Difference between revisions of "Druidic Canaanite"

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Verbs inherited the following forms from Biblical Hebrew:
 
Verbs inherited the following forms from Biblical Hebrew:
*Waw-consecutive preterite (the ''wayyiqṭōl'' form): narrative past
+
*narrative past (from the BH waw-consecutive preterite)
*Past/Perfect/Stative (from the BH perfect)
+
*past/perfect/stative (from the BH perfect)
*Non-past/Imperfect (from the BH imperfect)
+
*non-past/imperfect (from the BH imperfect)
**Energic nun for emphasis or wishes
+
**energic nun for emphasis or wishes
*Imperative
+
*imperative
*Infinitive construct
+
*infinitive construct
*Infinitive absolute
+
*infinitive absolute
*Participles
+
*participles
  
 
The waw consecutive + stative (with an imperfect meaning) was lost.
 
The waw consecutive + stative (with an imperfect meaning) was lost.
 +
====Binyan ''faȝal'' (paʕal)====
 +
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
 +
|+ ''šamár'' 'he kept'
 +
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 1s
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 2ms
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 2fs
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 3ms
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 3fs
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 1p
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 2mp
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 2fp
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 3mp
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 3fp
 +
|-
 +
! perfect
 +
| ''šamárθī''
 +
| ''šamárθa''
 +
| ''šamárθe''
 +
| ''šamár''
 +
| ''šamárā''
 +
| ''šamárnu''
 +
| ''šamárθem''
 +
| ''šamárθen''
 +
|colspan=2| ''šamárū''
 +
|-
 +
! imperfect
 +
| ''ʔišmúr''
 +
| ''θišmúr''
 +
| ''θišmúrī''
 +
| ''yišmúr''
 +
| ''θišmúr''
 +
| ''nišmúr''
 +
| ''θišmúrū''
 +
| ''θišmúrna'' (rare)
 +
| ''yišmúrū''
 +
| ''θišmúrna'' (rare)
 +
|-
 +
! preterite
 +
| ''wāʔíšmur''
 +
| ''waθθíšmur''
 +
| ''waθθíšmurī''
 +
| ''wayyíšmur''
 +
| ''waθθíšmur''
 +
| ''wanníšmur''
 +
| ''waθθíšmurū''
 +
| ''waθθíšmurna'' (rare)
 +
| ''wayyíšmurū''
 +
| ''waθθíšmurna'' (rare)
 +
|-
 +
! imperative
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''šimúr!''
 +
| ''šimúrī!''
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''šimúrū!''
 +
| ''šimúrna!'' (rare)
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''-''
 +
|-
 +
! active participle
 +
|colspan=10| ''šōmḗr''
 +
|-
 +
! passive participle
 +
|colspan=10| ''šamū́r''
 +
|-
 +
! infinitive construct
 +
|colspan=10| ''šimṓr''
 +
|-
 +
! infinitive absolute
 +
|colspan=10| ''šamṓr''
 +
|}
 +
 +
====Binyan ''fiȝȝil'' (piʕʕel)====
 +
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
 +
|+ ''kittíl'' 'he magnified'
 +
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 1s
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 2ms
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 2fs
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 3ms
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 3fs
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 1p
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 2mp
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 2fp
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 3mp
 +
! style="width: 75px; " | 3fp
 +
|-
 +
! perfect
 +
| ''kittélθī''
 +
| ''kittélθa''
 +
| ''kittélθe''
 +
| ''kittíl''
 +
| ''kittílā''
 +
| ''kittélnu''
 +
| ''kittélθem''
 +
| ''kittélθen''
 +
|colspan=2| ''kittílū''
 +
|-
 +
! imperfect
 +
| ''ʔagattíl''
 +
| ''θagattíl''
 +
| ''θagattílī''
 +
| ''yagattíl''
 +
| ''θagattíl''
 +
| ''nagattíl''
 +
| ''θagattílū''
 +
| ''θagattélna'' (rare)
 +
| ''yagattílū''
 +
| ''θagattélna'' (rare)
 +
|-
 +
! preterite
 +
| ''wāʔagáttil''
 +
| ''waθθagáttil''
 +
| ''waθθagáttilī''
 +
| ''wayyagáttil''
 +
| ''waθθagáttil''
 +
| ''wannagáttil''
 +
| ''waθθagáttilū''
 +
| ''waθθagáttelna'' (rare)
 +
| ''wayyagáttilū''
 +
| ''waθθagáttelna'' (rare)
 +
|-
 +
! imperative
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''kattíl!''
 +
| ''kattílī!''
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''kattílū!''
 +
| ''kattélna!'' (rare)
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''-''
 +
|-
 +
! participle
 +
|colspan=10| ''mugattḗl''
 +
|-
 +
! infinitive construct
 +
|colspan=10| ''kattíl''
 +
|-
 +
! infinitive absolute
 +
|colspan=10| ''kattíl''
 +
|}
  
 
==Derivation==
 
==Derivation==
Line 180: Line 326:
 
*''ʔášerā'' = tree as a spiritual object
 
*''ʔášerā'' = tree as a spiritual object
 
===z===
 
===z===
*''zadā'' = defect
+
*''zadā'' = defect, crookedness
  
 
===n===
 
===n===

Revision as of 03:21, 11 October 2019

Druidic Canaanite
𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍𐤉𐤕
Pronunciation /xənaɣ̃ˈniːð/
Created by IlL
Setting Lõis
Region Cyprus
Language family
Afro-Asiatic
  • Semitic
    • Central Semitic
      • North Semitic
        • Canaanite
          • (Pre-Exilic) Biblical Hebrew
            • Druidic Canaanite
ISO 639-3

Druidic Canaanite or Druidic Hebrew (natively 𐤄𐤋𐤔𐤅𐤍 𐤄𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍𐤉𐤕 ʔal-lašón ʔaχ-χanaȝníδ /ʔallaˈʃon ʔaxxanaɣ̃ˈniːð/) is the stage of Xnánið between the split from Pre-Exilic Biblical Hebrew ca. 6th century BC and ca. 5th century CE. It was used as a literary language during this period and was the liturgical language of Near-East druidism before the religion was supplanted by Henosis Ousias. It was then that the drastic changes that had occurred in the spoken language began to be reflected in writing, thus ushering in the era of modern Xnánið.

Druidic Canaanite developed in isolation from Jewish Hebrew in Cyprus and was influenced by Celtic languages. It is a separate lineage from the Post-Exilic Jewish reading traditions that eventually gave rise to Tiberian Hebrew and the modern Jewish reading traditions.

Todo

  • Long and overlong vowels?
  • When should matres lectionis be used?

Phonology

Orthography

Druidic Canaanite was written in an abjad descended from the Proto-Hebrew script. Religious texts were vocalized but not completely, hence it is reconstructed on the basis of Modern Canaanite and Tiberian Hebrew.

Since /ʔ/ and /h/ merged completely, the letter he was only used for a few function words and particles such as the definite article ʔaC-.

Consonants

Out of the 25 consonants of Pre-Exilic Biblical Hebrew, Druidic Canaanite merged:

  • /x/ with /ħ/ into /ħ/
  • /ɬ/ with /t/ (taw) into /θ/
  • /ʕ/ and /ɣ/ into /ɣ̃/
  • /h/ and /ʔ/ into /ʔ/ ([h] was an allophone used for emphasis.)

/m p b f v n t d th θ ð ts~dz s tsʰ ʃ ɣ̃ ħ k g kh x ɣ l w j r/ m p b f v n t d ᴛ θ δ z s c š ȝ ħ k g ᴋ χ γ l w y r

/l/ allophonically velarized before C.

Mutations

Words can undergo initial mutation but the mutations are different from the begadkefat spirantization in Tiberian Hebrew. The following mutations occur after a vowel:

  • beth /p/ → /b/
  • pe /f/ → /v/
  • daleth /t/ → /d/
  • taw /θ/ → /ð/
  • gimel /k/ → /g/
  • kaph /x/ → /ɣ/
  • zayin /ts/ → /dz/
  • samekh /s/ → /z/

Vowels

Druidic Canaanite had overlong vowels.

a e i u ā ē ī ō ū â ê î ô û /a e i u aː ɛː iː ɔː uː aːː ɛːː iːː ɔːː uːː/

The phonemic distinction between /e/ and /i/ is doubtful.

Many instances of long and overlong vowels resulted from dropped aleph and he and instances of lost gemination in grammatical affixes. For example: 'come! (m.sg.)' (from *būʔ < *buʔ)

Prosody

Stress

There was a major stress shifts away from final stress from Pre-Exilic Hebrew to Druidic Canaanite:

  1. Stress shifted to penultimate for feminine singular nouns ending in in adjectives, then nouns, by analogy with the unstressed 3SG.F perfect affix .
  2. By analogy, stress shifted to penultimate for nouns ending in a plural suffix -īm, , or -ōδ.

Intonation

Morphophonology

Grammar

Syntax was retained as VSO under the influence of Celtic.

Pronouns

Independent

  • 1sg: ʔánī
  • 2sg: ʔáθθa (m), ʔáθθe (f)
  • 3sg: ʔū (m), ʔī (f)
  • 1pl: ʔáħnu
  • 2pl: ʔaθθémma (m), ʔaθθénna (f)
  • 3pl: ʔémma (m), ʔénna (f)

Nouns

Inflection

The definite article was ʔaC- (from Biblical Hebrew *haC-). It caused gemination of the following consonant; if the following consonant was a guttural and thus could not geminate, it was lengthened to ʔā-.

The Biblical feminine singular ending *-ā́ became unstressed , and the stress in feminine singular nouns in shifted to penultimate (by analogy with masculine singular adjectives and 3fs perfect verbs). Other possible feminine endings are -t, or . Eventually stress shifted away from gender/number suffixes across the board: The regular masculine and feminine plural endings were unstressed -īm and unstressed -ōδ, from Biblical Hebrew *-ī́m and *-ṓt.

The ending -a is more common than in Jewish Hebrew; sometimes -a is found where Standard Jewish Hebrew has -t.

The construct state was not entirely predictable but not as "hard" as Tiberian Hebrew. Feminine singular nouns in -a had a construct state in -aδ.

Example with sūs 'horse' and sūsā 'female horse':

Basic declension
number singular plural
gender m. f. m. f.
indef. 𐤎𐤅𐤎 sūs
/suːs/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀 sūsā
/ˈsuːsaː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌‎ sūsīm
/ˈsuːsiːm/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ sūsōδ
/ˈsuːsoːð/
def. 𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎 ʔas-sūs
/ʔassuːs/
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀 ʔas-sūsā
/ʔasˈsuːsaː/
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌‎ ʔas-sūsīm
/ʔasˈsuːsiːm/
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ ʔas-sūsōδ
/ʔasˈsuːsoːð/
const. 𐤎𐤅𐤎 sūs
/suːs/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕 sūsaδ
/ˈsuːsað/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ sūsē
/ˈsuːseː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ sūsōδ
/ˈsuːsoːð/

Possessive suffixes were as follows:

  • 1sg: sūsī "my horse", pl. sūsê "my horses"
  • 2sg.m: sūsaγa, pl. sūsēγa
  • 2sg.f: sūsaγe, pl. sūsēγe
  • 3sg.m: sūsō, pl. sūsô
  • 3sg.f: sūsâ, pl. sūsayâ
  • 1pl: sūsinu, pl. sūsēnu
  • 2pl.m: sūsaγem, pl. sūsēγem (-n instead of -m for feminine)
  • 3pl.m: sūsām, pl. sūsêm (-n instead of -m for feminine)

Adjectives

The most common way to express 'very, extreme(ly), great(ly)' was to use the prefix ro- (which caused mutation; borrowed from Proto-Celtic *ɸro-; cognate to Irish ró-, Welsh rhy, both 'too, excessively'). At first only adjectives could take this prefix, but later it was also used on nouns.

Verbs

All 7 binyanim of Biblical Hebrew were in use.

Verbs inherited the following forms from Biblical Hebrew:

  • narrative past (from the BH waw-consecutive preterite)
  • past/perfect/stative (from the BH perfect)
  • non-past/imperfect (from the BH imperfect)
    • energic nun for emphasis or wishes
  • imperative
  • infinitive construct
  • infinitive absolute
  • participles

The waw consecutive + stative (with an imperfect meaning) was lost.

Binyan faȝal (paʕal)

šamár 'he kept'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
perfect šamárθī šamárθa šamárθe šamár šamárā šamárnu šamárθem šamárθen šamárū
imperfect ʔišmúr θišmúr θišmúrī yišmúr θišmúr nišmúr θišmúrū θišmúrna (rare) yišmúrū θišmúrna (rare)
preterite wāʔíšmur waθθíšmur waθθíšmurī wayyíšmur waθθíšmur wanníšmur waθθíšmurū waθθíšmurna (rare) wayyíšmurū waθθíšmurna (rare)
imperative - šimúr! šimúrī! - - - šimúrū! šimúrna! (rare) - -
active participle šōmḗr
passive participle šamū́r
infinitive construct šimṓr
infinitive absolute šamṓr

Binyan fiȝȝil (piʕʕel)

kittíl 'he magnified'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
perfect kittélθī kittélθa kittélθe kittíl kittílā kittélnu kittélθem kittélθen kittílū
imperfect ʔagattíl θagattíl θagattílī yagattíl θagattíl nagattíl θagattílū θagattélna (rare) yagattílū θagattélna (rare)
preterite wāʔagáttil waθθagáttil waθθagáttilī wayyagáttil waθθagáttil wannagáttil waθθagáttilū waθθagáttelna (rare) wayyagáttilū waθθagáttelna (rare)
imperative - kattíl! kattílī! - - - kattílū! kattélna! (rare) - -
participle mugattḗl
infinitive construct kattíl
infinitive absolute kattíl

Derivation

Mishkalim

Todo: new Druidic Hebrew mishkalim

  • ᴋaᴛāl, ᴋaᴛēl = common noun and adjective pattern for basic words
  • masculine segolates: ᴋaᴛl, ᴋiᴛl, ᴋuᴛl
  • feminine segolates: ᴋaᴛlā, ᴋiᴛlā, ᴋuᴛlā
  • ᴋaᴛalā (paraγā 'good fortune, auspiciousness')
  • ᴋaᴛilā
  • ᴋaᴛulā (kadúlā 'magnificence', zarúħā 'radiance')
  • ᴋaᴛalᴛal(ā) = diminutive
  • miᴋᴛal(ā) = often place
  • maᴋᴛel(ā) = instrument
  • miᴋᴛōl
  • maᴋᴛul(ā)
  • θaᴋᴛilā, θaᴋᴛulā
  • ᴋiᴛalōn? ᴋiᴛᴛalōn?
  • ᴋaᴛᴛal(ā) = agentive
  • ᴋaᴛᴛelā = disease
  • ᴋaᴛᴛulā
  • θaᴋᴛelā
  • θaᴋᴛulā = system

Sample texts

Lexicon

ʔ

  • ʔilô (pl. ʔilṓʔīm) = an animistic spirit, like a Japanese kami
  • ʔášerā = tree as a spiritual object

z

  • zadā = defect, crookedness

n

  • n-ᴛ-f
    • níᴛfā = spiritual intuition or inspiration (from a root meaning 'dropping, prophecy' in BH)

ȝ

  • ȝárabā = willow

r

  • rammṓn = pomegranate

š

ś