Difference between revisions of "Cyrmanian"

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''The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the strongest, and then a man wearing a warm cloak came. They said that the one who could make the man take off his cloak was the strongest.''
 
''The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the strongest, and then a man wearing a warm cloak came. They said that the one who could make the man take off his cloak was the strongest.''
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[[Category:Languages]]

Latest revision as of 15:07, 4 December 2019

Cyrmanian (Kyrmi) is a distant relative of Bearlandic. It is notable for having few inflections (though the ones it has are rather irregular) and a system of consonant mutations.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Lateral Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Stop p b /p b/ t d /t d/ k g /k g/
Fricative f v /f v/ th dh /θ ð/ s z /s z/ lh /ɬ/ ch g /x ɣ/ h /h/
Other r /r/ l /l/ j /j/

/ɣ/ only occurs as a result of consonant mutation.

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i î /i~ɪ iː/ u û /ʉ~ɵ ʉː/ ŷ ŵ /ɯː uː/
Mid e ê /ɛ eː/ y /ə/ o ô /ɔ oː/
Low a â /a aː/

There are also several diphthongs.

i ə u
a ai /ai/ ae /æe/ ao /ɑo~ɒo/
e ei /ei/
i îa /iə/ yw /ɪu~əu/
o ôa /oə~ʊə/
u uy /ʊi~əi/

Mutations

There are three or four different types of consonant mutation, which are summarised in the table below.

Base consonant Lenition Nasalisation Fortition
p f m
t th n
k ch ng
b v m p
d dh n t
g g /ɣ/ ng k
v m f
dh n th
z s
h h/ch
m v
r ch
l lh

An empty cell indicates no change. Consonants not included in this chart do not mutate at all.

In a few instances, a special variant fortition occurs which only affects h, r and l. Note that h is not affected by the normal fortition.

Words triggering lenition, nasalisation, normal and special fortition are marked with L N S R respectively. Words which trigger nasalisation acquire an n at the end when followed by a word beginning with a vowel; similarly, words which trigger fortition acquire an s are the end under the same conditions.

Nouns

Nouns are inflected solely for number. The singular is unmarked, while the plural can be marked in a variety of ways.

The most regular way of forming plurals is by adding -ar. This suffix also forms the plurals of loanwords.

  • chîach "beard" -> chîachar "beards"
  • vorot "word" -> vorotar "words"

Many native nouns have irregular plurals which involve changes within the root. Most of those irregular plurals end in -r.

  • bŵch "bird" -> bŵgar "birds"
  • chys "goat" -> chŷr "goats"
  • ruyd "brother" -> rîar "brothers"
  • tynych "village" -> tingir "villages"

Nouns ending in -r tend to form plurals by vowel change alone, or by vowel change combined with the addition of an extra vowel (usually i) at the end.

  • hever "fish" -> hevir "fish"
  • air "year" -> îar "years"
  • jevir "girl" -> jôari "girls"

Some nouns not ending in -r also form their plurals this way.

  • hîad "hand" -> heiri "hands"
  • vaira "bear" -> vâri "bears"

Lastly, some nouns have plurals ending in -n.

  • aoth "language" -> aothin "languages"
  • hyz "foot" -> hŷn "feet"

Articles

The articles are aN (indefinite singular) and daL (definite), the latter of which sometimes becomes a or na. There is no plural indefinite article.

Adjectives

Adjectives follow nouns. If the noun ends in a consonant and the adjectives begins with a consonant, they may be linked by the linking particle y.

  • vaira gâvor "strong bear"
  • mîar y gâvor "strong man"

Pronouns

Subject Emphatic Object Possessive
1sg i maN maS
2sg zi zaN zaS
3sg masculine moN moS
3sg feminine chu chuS
1pl ao os oS
2pl hidhe hodhe hoS
3pl mine miS

Note that ma, za and mo can only trigger nasalisation on verbs and the definite article.

Other pronouns include the demonstrative/relative y, which becomes yn when followed by a vowel-initial word, and which can be combined with the spatial adverbs îaz "here" and hîaz "there".

Numerals

  1. aon
  2. hyw
  3. chai
  4. îarR
  5. eiz
  6. seiv
  7. avŵrR
  8. naivi
  9. tôar

Îar and avŵr lose their final -r if the following noun undergoes mutation.

  • îar pînir "four children" but îa chîar "four brothers"

Verbs

Verbs distinguish two morphological tenses, present and past. The formation of the past tense is extremely irregular and sometimes even looks suppletive. The most common pattern consists of a circumfix i-t, possibly accompanied by a vowel change.

  • tel "count" -> itelt "counted"
  • lhyw "sleep" -> ilhôat "slept"

Sometimes the final -t surfaces as a th or dh instead.

  • gaeth "remove" -> igôath "removed"
  • seidh "know" -> isôadh "knew"

Sometimes the initial consonant changes.

  • derys "drink" -> idhôat "drank"
  • kuyz "see" -> ichût "saw"

Some verbs beginning with a vowel are prefixed with z- instead of i-.

  • aid "eat" -> zaith "ate"

A few verbs have seemingly suppletive past-tense forms.

  • ilais "run" -> iflîath "ran"
  • "make" -> uyda "made"
  • serei "fight" -> ichrît "fought"

An -n is added to verb forms ending in a vowel if the following word begins with a vowel.

  • uyda mo "he made" but uydan i "I made"
  • serei da vîar "the man fights" but serein a vîar "a man fights"

Verb forms which end in a voiceless coronal consonant trigger fortition of the pronoun zi, after which the final consonant of the verb is dropped.

  • idhôat i "I drank" but idhôa si "you drank"
  • lai zi "you want" but ilei si "you wanted"

Those same verb forms also cause the definite article da to drop its initial d, but in this case the final consonant of the verb remains.

  • âz da fîn "the child speaks" but ziget a fîn "the child spoke"

Sometimes the first and second person singular sound identical. In those cases it is common to add an emphatic pronoun before the verb.

  • derys i "I drink" and dery si "you drink" -> ma nerys i "I drink" and za nery si "you drink"

Word order

The basic word order is VSO.

Sample

Ichrît a Nuyf y chi Norot au d'Aoz yn aomi dhet a mi gâvor, au ilôat a mîar y lhi ngaofar ûn. Ziget mine y mo net y mi gâvor, isôadh yn uyda mo na vîar yn igôath a chaofar.

The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the strongest, and then a man wearing a warm cloak came. They said that the one who could make the man take off his cloak was the strongest.