Difference between revisions of "Chlouvānem/Exterior and interior verbs"

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===Transitive-intransitive and active-middle pairs===
 
===Transitive-intransitive and active-middle pairs===
 
One of the most common distinction is one of an active/middle or transitive/intransitive pair, e.g. with ''jāṃrake'' "to stop, halt":
 
One of the most common distinction is one of an active/middle or transitive/intransitive pair, e.g. with ''jāṃrake'' "to stop, halt":
: ''lili jādū jāṃrute''
+
{{Gloss
:: I stop Jādāh. (exterior verb)
+
| phrase = lili jādū jāṃrute.
: ''lili jāṃriru''
+
| gloss = <small>1SG.DIR</small>. Jādāh-<small>ACC</small>. stop.<small>IND.PRES-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT</small>.
:: I stop, cease to move. (interior verb)
+
| translation = I stop Jādāh.
 
+
}}
 +
{{Gloss
 +
| phrase = lili jāṃriru.
 +
| gloss = <small>1SG.DIR</small>. stop.<small>IND.PRES-1SG.COMMON.INTERIOR</small>.
 +
| translation = I stop. ~ I cease to move.
 +
}}
 
The middle voice may be semantically different in its focus from the corresponding exterior patient-trigger (third example), e.g. with ''ruthake'' "to bake, cook in an oven":
 
The middle voice may be semantically different in its focus from the corresponding exterior patient-trigger (third example), e.g. with ''ruthake'' "to bake, cook in an oven":
: ''lili švodhaih rithute''
+
{{Gloss
:: I bake the pastries. (exterior, agentive)
+
| phrase = lili švodhaih rithute.
: ''švodhe ruthirāhe''
+
| gloss = <small>1SG.DIR</small>. pastry-<small>ACC.PL</small>. bake.<small>IND.PRES-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT</small>.
:: The pastries are cooking in the oven. (interior)
+
| translation = I bake the pastries.
: ''švodhe rithāhai''
+
}}
:: Someone is baking the pastries. = It is the pastries someone is baking. (exterior, patient-trigger, no explicit agent)
+
{{Gloss
 
+
| phrase = švodhe ruthirāhe.
 +
| gloss = pastry.<small>DIR.PL</small>. bake.<small>IND.PRES-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR</small>.
 +
| translation = The pastries are cooking in the oven.
 +
}}
 +
{{Gloss
 +
| phrase = švodhe rithāhai.
 +
| gloss = pastry.<small>DIR.PL</small>. bake.<small>IND.PRES-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>.
 +
| translation = Someone is baking the pastries. ~ It is the pastries someone is baking.
 +
}}
 
Another prototypical example is ''gṇyauke'', which means "to give birth" in its exterior forms and "to be born, to come to life" in its interior ones.
 
Another prototypical example is ''gṇyauke'', which means "to give birth" in its exterior forms and "to be born, to come to life" in its interior ones.
 
 
====Volition====
 
====Volition====
In many verbs, the interior conjugation is used for actions which lack volition or are caused by uncontrollable third parties. This is, often, an extension of middle voice meanings:
+
For many verbs, the interior conjugation is used for actions which lack volition or are caused by uncontrollable third parties. This is, often, an extension of middle voice meanings:
: ''geiras valdē''
+
{{Gloss
:: The door is opened [by someone]. (exterior, patient-trigger)
+
| phrase = geiras valdē.
: ''lili geiru valdute''
+
| gloss = door.<small>DIR.SG</small>. open.<small>IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>.
:: I open the door. (exterior, agent-trigger)
+
| translation = The door is opened [by someone].
: ''geiras valdire''
+
}}
:: The door opens. (interior)
+
{{Gloss
 +
| phrase = lili geiru valdute.
 +
| gloss = <small>1SG.DIR</small>. door-<small>ACC.SG</small>. open.<small>IND.PRES-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT</small>.
 +
| translation = I open the door.
 +
}}
 +
{{Gloss
 +
| phrase = geiras valdire.
 +
| gloss = door.<small>DIR.SG</small>. open.<small>IND.PRES-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR</small>.
 +
| translation = The door opens.
 +
}}
 
The "uncontrollable third party" causes the verb to be interior; compare also the following sentence:
 
The "uncontrollable third party" causes the verb to be interior; compare also the following sentence:
: ''geiras voldvē pṝsparšvē no ! haleyirte gu dradhvute ša : nusmētte sāmyåh nālyom kulūyite !''
+
{{Gloss
:: The door keeps being opened and closed! I can't have any peace, tell your brother to stop it!
+
| phrase = geiras voldvē pṝsparšvē no ! haleyirati gu dradhvute ša : nusmētte sāmyåh nālyom kulmaite.
 +
| gloss = door.<small>DIR.SG</small>. open-<small>FREQ-IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>. close-<small>FREQ.IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>. and. — be_calm.<small>SUBJ.IMPF-1SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>. <small>NEG</small>=manage_to.<small>IND.PRES-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT</small>=<small>NEG</small>. – stop.<small>SUBJ.PERF-3SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT</small>. <small>2SG.GEN-DAT</small>. male's_younger_brother-<small>DAT.SG</small>. say-<small>OPT.IMPF-2SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT</small>.
 +
| translation = The door keeps being opened and closed! I can't have any peace, tell your brother to stop [doing] it!
 +
}}
 
In this example, even if there is no explicit agent at first, when the verbs ''voldveke'' and ''pṝsparšveke'' (the frequentatives of ''valde'' "to open" and ''spṛške'' "to close" respectively) are introduced, they are exterior, because it is not an uncontrollable action, as it becomes clear at the end of the sentence.<br/>
However, even if the agent is an uncontrollable third party, as for example the wind (''prātas'') is, as long as it is explicitly stated the sentence uses an exterior verb nonetheless:
 
In this example, even if there is no explicit agent at first, when the verbs ''voldveke'' and ''pṝsparšveke'' (the frequentatives of ''valde'' "to open" and ''spṛške'' "to close" respectively) are introduced, they are exterior, because it is not an uncontrollable action, as it becomes clear at the end of the sentence.<br/>
However, even if the agent is an uncontrollable third party, as for example the wind (''prātas'') is, as long as it is explicitly stated the sentence uses an exterior verb nonetheless:
: ''geiras prātei aspṛša''
+
{{Gloss
:: The door has been closed by the wind. (exterior)
+
| phrase = geiras prātei aspṛša.
 
+
| gloss = door.<small>DIR.SG</small>. wind-<small>ERG.SG</small>. close.<small>IND.PERF-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>.
 +
| translation = The door has been closed by the wind.
 +
}}
 
See also:
 
See also:
: A: ''yannūnajye ?''<ref>Very colloquial contraction of ''yananū najire?'' "what's going on?".</ref>
+
{{Gloss
: B: ''geiras voldvē pṝsparšvē no !''
+
| phrase = (A:) yannūnajye?<ref>Very colloquial contraction of ''yananū najire?'' "what's going on?".</ref> – (B:) geiras voldvē pṝsparšvē no!
:: What's up?
+
| gloss = what's_up. – door.<small>DIR.SG</small>. open-<small>FREQ-IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>. close-<small>FREQ.IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>. and.
:: The door keeps being opened and closed [by someone]! (exterior)
+
| translation = (A:) What's up? – (B:) The door keeps being opened and closed [by someone]!
: A: ''yannūnajye ?''
+
}}
: B: ''geiras voldveire pṝsparšveire no!''
+
{{Gloss
:: What's up?
+
| phrase = (A:) yannūnajye? – (B:) geiras voldveire pṝsparšveire no!
:: The door keeps being opened and closed [by something uncontrollable, probably by the wind]! (interior)
+
| gloss = what's_up. – door.<small>DIR.SG</small>. open-<small>FREQ-IND.PRES-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR</small>. close-<small>FREQ.IND.PRES-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR</small>. and.
 
+
| translation = (A:) What's up? – (B:) The door keeps being opened and closed [by something uncontrollable, probably by the wind]!
Non-volitional actions expressed by interior verbs may however have an explicit agent when that agent is typically human and the action was accidental, e.g. with ''juniake'' "to paint":
+
}}
: ''ṣveya lę ūnikan ujunya''
+
Non-volitional actions expressed by interior verbs may however have an explicit agent when that agent is typically human and the action was accidental, e.g. with ''junyake'' "to paint":
:: I painted the wall red. = It is the wall I painted red. [it was my intention to do so] (exterior)
+
{{Gloss
: ''ṣveya laip ūnikan ujunirā''
+
| phrase = ṣveya lę ūnikan ujunya.
:: I accidentally painted the wall red. [i.e. I tripped and dropped a tin of paint on the wall] (interior)
+
| gloss = wall.<small>DIR.SG</small>. <small>1SG.ERG</small>. red-<small>TRANSL.SG</small>. paint.<small>IND.PERF-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>.
 +
| translation = I painted the wall red. ~ It is the wall I painted red. [It was my intention to do so]
 +
}}
 +
{{Gloss
 +
| phrase = ṣveya laip ūnikan ujunirā.
 +
| gloss = wall.<small>DIR.SG</small>. <small>1SG.INSTR</small>. red-<small>TRANSL.SG</small>. paint.<small>IND.PERF-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR</small>.
 +
| translation = I accidentally painted the wall red. [i.e. I tripped and dropped a tin of paint on the wall]
 +
}}
 
In the second sentence, we see the interior verb marking the lack of any intention to paint the wall red, and the semantic agent (here, the <small>1SG</small> pronoun ''lili'') is furthermore marked with the instrumental rather than with the ergative case, as interior verbs cannot take any ergative case argument.
 
In the second sentence, we see the interior verb marking the lack of any intention to paint the wall red, and the semantic agent (here, the <small>1SG</small> pronoun ''lili'') is furthermore marked with the instrumental rather than with the ergative case, as interior verbs cannot take any ergative case argument.
  
Note that this does not apply to all verbs that are semantically characterized by a lack of volition; for example, ''sturake'' (to fall) is usually only used in the exterior, as is ''pudbhe'' (to sleep).<br/>
+
Note that this does not apply to all verbs that are semantically characterized by a lack of volition; for example, ''sturake'' (to fall) is usually only used in the exterior, as is ''pudbhe'' (to sleep). It is not, however, dependent on parameters such as transitivity, as shown by an intransitive (in Chlouvānem) verb such as ''nilyake'' "to think":
It is not, however, dependent on parameters such as transitivity, as shown by an intransitive (in Chlouvānem) verb such as ''nilyake'' "to think":
+
{{Gloss
: ''nanā pa inilyam''
+
| phrase = nanā pa inilyam.
:: I thought about that.
+
| gloss = <small>DISTAL.SG.DIR</small>. about. think.<small>IND.PERF-1SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR</small>.
: ''nanā pa inilyiram''
+
| translation = I thought about that.
:: That crossed my mind.
+
}}
 
+
{{Gloss
 +
| phrase = nanā pa inilyiram.
 +
| gloss = <small>DISTAL.SG.DIR</small>. about. think.<small>IND.PERF-1SG.COMMON.INTERIOR</small>.
 +
| translation = It crossed my mind.
 +
}}
 
Note, furthermore, that some verbs are semantically characterized by volition or lack thereof (often with the volitive verb being formed starting from the other by means of a prefix, especially ''ta-''), so can't be used this way. An example also found in English and other languages is the pair ''milge'' (root ''mind-'') "to hear" and ''tamilge'' (''ta-mind-'') "to listen"; ''mišake'' "to see" and ''tamišake'' "to watch, look at" is another.
 
Note, furthermore, that some verbs are semantically characterized by volition or lack thereof (often with the volitive verb being formed starting from the other by means of a prefix, especially ''ta-''), so can't be used this way. An example also found in English and other languages is the pair ''milge'' (root ''mind-'') "to hear" and ''tamilge'' (''ta-mind-'') "to listen"; ''mišake'' "to see" and ''tamišake'' "to watch, look at" is another.
  

Revision as of 20:12, 27 August 2018

→ This page treats the uses of verbal forms. See Chlouvānem morphology for the actual verbal morphology.

Chlouvānem grammar has a very important semantic and morphological distinction in its verbs, namely the one between exterior verbs (kauyāva, pl. kauyāvai) and interior verbs (nañyāva, pl. nañyāvai); native Chlouvānem grammarians call this distinction by the name of chlærim, literally "light".


Voices

Exterior verbs do resemble mainly English active verbs, but the exterior vs. interior distinction is different and independent from the Chlouvānem voices, that is, the different triggers. Exterior verbs have all seven possible[1] voices (patient-, agent-, benefactive-, antibenefactive-, locative-, dative-, and instrumental-trigger), while interior verbs can have six, with the patient- and agent-trigger voices being merged in a "common voice" instead; this is however only a matter of traditional terminology as the common voice of interior verbs is unmarked, and therefore exactly the same as the patient-trigger one of exterior verbs.

Meanings of interior verbs

Interior verbs are somewhat of a catch-all category, with many overlapping meanings, including intransitive counterparts of transitive verbs, middle voice, reflexive, reciprocal, stative (and therefore all adjectival verbs), lack of volition, and independent meanings for some verbs.

Most verbs in Chlouvānem may be conjugated both as exterior and interior verbs, with all causative exterior forms having a causative interior one (in this case, at least the reflexive and/or reciprocal meaning is present).

Reflexive and reciprocal meanings

Possibly the most common interior verb meaning, especially for causative interior ones, is the reflexive one; e.g. with mutake "to wash":

lili demyau saminu mitute.
1SG.DIR. REFL.GEN-ACC. child-ACC.SG. wash.IND.PRES-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
I wash my child.
(lili) mitiru.
(1SG.DIR.) wash.IND.PRES-1SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
I wash myself.

The exact same form is also used for reciprocal meanings:

hærasmete.
kiss.IND.PRES-1DU.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
We two kiss [someone else].
hærirṣme.
kiss.IND.PRES-1DU.COMMON.INTERIOR.
We two kiss [each other].

While for a verb such as hærake "to kiss" this may not be confusing, with many verbs the meaning itself may be ambiguous:

mutirṣme.
wash.IND.PRES-1DU.COMMON.INTERIOR.
We two wash ourselves. OR: We two wash each other.

When context does not resolve the ambiguity, it is the reflexive which is usually marked, by adding the reflexive pronoun demi in the direct case:

demi mutirṣme.
REFL.DIR. wash.IND.PRES-1DU.COMMON.INTERIOR.
We two wash ourselves.

However, the reciprocal may also be marked, by adding viṣam (the other), this time in the dative case:

viṣamom mutirṣme.
other.DAT. wash.IND.PRES-1DU.COMMON.INTERIOR.
We two wash each other.

Transitive-intransitive and active-middle pairs

One of the most common distinction is one of an active/middle or transitive/intransitive pair, e.g. with jāṃrake "to stop, halt":

lili jādū jāṃrute.
1SG.DIR. Jādāh-ACC. stop.IND.PRES-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
I stop Jādāh.
lili jāṃriru.
1SG.DIR. stop.IND.PRES-1SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
I stop. ~ I cease to move.

The middle voice may be semantically different in its focus from the corresponding exterior patient-trigger (third example), e.g. with ruthake "to bake, cook in an oven":

lili švodhaih rithute.
1SG.DIR. pastry-ACC.PL. bake.IND.PRES-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
I bake the pastries.
švodhe ruthirāhe.
pastry.DIR.PL. bake.IND.PRES-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR.
The pastries are cooking in the oven.
švodhe rithāhai.
pastry.DIR.PL. bake.IND.PRES-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Someone is baking the pastries. ~ It is the pastries someone is baking.

Another prototypical example is gṇyauke, which means "to give birth" in its exterior forms and "to be born, to come to life" in its interior ones.

Volition

For many verbs, the interior conjugation is used for actions which lack volition or are caused by uncontrollable third parties. This is, often, an extension of middle voice meanings:

geiras valdē.
door.DIR.SG. open.IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The door is opened [by someone].
lili geiru valdute.
1SG.DIR. door-ACC.SG. open.IND.PRES-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
I open the door.
geiras valdire.
door.DIR.SG. open.IND.PRES-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
The door opens.

The "uncontrollable third party" causes the verb to be interior; compare also the following sentence:

geiras voldvē pṝsparšvē no ! haleyirati gu dradhvute ša : nusmētte sāmyåh nālyom kulmaite.
door.DIR.SG. open-FREQ-IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. close-FREQ.IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. and. — be_calm.SUBJ.IMPF-1SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. NEG=manage_to.IND.PRES-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT=NEG. – stop.SUBJ.PERF-3SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT. 2SG.GEN-DAT. male's_younger_brother-DAT.SG. say-OPT.IMPF-2SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
The door keeps being opened and closed! I can't have any peace, tell your brother to stop [doing] it!

In this example, even if there is no explicit agent at first, when the verbs voldveke and pṝsparšveke (the frequentatives of valde "to open" and spṛške "to close" respectively) are introduced, they are exterior, because it is not an uncontrollable action, as it becomes clear at the end of the sentence.

However, even if the agent is an uncontrollable third party, as for example the wind (prātas) is, as long as it is explicitly stated the sentence uses an exterior verb nonetheless:

geiras prātei aspṛša.
door.DIR.SG. wind-ERG.SG. close.IND.PERF-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The door has been closed by the wind.

See also:

(A:) yannūnajye?[2] – (B:) geiras voldvē pṝsparšvē no!
what's_up. – door.DIR.SG. open-FREQ-IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. close-FREQ.IND.PRES-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. and.
(A:) What's up? – (B:) The door keeps being opened and closed [by someone]!
(A:) yannūnajye? – (B:) geiras voldveire pṝsparšveire no!
what's_up. – door.DIR.SG. open-FREQ-IND.PRES-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. close-FREQ.IND.PRES-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. and.
(A:) What's up? – (B:) The door keeps being opened and closed [by something uncontrollable, probably by the wind]!

Non-volitional actions expressed by interior verbs may however have an explicit agent when that agent is typically human and the action was accidental, e.g. with junyake "to paint":

ṣveya lę ūnikan ujunya.
wall.DIR.SG. 1SG.ERG. red-TRANSL.SG. paint.IND.PERF-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
I painted the wall red. ~ It is the wall I painted red. [It was my intention to do so]
ṣveya laip ūnikan ujunirā.
wall.DIR.SG. 1SG.INSTR. red-TRANSL.SG. paint.IND.PERF-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
I accidentally painted the wall red. [i.e. I tripped and dropped a tin of paint on the wall]

In the second sentence, we see the interior verb marking the lack of any intention to paint the wall red, and the semantic agent (here, the 1SG pronoun lili) is furthermore marked with the instrumental rather than with the ergative case, as interior verbs cannot take any ergative case argument.

Note that this does not apply to all verbs that are semantically characterized by a lack of volition; for example, sturake (to fall) is usually only used in the exterior, as is pudbhe (to sleep). It is not, however, dependent on parameters such as transitivity, as shown by an intransitive (in Chlouvānem) verb such as nilyake "to think":

nanā pa inilyam.
DISTAL.SG.DIR. about. think.IND.PERF-1SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
I thought about that.
nanā pa inilyiram.
DISTAL.SG.DIR. about. think.IND.PERF-1SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
It crossed my mind.

Note, furthermore, that some verbs are semantically characterized by volition or lack thereof (often with the volitive verb being formed starting from the other by means of a prefix, especially ta-), so can't be used this way. An example also found in English and other languages is the pair milge (root mind-) "to hear" and tamilge (ta-mind-) "to listen"; mišake "to see" and tamišake "to watch, look at" is another.

Inchoative

For some verbs, the interior form is static, and the exterior one is used to describe the beginning of that state, e.g. with haleike "to be calm":

halęru
I am calm. (interior)
haleyah
I am getting calm. (exterior)

This meaning is particularly common with adjectival verbs:

yālvire
It is sweet.
yālvē
It is becoming sweet.

Note that, with positional verbs, the reverse is true: the exterior form is static and the interior one is dynamic, e.g.:

tatimu
I am standing. (exterior)
tatyairu
I stand up. (interior)

Verbs with distinct meanings

Some verbs' interior forms have a meaning which is, at least in the English translation, very distinct, as with lilke "to live" or mišake "to see":

EXT. lilah "I live" vs. INT. lilęru "I get healed"
EXT. mešute "I see" vs. INT. meširu "I know"

Chlouvānem makes a distinction between "slow" and "late" (ṭhivake) and between "fast" and "early" (nuppake) only as exterior and interior meanings of the same verb; the derived adverbial form is the same:

EXT. ṭhivu "I am late" vs. INT. ṭhiviru "I am (walking/driving) slow", adverbial ṭhive "slow, late"
EXT. nuppu "I am early" vs. INT. nuppiru "I am (walking/driving) fast", adverbial nuppe "fast, early"
Note that the semantic causatives are completely different forms, prefixed forms of √dīd-: pridīdake "to delay", maidīdake "to bring forward, anticipate"

Interior forms of transitive verbs usually may have a distinct meaning together with the normal reflexive or reciprocal ones; for example, meširu may also mean "I see myself" (e.g. in a mirror).

Temperature

The verbs related to the three basic temperatures - hot, warm, and cold - are actually divided in two semantic pairs denoting ambient and contact temperature, as in the following table:

Ambient Contact
Hot īlāmike
(īlāmy-, 1)
miṣyake
(2: meṣyire - miṣyirek - imiṣyirā)
Warm nīlake
(3: nailire - nīlirek - inīlirā)
ūṣṇike
(2: oṣṇyire - ūṣṇyirek - uɂūṣṇyirā)
Cold jålkhe
(jålkh-, 1)
švyānte
(švyānt-, 1)

In the interior voice, those verbs denote states:

amyære nailire.
It's warm today.
jålkhu!
I feel cold!
galtāt miṣyirde : mruṣṭhūyi!
The two mugs are hot, be careful!

In the exterior voice, their meanings change: the "ambient" verbs are inchoative and intransitive, while the "contact" ones are transitive:

khāngeltyu nāṭ imiṣyeste dām?
Have you already heated up the tandoor?
ejulā jålkhē.
It's getting cold (in) here.

Interior-only verbs

Some verbs are defective and lack a non-causative exterior conjugation. dhāḍake "to speak, express oneself" and tṛlake "to know, understand" are by far the most common ones:

chlǣvānęe/chlǣvānumi dhāḍap dhāḍiru
I speak Chlouvānem.
nanāt tarliru
I know/understand it.

These verbs mostly have their own rules for cases they govern: as you can see, "to speak" a language requires the word "language" (dhāḍa) to be in the instrumental case - or, more commonly, this is avoided in favour of the use of an adverb made from the noun, in this case "I speak 'Chlouvānemly'". The verb "to know", on the other hand, requires the thing known to be in the exessive case.
Note that "to know a person" is, in Chlouvānem, a totally different verb - didake - which is transitive and has regular exterior forms (but has some distinct interior meanings, as listed below).

Other interior-only verbs include:

  • ñumike — "to wait" (+ translative case)
  • rāške — "to trust" (+ dative case)
  • ukṣṇye — "to grow"

Verbs with exterior/interior pairs with divergent meanings

This section lists some of the most common verbs whose exterior/interior pairs have meanings that correspond to sometimes very different verbs in English:

  • didakeEXT: to know someone; INT: to be conscious; to know one's own limits
  • gṇyaukeEXT: to give birth; INT: to be born, to come to life
  • huṃħakeEXT: to fight; INT: (individuals) to have an interior conflict; (groups, organizations) to have an internal struggle
  • jālejildeEXT: to win; to defeat someone; INT: to get better; to win one's own fears (both very colloquial)
  • primęlikeEXT: to give back; INT: to return, come back
  • valdeEXT: to open; INT: (when used for people) to open oneself, to overcome shyness

Notes

  1. ^ Agent-trigger is only meaningful for transitive and ditransitive verbs, and dative-trigger only for ditransitive and a few motion ones.
  2. ^ Very colloquial contraction of yananū najire? "what's going on?".