Difference between revisions of "Druidic Canaanite"

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m (Binyan faȝal (paʕal))
m (ʔ)
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==Phonology==
 
==Phonology==
 
===Orthography===
 
===Orthography===
Druidic Canaanite was written in an abjad descended from the Proto-Hebrew script. Religious texts were vocalized but not completely, hence it is reconstructed on the basis of Modern Canaanite and Tiberian Hebrew.
+
Druidic Canaanite was written in an abjad descended from the Proto-Hebrew script. Incantations were completely vocalized, other religious texts less so.
 +
 
 +
Since /ʔ/ and /h/ merged completely, the letter he was only used for a few function words and particles such as the definite article ''ʔaC-''.
  
Since /ʔ/ and /h/ merged completely, the letter he was only used for a few function words and particles such as the definite article ''ʔaC-''.
 
 
===Consonants===
 
===Consonants===
 
Out of the 25 consonants of Pre-Exilic Biblical Hebrew, Druidic Canaanite merged:
 
Out of the 25 consonants of Pre-Exilic Biblical Hebrew, Druidic Canaanite merged:
Line 38: Line 39:
 
* /ɬ/ with /t/ (taw) into /θ/
 
* /ɬ/ with /t/ (taw) into /θ/
 
* /ʕ/ and /ɣ/ into /ɣ̃/
 
* /ʕ/ and /ɣ/ into /ɣ̃/
* /h/ and /ʔ/ into /ʔ/ ([h] was an allophone used for emphasis.)
+
* /h/ and /ʔ/ into /ʔ~ɦ~Ø/ ([h] was an allophone used for emphasis.)
  
/m p b f v n t d th θ ð ts~dz s tsʰ ʃ ɣ̃ ħ k g kh x ɣ l w j r/ {{angbr|''m p b f v n t d ᴛ θ δ z s c š ȝ ħ k g ᴋ χ γ l w y r''}}
+
/m p b f v n t d θ ð ts s tsʰ ʃ ɣ̃ ħ k g x ɣ l w j r ʔ~ɦ~Ø/ {{angbr|''m p b f v n t d ᴛ θ δ z s c š ȝ ħ k g ᴋ χ γ l w y r ʔ''}}
  
 
/l/ allophonically velarized before C.
 
/l/ allophonically velarized before C.
Line 90: Line 91:
 
The Biblical feminine singular ending ''*-ā́'' became unstressed ''-ā'', and the stress in feminine singular nouns in ''-ā'' shifted to penultimate (by analogy with masculine singular adjectives and 3fs perfect verbs). Other possible feminine endings are ''-t'', ''-θ'' or ''-δ''. Eventually stress shifted away from gender/number suffixes across the board: The regular masculine and feminine plural endings were unstressed ''-īm'' and unstressed ''-ōδ'', from Biblical Hebrew ''*-ī́m'' and ''*-ṓt''.  
 
The Biblical feminine singular ending ''*-ā́'' became unstressed ''-ā'', and the stress in feminine singular nouns in ''-ā'' shifted to penultimate (by analogy with masculine singular adjectives and 3fs perfect verbs). Other possible feminine endings are ''-t'', ''-θ'' or ''-δ''. Eventually stress shifted away from gender/number suffixes across the board: The regular masculine and feminine plural endings were unstressed ''-īm'' and unstressed ''-ōδ'', from Biblical Hebrew ''*-ī́m'' and ''*-ṓt''.  
  
The ending ''-a'' is more common than in Jewish Hebrew; sometimes ''-a'' is found where Standard Jewish Hebrew has ''-t''.
+
Often ''-ā'' is found where Standard Jewish Hebrew has ''-t''.
  
The construct state was not entirely predictable but not as "hard" as Tiberian Hebrew. Feminine singular nouns in ''-a'' had a construct state in ''-aδ''.
+
The construct state was much more predictable than in Tiberian Hebrew.
  
 
Example with ''sūs'' 'horse' and ''sūsā'' 'female horse':
 
Example with ''sūs'' 'horse' and ''sūsā'' 'female horse':
  
 
{| class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="text-align:center;"  
 
{| class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="text-align:center;"  
|+ '''Basic declension'''
+
|+ '''Noun declension'''
 
! number  
 
! number  
 
!colspan=2| singular  
 
!colspan=2| singular  
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| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ ''sūsē'' <br/> /ˈsuːseː/
 
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ ''sūsē'' <br/> /ˈsuːseː/
 
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ ''sūsōδ''  <br/> /ˈsuːsoːð/
 
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ ''sūsōδ''  <br/> /ˈsuːsoːð/
 +
|-
 +
! "my"
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉 ''sūsī'' <br/> /ˈsuːsiː/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉 ''sūsaδī'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðiː/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ ''sūsê'' <br/> /ˈsuːseːː/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉‎‎ ''sūsuδê''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðeːː/
 +
|-
 +
! "thy" (m)
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊 ''sū́saγa'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaɣa/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊 ''sū́saδaγa'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðaɣa/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊‎ ''sūsēγa'' <br/> /ˈsuːseːɣa/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊‎‎ ''sūsuδēγa''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðeːɣa/
 +
|-
 +
! "thy" (f)
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊 ''sūsaγe'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaɣɛ/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊 ''sūsaδaγe'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðaɣɛ/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊‎ ''sūsēγe'' <br/> /ˈsuːseːɣɛ/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊‎‎ ''sūsuδēγe''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðeːɣɛ/
 +
|-
 +
! "his"
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅 ''sūsō'' <br/> /ˈsuːsoː/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕 ''sūsaδō'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðaɣɛ/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤅‎ ''sūsô'' <br/> /ˈsuːsoːː/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤅‎‎ ''sūsuδô''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðoːː/
 +
|-
 +
! "her"
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤀 ''sūsâ'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaːː/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤀 ''sūsaδâ'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðaːː/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤀‎ ''sūseʔâ'' <br/> /ˈsuːseʔaːː/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤀‎‎ ''sūsuδēʔâ''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðeːʔaːː/
 +
|-
 +
! "our"
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤍 ''sūsinu'' <br/> /ˈsuːsinu/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤍 ''sūsaδinu'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðinu/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤍‎ ''sūsēnu'' <br/> /ˈsuːseːnu/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤍‎‎ ''sūsuδēnu''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðeːnu/
 +
|-
 +
! "y'all's" (m)
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊𐤌‎‎ ''sūsaγem'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaɣem/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊𐤌 ''sūsaδaγem'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðaɣem/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊𐤌‎ ''sūsēγem'' <br/> /ˈsuːseːɣem/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊𐤌‎‎ ''sūsuδēγem''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðeːɣem/
 +
|-
 +
! "y'all's" (f)
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊𐤍 ''sūsaγen'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaɣen/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊𐤍 ''sūsaδaγen'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðaɣen/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊𐤍‎ ''sūsēγen'' <br/> /ˈsuːseːɣen/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊𐤍‎‎ ''sūsuδēγen''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðeːɣen/
 +
|-
 +
! "their" (m)
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤌 ''sūsām'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaːm/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤌 ''sūsaδām'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðaːm/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤌‎ ''sūsêm'' <br/> /ˈsuːseːːm/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤌‎‎ ''sūsuδêm''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðeːːm/
 +
|-
 +
! "their" (f)
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤍 ''sūsān'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaːn/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤍 ''sūsaδān'' <br/> /ˈsuːsaðaːn/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤍‎ ''sūsên'' <br/> /ˈsuːseːːn/
 +
| 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤍‎‎ ''sūsuδên''  <br/> /ˈsuːsuðeːːn/
 
|}
 
|}
 
Possessive suffixes were as follows:
 
*1sg: ''sūs'''ī''''' "my horse", pl. ''sūs'''ê''''' "my horses"
 
*2sg.m: ''sūs'''aγa''''', pl. ''sūs'''ēγa'''''
 
*2sg.f: ''sūs'''aγe''''', pl. ''sūs'''ēγe'''''
 
*3sg.m: ''sūs'''ō''''', pl. ''sūs'''ô'''''
 
*3sg.f: ''sūs'''â''''', pl. ''sūs'''ayâ'''''
 
*1pl: ''sūs'''inu''''', pl. ''sūs'''ēnu'''''
 
*2pl.m: ''sūs'''aγem''''', pl. ''sūs'''ēγem''''' (-n instead of -m for feminine)
 
*3pl.m: ''sūs'''ām''''', pl. ''sūs'''êm''''' (-n instead of -m for feminine)
 
  
 
===Adjectives===
 
===Adjectives===
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===Verbs===
 
===Verbs===
All 7 binyanim of Biblical Hebrew were in use.
+
All 7 binyanim of Biblical Hebrew were in use. Druidic Canaanite also had a binyan ''fuȝal'' (passive of ''faȝal'') which merged completely with ''fuȝȝal'' in Tiberian Hebrew.
  
 
Verbs inherited the following forms from Biblical Hebrew:
 
Verbs inherited the following forms from Biblical Hebrew:
Line 225: Line 276:
 
|colspan=10| ''šamṓr''
 
|colspan=10| ''šamṓr''
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
 +
====Binyan ''fuȝal'' (passive of ''faȝal'')====
 +
 +
====Binyan ''nivȝal'' (nifʕal)====
  
 
====Binyan ''fiȝȝil'' (piʕʕel)====
 
====Binyan ''fiȝȝil'' (piʕʕel)====
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|-
 
|-
 
! participle
 
! participle
|colspan=10| ''mugattḗl''
+
|colspan=10| ''migattíl''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! infinitive construct
 
! infinitive construct
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|colspan=10| ''kattíl''
 
|colspan=10| ''kattíl''
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
====Binyan ''fuȝȝal'' (puʕal)====
 +
====Binyan ''hivȝīl'' (hifʕil)====
 +
====Binyan ''huvȝal'' (hufʕal)====
 +
====Binyan ''hiðvaȝȝil'' (hithpaʕʕel)====
 +
====Gzarot====
 +
:''Main article: [[Druidic Canaanite/Gzarot]]''
  
 
==Derivation==
 
==Derivation==
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===ʔ===
 
===ʔ===
 
*''ʔilô'' (pl. ''ʔilṓʔīm'') = an animistic spirit, like a Japanese ''kami''
 
*''ʔilô'' (pl. ''ʔilṓʔīm'') = an animistic spirit, like a Japanese ''kami''
*''ʔášerā'' = tree as a spiritual object
+
*''ʔašírā'' = the spirit of a tree
 +
 
 
===z===
 
===z===
*''zadā'' = defect, crookedness
+
*''zadā? zidā?'' = defect, crookedness (זדה is a hapax legomena in the Siloam inscription)
  
 
===n===
 
===n===
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**''níᴛfā'' = spiritual intuition or inspiration (from a root meaning 'dropping, prophecy' in BH)
 
**''níᴛfā'' = spiritual intuition or inspiration (from a root meaning 'dropping, prophecy' in BH)
 
===ȝ===
 
===ȝ===
*''ȝárabā'' = willow
+
*''ȝarábā'' = willow
 +
 
 
===r===
 
===r===
*''rammṓn'' = pomegranate
+
*''rimmṓn'' = pomegranate
  
 
===š===
 
===š===
 
===ś===
 
===ś===
 
[[Category:Semitic languages]]
 
[[Category:Semitic languages]]

Revision as of 04:33, 11 October 2019

Druidic Canaanite
𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍𐤉𐤕
Pronunciation /xənaɣ̃ˈniːð/
Created by IlL
Setting Lõis
Region Cyprus
Language family
Afro-Asiatic
  • Semitic
    • Central Semitic
      • North Semitic
        • Canaanite
          • (Pre-Exilic) Biblical Hebrew
            • Druidic Canaanite
ISO 639-3

Druidic Canaanite or Druidic Hebrew (natively 𐤄𐤋𐤔𐤅𐤍 𐤄𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍𐤉𐤕 ʔal-lašón ʔaχ-χanaȝníδ /ʔallaˈʃon ʔaxxanaɣ̃ˈniːð/) is the stage of Xnánið between the split from Pre-Exilic Biblical Hebrew ca. 6th century BC and ca. 5th century CE. It was used as a literary language during this period and was the liturgical language of Near-East druidism before the religion was supplanted by Henosis Ousias. It was then that the drastic changes that had occurred in the spoken language began to be reflected in writing, thus ushering in the era of modern Xnánið.

Druidic Canaanite developed in isolation from Jewish Hebrew in Cyprus and was influenced by Celtic languages. It is a separate lineage from the Post-Exilic Jewish reading traditions that eventually gave rise to Tiberian Hebrew and the modern Jewish reading traditions.

Todo

  • Long and overlong vowels?
  • When should matres lectionis be used?

Phonology

Orthography

Druidic Canaanite was written in an abjad descended from the Proto-Hebrew script. Incantations were completely vocalized, other religious texts less so.

Since /ʔ/ and /h/ merged completely, the letter he was only used for a few function words and particles such as the definite article ʔaC-.

Consonants

Out of the 25 consonants of Pre-Exilic Biblical Hebrew, Druidic Canaanite merged:

  • /x/ with /ħ/ into /ħ/
  • /ɬ/ with /t/ (taw) into /θ/
  • /ʕ/ and /ɣ/ into /ɣ̃/
  • /h/ and /ʔ/ into /ʔ~ɦ~Ø/ ([h] was an allophone used for emphasis.)

/m p b f v n t d tʰ θ ð ts s tsʰ ʃ ɣ̃ ħ k g kʰ x ɣ l w j r ʔ~ɦ~Ø/ m p b f v n t d ᴛ θ δ z s c š ȝ ħ k g ᴋ χ γ l w y r ʔ

/l/ allophonically velarized before C.

Mutations

Words can undergo initial mutation but the mutations are different from the begadkefat spirantization in Tiberian Hebrew. The following mutations occur after a vowel:

  • beth /p/ → /b/
  • pe /f/ → /v/
  • daleth /t/ → /d/
  • taw /θ/ → /ð/
  • gimel /k/ → /g/
  • kaph /x/ → /ɣ/
  • zayin /ts/ → /dz/
  • samekh /s/ → /z/

Vowels

Druidic Canaanite had overlong vowels.

a e i u ā ē ī ō ū â ê î ô û /a e i u aː ɛː iː ɔː uː aːː ɛːː iːː ɔːː uːː/

The phonemic distinction between /e/ and /i/ is doubtful.

Many instances of long and overlong vowels resulted from dropped aleph and he and instances of lost gemination in grammatical affixes. For example: 'come! (m.sg.)' (from *būʔ < *buʔ)

Prosody

Stress

There was a major stress shifts away from final stress from Pre-Exilic Hebrew to Druidic Canaanite:

  1. Stress shifted to penultimate for feminine singular nouns ending in in adjectives, then nouns, by analogy with the unstressed 3SG.F perfect affix .
  2. By analogy, stress shifted to penultimate for nouns ending in a plural suffix -īm, , or -ōδ.

Intonation

Morphophonology

Grammar

Syntax was retained as VSO under the influence of Celtic.

Pronouns

Independent

  • 1sg: ʔánī
  • 2sg: ʔáθθa (m), ʔáθθe (f)
  • 3sg: ʔū (m), ʔī (f)
  • 1pl: ʔáħnu
  • 2pl: ʔaθθémma (m), ʔaθθénna (f)
  • 3pl: ʔémma (m), ʔénna (f)

Nouns

Inflection

The definite article was ʔaC- (from Biblical Hebrew *haC-). It caused gemination of the following consonant; if the following consonant was a guttural and thus could not geminate, it was lengthened to ʔā-.

The Biblical feminine singular ending *-ā́ became unstressed , and the stress in feminine singular nouns in shifted to penultimate (by analogy with masculine singular adjectives and 3fs perfect verbs). Other possible feminine endings are -t, or . Eventually stress shifted away from gender/number suffixes across the board: The regular masculine and feminine plural endings were unstressed -īm and unstressed -ōδ, from Biblical Hebrew *-ī́m and *-ṓt.

Often is found where Standard Jewish Hebrew has -t.

The construct state was much more predictable than in Tiberian Hebrew.

Example with sūs 'horse' and sūsā 'female horse':

Noun declension
number singular plural
gender m. f. m. f.
indef. 𐤎𐤅𐤎 sūs
/suːs/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀 sūsā
/ˈsuːsaː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌‎ sūsīm
/ˈsuːsiːm/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ sūsōδ
/ˈsuːsoːð/
def. 𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎 ʔas-sūs
/ʔassuːs/
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀 ʔas-sūsā
/ʔasˈsuːsaː/
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌‎ ʔas-sūsīm
/ʔasˈsuːsiːm/
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ ʔas-sūsōδ
/ʔasˈsuːsoːð/
const. 𐤎𐤅𐤎 sūs
/suːs/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕 sūsaδ
/ˈsuːsað/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ sūsē
/ˈsuːseː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ sūsōδ
/ˈsuːsoːð/
"my" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉 sūsī
/ˈsuːsiː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉 sūsaδī
/ˈsuːsaðiː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ sūsê
/ˈsuːseːː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉‎‎ sūsuδê
/ˈsuːsuðeːː/
"thy" (m) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊 sū́saγa
/ˈsuːsaɣa/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊 sū́saδaγa
/ˈsuːsaðaɣa/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊‎ sūsēγa
/ˈsuːseːɣa/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊‎‎ sūsuδēγa
/ˈsuːsuðeːɣa/
"thy" (f) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊 sūsaγe
/ˈsuːsaɣɛ/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊 sūsaδaγe
/ˈsuːsaðaɣɛ/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊‎ sūsēγe
/ˈsuːseːɣɛ/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊‎‎ sūsuδēγe
/ˈsuːsuðeːɣɛ/
"his" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅 sūsō
/ˈsuːsoː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕 sūsaδō
/ˈsuːsaðaɣɛ/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤅‎ sūsô
/ˈsuːsoːː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤅‎‎ sūsuδô
/ˈsuːsuðoːː/
"her" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤀 sūsâ
/ˈsuːsaːː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤀 sūsaδâ
/ˈsuːsaðaːː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤀‎ sūseʔâ
/ˈsuːseʔaːː/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤀‎‎ sūsuδēʔâ
/ˈsuːsuðeːʔaːː/
"our" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤍 sūsinu
/ˈsuːsinu/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤍 sūsaδinu
/ˈsuːsaðinu/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤍‎ sūsēnu
/ˈsuːseːnu/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤍‎‎ sūsuδēnu
/ˈsuːsuðeːnu/
"y'all's" (m) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊𐤌‎‎ sūsaγem
/ˈsuːsaɣem/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊𐤌 sūsaδaγem
/ˈsuːsaðaɣem/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊𐤌‎ sūsēγem
/ˈsuːseːɣem/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊𐤌‎‎ sūsuδēγem
/ˈsuːsuðeːɣem/
"y'all's" (f) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊𐤍 sūsaγen
/ˈsuːsaɣen/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊𐤍 sūsaδaγen
/ˈsuːsaðaɣen/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊𐤍‎ sūsēγen
/ˈsuːseːɣen/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊𐤍‎‎ sūsuδēγen
/ˈsuːsuðeːɣen/
"their" (m) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤌 sūsām
/ˈsuːsaːm/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤌 sūsaδām
/ˈsuːsaðaːm/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤌‎ sūsêm
/ˈsuːseːːm/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤌‎‎ sūsuδêm
/ˈsuːsuðeːːm/
"their" (f) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤍 sūsān
/ˈsuːsaːn/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤍 sūsaδān
/ˈsuːsaðaːn/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤍‎ sūsên
/ˈsuːseːːn/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤍‎‎ sūsuδên
/ˈsuːsuðeːːn/

Adjectives

The most common way to express 'very, extreme(ly), great(ly)' was to use the prefix ro- (which caused mutation; borrowed from Proto-Celtic *ɸro-; cognate to Irish ró-, Welsh rhy, both 'too, excessively'). At first only adjectives could take this prefix, but later it was also used on nouns.

Verbs

All 7 binyanim of Biblical Hebrew were in use. Druidic Canaanite also had a binyan fuȝal (passive of faȝal) which merged completely with fuȝȝal in Tiberian Hebrew.

Verbs inherited the following forms from Biblical Hebrew:

  • narrative past (from the BH waw-consecutive preterite)
  • past/perfect/stative (from the BH perfect)
  • non-past/imperfect (from the BH imperfect)
    • energic nun for emphasis or wishes
  • imperative
  • infinitive construct
  • infinitive absolute
  • participles

The waw consecutive + stative (with an imperfect meaning) was lost.

Binyan faȝal (paʕal)

šamár 'he kept'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
perfect šamárθī šamárθa šamárθe šamár šamárā šamárnu šamárθem šamárθen šamárū
imperfect ʔišmúr θišmúr θišmúrī yišmúr θišmúr nišmúr θišmúrū θišmúrna (rare) yišmúrū θišmúrna (rare)
preterite wāʔíšmur waθθíšmur waθθíšmurī wayyíšmur waθθíšmur wanníšmur waθθíšmurū waθθíšmurna (rare) wayyíšmurū waθθíšmurna (rare)
imperative - šimúr! šimúrī! - - - šimúrū! šimúrna! (rare) - -
active participle šōmḗr
passive participle šamū́r
infinitive construct šimṓr
infinitive absolute šamṓr


Binyan fuȝal (passive of faȝal)

Binyan nivȝal (nifʕal)

Binyan fiȝȝil (piʕʕel)

kittíl 'he magnified'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
perfect kittélθī kittélθa kittélθe kittíl kittílā kittélnu kittélθem kittélθen kittílū
imperfect ʔagattíl θagattíl θagattílī yagattíl θagattíl nagattíl θagattílū θagattélna (rare) yagattílū θagattélna (rare)
preterite wāʔagáttil waθθagáttil waθθagáttilī wayyagáttil waθθagáttil wannagáttil waθθagáttilū waθθagáttelna (rare) wayyagáttilū waθθagáttelna (rare)
imperative - kattíl! kattílī! - - - kattílū! kattélna! (rare) - -
participle migattíl
infinitive construct kattíl
infinitive absolute kattíl

Binyan fuȝȝal (puʕal)

Binyan hivȝīl (hifʕil)

Binyan huvȝal (hufʕal)

Binyan hiðvaȝȝil (hithpaʕʕel)

Gzarot

Main article: Druidic Canaanite/Gzarot

Derivation

Mishkalim

Todo: new Druidic Hebrew mishkalim

  • ᴋaᴛāl, ᴋaᴛēl = common noun and adjective pattern for basic words
  • masculine segolates: ᴋaᴛl, ᴋiᴛl, ᴋuᴛl
  • feminine segolates: ᴋaᴛlā, ᴋiᴛlā, ᴋuᴛlā
  • ᴋaᴛalā (paraγā 'good fortune, auspiciousness')
  • ᴋaᴛilā
  • ᴋaᴛulā (kadúlā 'magnificence', zarúħā 'radiance')
  • ᴋaᴛalᴛal(ā) = diminutive
  • miᴋᴛal(ā) = often place
  • maᴋᴛel(ā) = instrument
  • miᴋᴛōl
  • maᴋᴛul(ā)
  • θaᴋᴛilā, θaᴋᴛulā
  • ᴋiᴛalōn? ᴋiᴛᴛalōn?
  • ᴋaᴛᴛal(ā) = agentive
  • ᴋaᴛᴛelā = disease
  • ᴋaᴛᴛulā
  • θaᴋᴛelā
  • θaᴋᴛulā = system

Sample texts

Lexicon

ʔ

  • ʔilô (pl. ʔilṓʔīm) = an animistic spirit, like a Japanese kami
  • ʔašírā = the spirit of a tree

z

  • zadā? zidā? = defect, crookedness (זדה is a hapax legomena in the Siloam inscription)

n

  • n-ᴛ-f
    • níᴛfā = spiritual intuition or inspiration (from a root meaning 'dropping, prophecy' in BH)

ȝ

  • ȝarábā = willow

r

  • rimmṓn = pomegranate

š

ś