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Labial Alveolar Alveolar sibilant Velar Glottal
Nasal m̥ m n̥ n
Stop pʰ p b tʰ t d t͡s d͡z kʰ k g
Fricative f s x h
Approximant w

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid-low ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː
Low a aː ɑ ɑː

Syllable structure


C1: a consonant

V: a vowel

C2: a consonant


Front vowels become central before [w]

Stops assimilate in aspiration to a following consonant and become unaspirated word-finally. Before an aspirated consonant, voiced stops become voiceless.

Low vowels become rounded after [w] and central vowels are raised.

Consonants palatalise after a non-low front vowel; velar consonants besides [w] become coronal palatalised; velar stops affricatise (/k/ > [t͡ɕ] \ [i e u]_).

Lots of other stuff.

Notes on orthography

The temporary orthography I've devised uses the macron to represent long vowels, <á> for /ɑ/, <hm> <hn> for the voiceless nasals, <z> for /d͡z/ and <sz> for /t͡s/, <x> for /x/, <ph th kh> for /pʰ tʰ kʰ/.


  • Case-inflected.
  • Animate vs. inanimate


First Second Third
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative mia miah(e) su suh(i) ke, o keh(e), ohe
Dative ate ateh uti utih ete, hote eteh, oteh
Accusative miu muhi suw suhi ku, o kuhi, ohe
Genitive-instrumental axa axah(e) uxa uxah(e) exa, hoxa exah(e), hoxah(e)
  • No specific way of determining if a word is animate or inanimate
  • addendum: certain suffixes are always one or the other, e.g. -dih 'a collection of X' is always inanimate, e.g. sokhdih 'a collection of stones, a pile of stones' < sokh 'stone', whilst others are always animate, e.g. -tus 'who does X', nōthētus 'sailor' < nōthē 'ocean'.

Word list

entry IPA part of speech definition
wuhko wuhkʰɔ animate noun speech
fexa fɛɕa inanimate noun axe
sēdhuf sɛːtʰʲhuf inanimate noun temple
hote hɔtɛ animate noun young pig, piglet
pheti pʰɛtʲi animate noun daughter
sokh sɔk inanimate noun stone
sokhdih sɔgdihʲ inanimate noun stone-pile
nōthē nɔːtʰɛː inanimate noun ocean
nōthē nɔːtʰɛː animate noun Ocean personified
dáwá dɑwɒ animate noun fire
dáwátus dɑwɒtus animate noun torch-bearer (a priestly title)
uptus uptus animate noun farmer
upē upɛː inanimate noun field
dáph dɑp animate noun commander (esp. military)
xapha xapʰa inanimate noun war
kiz kid͡zʲ inanimate noun sea, lake, river
xaphdáph xapʰtɑp animate noun warleader, warlord
kizdáph kid͡zʲdɑp animate noun sealord
dáphtus dɑptus animate noun elector
tā́szbohszāth tɑːd͡zboht͡sʰaːt animate noun the state
hnehgiszhāth ṇehkit͡sʰʲhaːt animate noun the economy
phááhnthez pʰɑːn̥tʰɛd͡zʲ inanimate noun greeting
  • wuhko [wuhkʰɔ]; speech (inan.)

Example text

tiththaasztits xaphdáph taaszbohszaathxa dáphtusxahe dáwáhexahe uptuseh upeedihixahe sokhdihixahe zaakih exa
titʰʲtʰɑːt͡stit͡sʲ xapʰtɑp tɑːd͡zboht͡sʰaːtʰxa dɑptusʰxahɛ dɑwɒhɛxʲahe uptusɛh upɛːdihʲixʲahɛ sɔgdihʲixʲahɛ d͡zaːkih exʲa
send;pst.act.3sg.perf warleader state;gen elector;gen;pl great_flame;gen;pl farmer;dat;pl field;gen;pl stone-pile;gen;pl demand;pl his
'The Warleader of the State of the Electors of the Great Flame to the Farmers of the Fields of Stone-Piles has sent his demands'