Ciètian

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Ciètian
ye Giètem
Created by User:IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Talma
Native speakers 100 million L1 speakers (300 million L2 speakers)  (fT 1670dd (2676))
Language family
Quame
  • Talmic
    • Thensaric
      • Tigolic
        • Ciètian
Writing system Talmic script for Ciètian
ISO 639-3

Ciètian (CHAIT-i-ən; natively Ciètem, ye Giètem, from Thensarian Centimae) is a Talmic language (in the Tigolic subbranch of Talmic, which also includes Eevo). It's inspired by Mandarin, German, Occitan, Irish, Thedish, and English (particularly Cockney and Philadelphian).

A close relative is Páuluòbeng.

Todo

  • Change orthography
  • nehdier = chain
  • Nian yirastzuòtzìn! = I'm innocent!
  • Shüèl = a name (from Sréul)
  • Xjüèla = Skella
  • Single vs. double negatives: use both
    • a > ea, e > eo, i > iu in certain conditions - what type of pal'n do these new vowels trigger
      • e.g. cell 'small' > *cĕoll > qiel? qial?
    • already have eo éu iu íu/iú
  • Actually palatalization is NOT as simple as this. y ø a o u vs. i ie vs. ia io iu vs ja jo ju je/ĺa ĺo ĺu ĺe affect consonants differently.
  • non-initial -gh might die
  • mièn àvaħ (this-DEF book) = 'this book'
  • Revise Thensarian declension based on Ciètian
  • Have a separate schwa phoneme a /ə/?
  • -atz is cognate to Eevo -ahd
  • -z is one plural suffix (often used for nouns ending in vowels; from palatalized lenited -dh)
  • cht > c à la Wenedyk, final slender -t > -cy
  • sg palatalizes to sh, not xj
  • Words starting with f- are reanalyzed to start with p-: nonstandard dialects don't have this
  • Etymological doublets from Tigol absolute-conjunct verb forms.
  • lianger = dream (< leṁar)
  • Slender t > ts

a e i o u á é í ó ú ai ei io iu oi ui ae ao aoi ái éi eó éu ia ío íu iú(i) ói oí ua uai úi uí

-> a ia i uo u à iè ì uò ù e ie i ü e ü ai ao è ai ei iao iù ì ì ǜ ǜ ù uì ù è

Numbers: cìm, tiħer, nèz, dèv, sel, sdàm, ruìz, lèr, bàr, niaur, yàchim, cnè

Notes

Symbols

  • L - lenition/aspiration
  • N - eclipsis

Phonology

The following describes Ciètian as spoken in Sdiemìn.

Stress

Stress is not phonemic and is weight-sensitive. The rule is: the last long vowel is stressed. If there is no long vowel the last syllable is stressed.

In most compound words, primary stress falls on the first member and a secondary stress falls on the second member. Place names are sometimes exceptions to the preceding rule: for example, the element -vià is always stressed.

Intonation

Word level

  • A stressed short vowel has a high pitch.
  • A stressed long vowel or diphthong has a falling pitch but ends in a higher pitch than unstressed vowels.
  • Unstressed vowels have low pitch.

Clause level

  • Pitch drops at the end of a sentence.

Consonants

The Anbiric spirantization had taken place: Tigol t ṫ d ḋ /tʰ dʰ t d/ had become /θ ð tʰ d/ in Old Anbirese, the "common ancestor" or "areolect" in the Anbiric dialect continuum characterized by this shift.

Ciètian has an aspiration distinction in stops; however, the distinction is neutralized in word-final position.

  • c g ch /k g x/
  • ci gi chi /tʃ dʒ ʃ/
  • tz dz s z /ts dz s z/
  • t d /t d/
  • p b f v /p b f w/
  • pь bь fь vь /pj bj fj vj/
  • r rr ħ h m n nь ng l y /r r̝ ħ h m n nj ŋ l j/
    • /l/ is velarized when not followed by /i/, /j/, /y/, or /ɥ/.

Vowels

Ciètian has the following vowels:

  • i ü u ie üe a /ɪ ʏ ʊ jɛ ɥɛ a/
  • /ɪj ʏɥ ʊw jɛː wɔː ɑː ɒj æː äj äw jäw jæj (ɥ)ɶj ɯː ɤː jɤː ɥɤː wɤː aɯ/
  • /ə ɨ~i/

Monophthongs

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/, ü /y/ ì /ɪj/, ǜ /ʏɥ/ /ɯː/ u /u/ ù /ʊw/
Close-mid e /ə/
Mid ie, üe /ɛ/ /ɛː/ [ə] (u)ò /wɔː/
Open ia [æ] a /a/ à /ɑː/

[ɨ(ː) ʉ(ː)] are allophones of /i(ː) y(ː)/ after dental and retroflex sibilants.

Semivowel onglides: i ü u /j ɥ w/

Diphthongs: ai au ei ou iou iei üei /ɒj æː äj äw jäw jæj ɥɶj/

R-colored vowels

(No linking R is used.)

  • ar, àr /ɔɯ~ɤː/
  • er, èr, air, aor /aɯ/
  • ir, ìr, iur, eir, ier, ièr /jəɯ~jɤː/
  • or, òr /uɯ~ɯː/
  • ür, ǜr /ɥɤː/
  • ur, ùr /wɤː/
  • final -er = /ɨ/
  • final -ier = /i/

Phonotactics

Loanword phonology

Initial /θ/, /x/ and /h/ in loans are rendered /t/, /k/ and /Ø/ respectively (cf. German pronounces initial ch in Greek loans as /k/). Non-initial /θ/, /x/, and /h/ become /ħ/, /x/, and /x/.

Stress is usually as in the original language; non-initially stressed words lengthen the stressed vowel. Example: bintelesràl /pɪnthəɫəsˈɻaːɫ/ 'republic'.

Morphophonology

Mutations

Consonant mutations
Radical m /m/ p /pʰ/ b /p/ f /f/ t /tʰ/ d /t/ q /tɕʰ/ j /tɕ/ s /s/ x /ɕ/ sh /ʂ/ k /kʰ/ g /k/ ch /tʂʰ/ zh /tʂ/ 0 /Ø/, y /j/
Lenited ngm /ŋ/ fp /f/ vb /v/ f /f/ ħt /ħ/ tzd /ts/ xq /ɕ/ ξj /ʑ/ hs /h/ x /ɕ/ sh /ʂ/ hk /x/ γg /ɣ/ sch /ʂ/ rzh /ɻ/ add h' /x/
Eclipsed m /m/ bp /p/ mb /m/ vf /v/ dt /t/ nd /n/ jq /tɕ/ nj /ɲ/ зs /z/ ξx /ʑ/ rsh /ɻ/ gk /k/ ŋg /ŋ/ jch /tʂ/ njh /ɲ/ add n' /n/

Dialectology

Ciètian is subject to a fair amount of accent and dialect variation.

Common dialectal features

  • /x ɣ/ realized as uvular [χ ʁ]
  • h from Tigol h = /h/; h from Tigol ch = /x/; ħ is consistently /ħ/

Dialect 1

Something closer to my old Yekhanese (i.e. more Sorbian/Persian-ish)

Nyav baa gew gkar asŋea gasaan ak ascii nea woŋŋacy ak nea vmarozh. Nyav ar·seciin nea na vmiishiin ak i n'astorŋax, ak nya ar hu wa poda baraaħanar nea na weesycy na syarbacy.
/ɲəv baː gɛw gaɾ əsˈŋɛː gəˈsaːn ək əsˈtsiː nɛː ˈwoŋːətɕ ək nɛː vəˈɾɔʒ. ɲəv əɾsɛˈtsiːn nɛ nə viːˈʃiːn ək i nəstɔɾˈŋax, ək ɲə ˈaɾ hu wə pɔˈda bəˈraːħənəɾ nɛː nə ˈweːɕtɕ nə ɕəɾˈbatɕ./

Morphology

Pronouns

I you (sg.) he she it we (exc.) we (inc.) you (pl.) they you (semi-polite) you (polite)
Emphatic gonin gonas gonu goni gona gonang gonid gonah gonar gonaH gonaLà
Genitive fiar àng gèd sèd hàr Sèd
Accusative mòn mòs mòng mài mòm mèd mòh mòr mòH moLà

Politeness

Modern Ciètian has three levels of politeness in pronouns:

  • gonas, mòs (sg.) is used for family members, friends, pets, inanimates, deities, and among blue-collar workers. It is becoming more common among young people.
  • gonaLà, moLà is used as a polite second-person pronoun (for both singular and plural) for strangers or persons in positions of authority. It is still considered acceptable for some professions, such as superiors in military or schoolteachers, to refer to their counterparts with the familiar pronouns gonas and gonah, although nowadays using gonaLà is becoming more common.
  • gonaH is roughly intermediate in formality between gonas and gonaLà. The pronoun gonaH is used when an apprentice addresses their master, when university students address professors or when professors address students. In universities and some schools students use gonaH for each other. (In vocational schools gonawaa is used for student-instructor conversation.) Strangers on the Internet and books intended for a general audience also use gonax.
    • In archaic Ciètian, gonaH is used as a polite pronoun for persons of higher class (say nobles or royalty), or among the upper class.

Nouns

Standard Ciètian nouns are quite conservative: they have three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), three numbers (singular, plural and collective), and three states (nominative, genitive and construct). Collective nouns take singular agreement with verbs and adjectives. Regiolects usually have less noun declension.

  • The nominative singular, nominative plural, and genitive singular must be memorized for every noun. Feminine plurals tend to end in -r.
  • The genitive plural is formed by affixing -enı to the genitive singular.
  • The singular construct is formed by affixing -aħ to the nominative singular.
  • The plural construct is formed by affixing -u to the nominative singular if the nominative singular ends in a consonant, and -v to the nominative singular if it ends in a vowel.

The article

The article inflects and triggers mutation based on number and gender.

The singular definite article ye and yeN changes to yen (with no mutation) before a noun starting with a vowel or a semivowel. For example:

  • *yeN ùr > yen ùr /jən ˈwɤː/ (masculine) 'the sense (nominative)';
  • *ye àvaz > yen àvaz /jən ˈaːvəz/ (neuter) 'the book (nominative)'.

But:

  • yeL astzuòtz > ye h'astzuòtz /jə xasˈtswɔːts/ (feminine) 'the guilt (nominative)'.

Collective nouns are by nature definite, and the collective of a noun is formed by using the collective article before the singular form.

The nominative case is used for the subject; the genitive case is used for direct objects and objects of prepositions.

To be revised:

Definite article
singular plural
m. f. n. m. f. n.
nom. yeN yeL ye na ner naN
Example ye mpràn ye gkàtz ye hazier na pràn ner kàtzer na nghazier
gen. naL naL naL nanı nanı nanı
Example na bpràn na gkàtz n'γazier nanı prànenı nanı kàtzenı nanı hazrienı

Adjectives

Attributive adjectives must agree with nouns in gender, number and case. Adjectives have the same principal parts as nouns. The feminine plural always ends in -er, and the genitive plural always ends in -enı.

Attributive forms of cial 'small'
singular, collective plural
m. f. n. m. f. n.
nom. jcial xcial cial ciala cialer jciala
gen. jciele jciele jciele cialenı cialenı cialenı

Verbs

Like English and German, Ciètian uses a mixture of periphrastic constructions and inflected forms to express tenses.

Auxiliaries

Nyan garhiav wan dtarsiad ikaan xkarhii.
[ɲan gaˈriəv wən daɾˈsiət iˈkaːn xəˈr̝iː]
PRES.1SG go.VN to-DEF.GEN.SG.N school.GEN.SG every.F day.GEN.SG
I go to school every day.
I thou he she it we (exc.) we (inc.) you (pl., semi-polite) you (polite) they one (impersonal)
present1 nyan nyer nyav nyas nya nyam nyad nyax nyaw nyaħ nyar
future pon per pov pos po pom pod pox poo poħ por

1 from Old Eevo ar.nédh 'to dwell at'. (The verb acquired a meaning like Vietnamese 'be at' which then turned into a progressive construction with a verbal noun.)

Inflected forms

Unlike the present and the future, the past tense uses the participle -ìn, derived from the Tigol past passive participle. Like in Anbirese but unlike in Eevo, the past tense uses ergative alignment, with the ergative preposition u used before the ergative constituent for transitive verbs.

Other forms

  • The active participle in -ig is used to modify a noun. As such it is used as a relative form for the subject.
  • The -et infinitive:
    • is used with modal verbs.
  • The -eγ infinitive:
    • with zi 'in', indicates "while the action is taking place" or, when possessed, "while POSSESSOR is VERBing"
    • with ar 'on', indicates "upon/as soon as the action is taking place" or, when possessed, "upon the POSSESSOR's VERBing"
    • with nai 'by', indicates that the verb's action serves a purpose: "by VERBing"
  • The bare infinitive:
    • with zi 'in', indicates the progressive.
    • with jel 'from', indicates (from just having been VERB-ing)
    • with ħrù 'next to', indicates "intends to VERB" or "about to VERB"
    • with asd 'without', indicates "without VERBing"
    • (nonstandard) with ħand 'after', indicates that the action just happened.

Prepositions

If the prepositional object is a pronoun, the genitive form of the pronoun is used: la nà = to me, for me.

Numbers

ngic, cìm, tiħer, nèig, dèib, selь, sdàm, ruìz, lèr, bàr, ngiaor, yàxim, knè

Derivational morphology

  • yir- = un-, non-
    • yirstzuòtz, yirstzuòtz (f) 'innocence', from stzuòtz (f) 'guilt'
  • -gàn, -gànь, -gànь = -able?
  • -ah, -ax, -aha (n) = verbal noun
  • Unstressed initial prefixes are separated by an interpunct (·)
    • ar· is an applicative

Sample texts

UDHR

Niam pà cil ghar sngèi casàn ac sdeħèid nai lòngatz ac nai marrenь. Niam amsetzìn nai mìsrìnen ac ye as·torngegen, ac niam ar ham la foza cràdener nai ghiegòren ri ziarbetzen.
/nʲəm pɑː tʃəɫ ɣɤː sŋaɪ ˈkasɑːn ək sdəˈħait nɒ ɫawŋəts ək nɒ mar̝ənʲ. nʲəm ˈamsətsiːn nɒ ˈmiːsʲɾʲiːnən ək jə əsˈtʊɯŋəgən, ək nʲəm əɾ ham ɫə ˈfɔzə kɾɑːdənɨ nɒ zjəgʊɯn ɾɪ zʲɤːbətsən/
All humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.