Is Burunking

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Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal      m      n      ŋ
Plosive p    b t    d k    g
Fricative ɸ      s      ʃ      ʐ      ç      h     
Affricate t͡ʃ    d͡ʒ
Flap or tap      ɾ
Approximant      w      j
Lateral app.      l


Front Back
Close i u
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Vowels are considered to be short in all environments but may occur consecutively as in aanas 'sound' /ˈaːnas/.


There are only four diphthongs proper: ai /ai/, ei /ei/, oi /oi/ and ou /ou/, which may be considered sequences of vowels in measuring syllables. In addition, any vowel is permitted to occur following the 'glides' /w/ or /j/.


Is Burunking has a relatively restrictive syllabic structure, with a maximal form CGVVC, in which C represents a consonant, G a glide and V a vowel or diphthong. Of these, only the central vowel is essential but there are restrictions on the other elements also:

C1 G V1 V2 C2
  • optional
  • only b, g, h, x, l or n word-initially
  • any consonant word-medially
  • optional
  • only y or w/u
  • mandatory
  • any vowel
  • optional
  • only i, u or the preceding vowel repeated
  • optional
  • only s, sh, ng or z word-finally
  • only n or m before a consonant


The following Latin alphabet is used to write Is Burunking today.

Weak Strong
Graph IPA Graph IPA
b /b/ f /ɸ/
d /d/ t /t/
j /d͡ʒ/ ch /t͡ʃ/
g /g/ k /k/
p /p/
h /h/ s /s/
x /ç/ sh /ʃ/
n /n/ ng /ŋ/
m /m/
l /l/
r /ɾ/ z /ʐ/
Vowels & Diphthongs
a /a/ ai /ai/
e /ɛ/ ei /ei/
i /i/ oi /oi/
o /ɔ/ ou /ou/
u /u/