Difference between revisions of "Naquian"

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|creator = [[User:IlL|IlL]]
 
|creator = [[User:IlL|IlL]]
 
|name = {{PAGENAME}}
 
|name = {{PAGENAME}}
|nativename = ιν υέθαχας νάχυιμις
+
|nativename = in uētacaz nāquimiz
 
|pronunciation= /in weːtakas naːkʷimis/
 
|pronunciation= /in weːtakas naːkʷimis/
 
|setting=[[Verse:Tricin]]
 
|setting=[[Verse:Tricin]]
|region =  
+
|region = Naquiz, northern Txapoalli
 
|extinct = 500dd
 
|extinct = 500dd
 
|fam1=[[Quame languages|Quame]]
 
|fam1=[[Quame languages|Quame]]
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}}
 
}}
  
'''{{PAGENAME}}''' (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ ''NAH-kwee-ən'') is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Nāhuatl, Latin and Proto-Germanic flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.
+
'''{{PAGENAME}}''' (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ ''NAH-kwee-ən'') is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of Ancient [[Verse:Tricin/Naquiz|Naquiz]], or the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Proto-Germanic and Nahuatl flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.
 +
 
 +
It is related to [[Thensarian]], a Talman classical language.
  
 
==Todo==
 
==Todo==
Line 27: Line 29:
  
 
Remove a lot of r's but not all of them
 
Remove a lot of r's but not all of them
 
Cr Cl > Cl > laterals
 
  
 
Keep initial p/ph
 
Keep initial p/ph
  
Or: Nahuatl phonology but not phonotactics? e.g. initial ''zp, zt, zc, zqu, ztz, ztx, ztł'' but not ''zm, zn, zl''
+
Final -t > -tl
*''*sl'' > ztł-
 
  
*''pl tl kl'' > ''tl''
+
Assimilated mz, nz, lz, rz nouns
  
quateh = flower
+
Pseudo Hungarian descendant?
  
Final -t > -tl
+
ammitī, ammiuī, ... = to live
  
Assimilated mz, nz, lz, rz nouns
+
naxxamō hōndah ti mīnah = thirty days and nights (lit. thirty suns and nights)
  
 
==Phonology==
 
==Phonology==
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|-
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="" |Nasal
 
! colspan="2" style="" |Nasal
| '''μ''' /m/
+
| '''m''' /m/
| '''ν''' /n/
+
| '''n''' /n/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! rowspan="2" style=""  |Plosive
 
! rowspan="2" style=""  |Plosive
 
! |<small>tenuis</small>
 
! |<small>tenuis</small>
| '''φ''' /p/
+
| '''p''' /p/
| '''θ''' /t/
+
| '''t''' /t/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''χ''' /k/
+
| '''c''' /k/
| '''χυ''' /kʷ/
+
| '''qu''' /kʷ/
| '''ϙ''' /ʔ/
+
| '''h''' /ʔ/
| '''ϙυ''' /ʔʷ~wˀ/
+
| '''hu''' /ʔʷ~wˀ/
 
|-
 
|-
 
! |<small>ejective</small>
 
! |<small>ejective</small>
| '''π''' /pʼ/
+
| '''ph''' /pʼ/
| '''τ''' /tʼ/
+
| '''th''' /tʼ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''κ''' /kʼ/
+
| '''ch''' /kʼ/
| '''κυ''' /kʷʼ/
+
| '''quh''' /kʷʼ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! colspan="2" style="" |Fricative
 
! colspan="2" style="" |Fricative
 
|  
 
|  
| '''σ''' /s/
+
| '''z''' /s/
| '''ϧ''' /ɬ/
+
|  
| '''ϸ''' /ʃ/
+
| '''x''' /ʃ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! |<small>tenuis</small>
 
! |<small>tenuis</small>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''θσ''' /ts/
+
| '''tz''' /ts/
| '''θϧ''' /tɬ/
+
| '''tl''' /tɬ/
| '''θϸ''' /tʃ/
+
| '''tx''' /tʃ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! |<small>ejective</small>
 
! |<small>ejective</small>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''τσ''' /tsʼ/
+
| '''tzh''' /tsʼ/
| '''τϧ''' /tɬʼ/
+
| '''tłh''' /tɬʼ/
| '''τϸ''' /tʃʼ/
+
| '''txh''' /tʃʼ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! colspan="2" style="" |Approximant
 
! colspan="2" style="" |Approximant
 
|  
 
|  
| '''ρ''' /r/
+
| '''r''' /r/
| '''λ''' /l/
+
| '''l''' /l/
| '''ι''' /j/
+
| '''y''' /j/
 
|  
 
|  
| '''υ''' /w/
+
| '''u''' /w/
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
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*/t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d~θ/, /g~x/, /gʷ~xʷ/ between vowels.
 
*/t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d~θ/, /g~x/, /gʷ~xʷ/ between vowels.
 
====Phonotactics====
 
====Phonotactics====
A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel ''ι'' is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.
+
A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel ''i'' is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.
  
 
The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʃː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː tʃʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older rC clusters.
 
The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʃː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː tʃʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older rC clusters.
  
 
Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.
 
Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.
 +
 +
The following initial clusters are allowed:
 +
*'''tr tzr txr cr qur thr tzhr txhr chr quhr'''
 +
*'''zt ztz ztł ztx zc zqu'''
  
 
===Vowels===
 
===Vowels===
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|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Close
 
! style="" |Close
| '''ι''' /i/
+
| '''i''' /i/
| '''ί''' /iː/
+
| '''ī''' /iː/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''υ''' /u/
+
| '''u''' /u/
| '''ύ''' /uː/
+
| '''ū''' /uː/
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Mid
 
! style="" |Mid
| '''ε''' /ɛ/
+
| '''e''' /ɛ/
| '''έ''' /eː/
+
| '''ē''' /eː/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''ο''' /ɔ/
+
| '''o''' /ɔ/
| '''ό''' /oː/
+
| '''ō''' /oː/
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Open
 
! style="" |Open
 
|
 
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''α''' /a/
+
| '''a''' /a/
| '''ά''' /aː/
+
| '''ā''' /aː/
 
|
 
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|}
 
|}
  
Diphthongs: '''αι αυ η ω ει ου''' /ai au ea oa ei ou/
+
Diphthongs: '''ea oa ei ou''' /ea oa ei ou/
  
 
===Stress===
 
===Stress===
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==Morphology==
 
==Morphology==
 
===Nouns===
 
===Nouns===
TODO: declension
+
The definite article is ''in''.
  
 
Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).
 
Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).
  
 +
====r-stems====
 
flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh  
 
flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh  
 +
====i-stems====
 +
*Example, "name": ''ueliz'' (nom sg), ''uelīz'' (gen sg), ''uelīn'' (nom pl), ''uelīni'' (gen pl); ''uelitl'' (const sg); ''uelipeh'' (const pl)
 +
*Example, "song": ''cālli'' (nom sg), ''cāllia'' (gen sg), ''cāllih'' (nom pl), ''cāllīni'' (gen pl); ''cāllitl'' (const sg); ''cālipeh'' (const pl)
  
Example, "name": ''ueliz'' (nom sg), ''uelīz'' (gen sg), ''uelīn'' (nom pl), ''uelīni'' (gen pl); ''uelitl'' (const sg); ''uelipeh'' (const pl)
+
====u-stems====
 
 
 
"fire" (w-stem): ''ztūz'', ''ztūīz'', ''ztūīn'', ''ztūīni'', ''ztūitl'', ''ztūipeh''
 
"fire" (w-stem): ''ztūz'', ''ztūīz'', ''ztūīn'', ''ztūīni'', ''ztūitl'', ''ztūipeh''
 
+
===Adjectives===
Example, "song": ''cālli'' (nom sg), ''cāllia'' (gen sg), ''cāllih'' (nom pl), ''cāllīni'' (gen pl); ''cāllitl'' (const sg); ''cālipeh'' (const pl)
+
*quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz = moral
  
 
===Pronouns===
 
===Pronouns===
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*present subjunctive with no redup
 
*present subjunctive with no redup
 
*past subjunctive marked with ''-tē-''
 
*past subjunctive marked with ''-tē-''
 +
 +
Voices:
 +
*active
 +
*mediopassive
 
====Personal affixes====
 
====Personal affixes====
past tense: ''chēpātī, chēpāuai, chēpai, chēpaiz, chēpamir, chēpantir, chēpaquir, chēpauir''
+
=====Active=====
 +
past tense: ''cheppātī, cheppāzī, cheppē, cheppēz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir''
 +
 
 +
present tense: ''cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppā, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl''
 +
 
 +
present subjunctive: ''cheppān, cheppār, cheppā, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl''
 +
 
 +
past subjunctive: ''cheppātēn, cheppātēr, cheppātē, cheppātēz, cheppātēmeh, cheppātēnti, cheppātēqui, cheppātētl''
 +
 
 +
=====Mediopassive=====
 +
past tense: ''cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauē, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir''
 +
 
 +
present tense: ''cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāue, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl''
  
present tense: ''cechēpān, cechēpār, cechēpā, cechēpāz, cechēpāmeh, cechēpanti, cechēpaqui, cechēpatl''
+
present subjunctive: ''cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāue, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl''
  
present subjunctive: ''chēpān, chēpār, chēpā, chēpāz, chēpāmeh, chēpanti, chēpaqui, chēpātl''
+
past subjunctive: ''cheppāuetēn, cheppāuetēr, cheppāurtē, cheppāuetēz, cheppāuetēmeh, cheppāuetēnti, cheppāuetēqui, cheppāuetētl
  
past subjunctive: ''chēpātēn, chēpātēr, chēpātē, chēpātēz, chēpātēmeh, chēpātēnti, chēpātēqui, chēpātētl''
+
====Participles====
 +
*cheppācon, cheppācō, cheppācoz = active participle
 +
*cheppānin, cheppāni, cheppāniz = passive participle
  
 
===Derivational morphology===
 
===Derivational morphology===
 
*''-ācaz'' = nominalizer (~ Thens. ''-ācos'')
 
*''-ācaz'' = nominalizer (~ Thens. ''-ācos'')
 +
*''-ātl, -ālli, -ātliz'' = adjectivizer
 +
*''-imin, -imi, -imiz'' = adjectivizer
 +
*''-pan, -pā, -paz'' = nominalizer
 +
 
===Numerals===
 
===Numerals===
 
*''zeinuhin'' = 1st
 
*''zeinuhin'' = 1st
Line 239: Line 267:
 
==Syntax==
 
==Syntax==
 
===Constituent order===
 
===Constituent order===
OVS, postpositions, noun-gen, adj-noun.
+
SVO, postpositions, gen-noun / noun-gen, adj-noun.
  
 
===Subordinate clauses===
 
===Subordinate clauses===
 +
*''neh'' = complememtizer (related to ''-n'' in Thensarian relativizer ''rin'')
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==

Latest revision as of 02:51, 18 July 2019

Naquian/Lexicon
Naquian/Swadesh list
Naquian
in uētacaz nāquimiz
Pronunciation /in weːtakas naːkʷimis/
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Naquiz, northern Txapoalli
Extinct 500dd
Language family
Quame
  • Naquian
Early forms:
Old Naquian
  • Naquian
Writing system Naquian script
ISO 639-3 qnq

Naquian (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ NAH-kwee-ən) is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of Ancient Naquiz, or the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Proto-Germanic and Nahuatl flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.

It is related to Thensarian, a Talman classical language.

Todo

  • k kw q qw > tx qu c c

Remove a lot of r's but not all of them

Keep initial p/ph

Final -t > -tl

Assimilated mz, nz, lz, rz nouns

Pseudo Hungarian descendant?

ammitī, ammiuī, ... = to live

naxxamō hōndah ti mīnah = thirty days and nights (lit. thirty suns and nights)

Phonology

Consonants

Naquian changes the voiced series of Proto-Naquic into the aspirated series and loses the velar-uvular distinction in dorsal stops.

Naquian uses about 22 consonant phonemes. The null initial is pronounced [h]. Two vowels that come in hiatus with each other may be separated by [ɦ], except that after /i/ or /o/ one tends to use /j/ or /w/ instead.

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ [ŋ]
Plosive tenuis p /p/ t /t/ c /k/ qu /kʷ/ h /ʔ/ hu /ʔʷ~wˀ/
ejective ph /pʼ/ th /tʼ/ ch /kʼ/ quh /kʷʼ/
Fricative z /s/ x /ʃ/ [h~ɦ]
Affricate tenuis tz /ts/ tl /tɬ/ tx /tʃ/
ejective tzh /tsʼ/ tłh /tɬʼ/ txh /tʃʼ/
Approximant r /r/ l /l/ y /j/ u /w/
Notes
  • /t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d~θ/, /g~x/, /gʷ~xʷ/ between vowels.

Phonotactics

A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel i is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.

The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʃː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː tʃʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older rC clusters.

Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.

The following initial clusters are allowed:

  • tr tzr txr cr qur thr tzhr txhr chr quhr
  • zt ztz ztł ztx zc zqu

Vowels

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/ ī /iː/ u /u/ ū /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ ē /eː/ o /ɔ/ ō /oː/
Open a /a/ ā /aː/

Diphthongs: ea oa ei ou /ea oa ei ou/

Stress

Naquian has penultimate stress like Classical Nahuatl.

Orthography

Morphology

Nouns

The definite article is in.

Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).

r-stems

flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh

i-stems

  • Example, "name": ueliz (nom sg), uelīz (gen sg), uelīn (nom pl), uelīni (gen pl); uelitl (const sg); uelipeh (const pl)
  • Example, "song": cālli (nom sg), cāllia (gen sg), cāllih (nom pl), cāllīni (gen pl); cāllitl (const sg); cālipeh (const pl)

u-stems

"fire" (w-stem): ztūz, ztūīz, ztūīn, ztūīni, ztūitl, ztūipeh

Adjectives

  • quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz = moral

Pronouns

  • nā = I
  • uī = thou
  • txā = we (exc)
  • quon = we (inc)
  • zen = blotp

Verbs

Tenses:

  • past with separate conjugation
  • present w/ redup
  • present subjunctive with no redup
  • past subjunctive marked with -tē-

Voices:

  • active
  • mediopassive

Personal affixes

Active

past tense: cheppātī, cheppāzī, cheppē, cheppēz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir

present tense: cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppā, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl

present subjunctive: cheppān, cheppār, cheppā, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl

past subjunctive: cheppātēn, cheppātēr, cheppātē, cheppātēz, cheppātēmeh, cheppātēnti, cheppātēqui, cheppātētl

Mediopassive

past tense: cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauē, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir

present tense: cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāue, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl

present subjunctive: cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāue, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl

past subjunctive: cheppāuetēn, cheppāuetēr, cheppāurtē, cheppāuetēz, cheppāuetēmeh, cheppāuetēnti, cheppāuetēqui, cheppāuetētl

Participles

  • cheppācon, cheppācō, cheppācoz = active participle
  • cheppānin, cheppāni, cheppāniz = passive participle

Derivational morphology

  • -ācaz = nominalizer (~ Thens. -ācos)
  • -ātl, -ālli, -ātliz = adjectivizer
  • -imin, -imi, -imiz = adjectivizer
  • -pan, -pā, -paz = nominalizer

Numerals

  • zeinuhin = 1st
  • titzaron = 2nd
  • naxxaron = 3rd
  • laupharon = 4th

...

Syntax

Constituent order

SVO, postpositions, gen-noun / noun-gen, adj-noun.

Subordinate clauses

  • neh = complememtizer (related to -n in Thensarian relativizer rin)

See also