, Judah Restored
      1. Haggai
      2. Zechariah
      3. Malachi
      4. Joel

Onijah tells us that the Balangē Scribes arranged them chiasticly:

  • Samuel - the matter of Kings
    • Elijah - miracles to the unfaithful
      • Amos - judgment
        • Jonah - missionary/anger
      • Hosea - judgment
    • Isaiah - miracles to the unfaithful
  • Jeremiah - the matter of foreign allegiances (to kings)

Wisdom

The last of three sections to the Austronesian Israelite Scriptures is the Wisdom books. This name accords well with the later Christian designation of "Wisdom Literature", and corresponds to the Jewish section of the Tanakh, the Writings. Onijah tells us they were arranged chiasticly:

  • Job - suffering for unknown reasons
    • Psalms - lament and song
      • Proverbs - wisdom's diversity
        • Song of Songs - sex as eschatology
      • Ecclesiastes - wisdom's difficulty
    • Lamentations
  • Esther - suffering as God's people

It is interesting to note that Esther closes out the PAH canon. For Jews, Chronicles implied deliverance by God but and expectation in the Land. For Christian, Malachi rounds out the OT because of its expectation of a Messiah. Esther reflects the Austronesian hope of blessing while remaining in foreign lands and triumphing as aide-de-camps for other rulers.