Difference between revisions of "Naquian"

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|pronunciation= /in weːtakas naːkʷimis/
 
|pronunciation= /in weːtakas naːkʷimis/
 
|setting=[[Verse:Tricin]]
 
|setting=[[Verse:Tricin]]
|region =  
+
|region = Naquiz, northern Txapoalli
 
|extinct = 500dd
 
|extinct = 500dd
 
|fam1=[[Quame languages|Quame]]
 
|fam1=[[Quame languages|Quame]]
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}}
 
}}
  
'''{{PAGENAME}}''' (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ ''NAH-kwee-ən'') is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Nāhuatl, Latin and Proto-Germanic flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.
+
'''{{PAGENAME}}''' (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ ''NAH-kwee-ən'') is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of Ancient [[Verse:Tricin/Naquiz|Naquiz]], or the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Proto-Germanic and Nahuatl flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.
  
 
It is related to [[Thensarian]], a Talman classical language.
 
It is related to [[Thensarian]], a Talman classical language.
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Remove a lot of r's but not all of them
 
Remove a lot of r's but not all of them
 
Cr Cl > Cl > laterals
 
  
 
Keep initial p/ph
 
Keep initial p/ph
 
Or: Nahuatl phonology but not phonotactics? e.g. initial ''zp, zt, zc, zqu, ztz, ztx, ztl'' but not ''zm, zn, zl'' > ''m, n, l''
 
*''*sl'' > ''ztl''-
 
 
*''pl tl kl'' > ''tl''
 
 
quateh = flower
 
  
 
Final -t > -tl
 
Final -t > -tl
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ammitī, ammiuī, ... = to live
 
ammitī, ammiuī, ... = to live
 +
 +
naxxamō hōndah ti mīnah = thirty days and nights (lit. thirty suns and nights)
  
 
==Phonology==
 
==Phonology==
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Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.
 
Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.
 +
 +
The following initial clusters are allowed:
 +
*'''tr tzr txr cr qur thr tzhr txhr chr quhr'''
 +
*'''zt ztz ztł ztx zc zqu'''
  
 
===Vowels===
 
===Vowels===
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===Nouns===
 
===Nouns===
 
The definite article is ''in''.
 
The definite article is ''in''.
 
TODO: declension
 
  
 
Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).
 
Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).
  
 +
====r-stems====
 
flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh  
 
flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh  
 +
====i-stems====
 +
*Example, "name": ''ueliz'' (nom sg), ''uelīz'' (gen sg), ''uelīn'' (nom pl), ''uelīni'' (gen pl); ''uelitl'' (const sg); ''uelipeh'' (const pl)
 +
*Example, "song": ''cālli'' (nom sg), ''cāllia'' (gen sg), ''cāllih'' (nom pl), ''cāllīni'' (gen pl); ''cāllitl'' (const sg); ''cālipeh'' (const pl)
  
Example, "name": ''ueliz'' (nom sg), ''uelīz'' (gen sg), ''uelīn'' (nom pl), ''uelīni'' (gen pl); ''uelitl'' (const sg); ''uelipeh'' (const pl)
+
====u-stems====
 
 
 
"fire" (w-stem): ''ztūz'', ''ztūīz'', ''ztūīn'', ''ztūīni'', ''ztūitl'', ''ztūipeh''
 
"fire" (w-stem): ''ztūz'', ''ztūīz'', ''ztūīn'', ''ztūīni'', ''ztūitl'', ''ztūipeh''
 
Example, "song": ''cālli'' (nom sg), ''cāllia'' (gen sg), ''cāllih'' (nom pl), ''cāllīni'' (gen pl); ''cāllitl'' (const sg); ''cālipeh'' (const pl)
 
 
 
===Adjectives===
 
===Adjectives===
 
*quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz = moral
 
*quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz = moral
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====Personal affixes====
 
====Personal affixes====
 
=====Active=====
 
=====Active=====
past tense: ''cheppātī, cheppāuī, cheppī, cheppīz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir''
+
past tense: ''cheppātī, cheppāzī, cheppē, cheppēz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir''
  
 
present tense: ''cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppā, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl''
 
present tense: ''cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppā, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl''
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past subjunctive: ''cheppātēn, cheppātēr, cheppātē, cheppātēz, cheppātēmeh, cheppātēnti, cheppātēqui, cheppātētl''
 
past subjunctive: ''cheppātēn, cheppātēr, cheppātē, cheppātēz, cheppātēmeh, cheppātēnti, cheppātēqui, cheppātētl''
 +
 
=====Mediopassive=====
 
=====Mediopassive=====
past tense: ''cheppāuetī, cheppāueuī, cheppauī, cheppauīz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetłir''
+
past tense: ''cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauē, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir''
  
present tense: ''cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāue, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuimeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl''
+
present tense: ''cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāue, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl''
  
present subjunctive: ''cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāue, cheppāuez, cheppāuimeh, cheppauinti, cheppauiqui, cheppāuitl''
+
present subjunctive: ''cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāue, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl''
  
past subjunctive: ''cheppāuetēn, cheppāurtēr, cheppāurtē, cheppāurtēz, cheppāurtēmeh, cheppāuetēnti, cheppāuetēqui, cheppāuetētł
+
past subjunctive: ''cheppāuetēn, cheppāuetēr, cheppāurtē, cheppāuetēz, cheppāuetēmeh, cheppāuetēnti, cheppāuetēqui, cheppāuetētl
  
 
====Participles====
 
====Participles====
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*''-ācaz'' = nominalizer (~ Thens. ''-ācos'')
 
*''-ācaz'' = nominalizer (~ Thens. ''-ācos'')
 
*''-ātl, -ālli, -ātliz'' = adjectivizer
 
*''-ātl, -ālli, -ātliz'' = adjectivizer
*''-imiz'' = adjectivizer
+
*''-imin, -imi, -imiz'' = adjectivizer
 
*''-pan, -pā, -paz'' = nominalizer
 
*''-pan, -pā, -paz'' = nominalizer
  
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==Syntax==
 
==Syntax==
 
===Constituent order===
 
===Constituent order===
OVS, postpositions, noun-gen, adj-noun.
+
SVO, postpositions, gen-noun / noun-gen, adj-noun.
  
 
===Subordinate clauses===
 
===Subordinate clauses===
 +
*''neh'' = complememtizer (related to ''-n'' in Thensarian relativizer ''rin'')
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==

Latest revision as of 02:51, 18 July 2019

Naquian/Lexicon
Naquian/Swadesh list
Naquian
in uētacaz nāquimiz
Pronunciation /in weːtakas naːkʷimis/
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Naquiz, northern Txapoalli
Extinct 500dd
Language family
Quame
  • Naquian
Early forms:
Old Naquian
  • Naquian
Writing system Naquian script
ISO 639-3 qnq

Naquian (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ NAH-kwee-ən) is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of Ancient Naquiz, or the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Proto-Germanic and Nahuatl flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.

It is related to Thensarian, a Talman classical language.

Todo

  • k kw q qw > tx qu c c

Remove a lot of r's but not all of them

Keep initial p/ph

Final -t > -tl

Assimilated mz, nz, lz, rz nouns

Pseudo Hungarian descendant?

ammitī, ammiuī, ... = to live

naxxamō hōndah ti mīnah = thirty days and nights (lit. thirty suns and nights)

Phonology

Consonants

Naquian changes the voiced series of Proto-Naquic into the aspirated series and loses the velar-uvular distinction in dorsal stops.

Naquian uses about 22 consonant phonemes. The null initial is pronounced [h]. Two vowels that come in hiatus with each other may be separated by [ɦ], except that after /i/ or /o/ one tends to use /j/ or /w/ instead.

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ [ŋ]
Plosive tenuis p /p/ t /t/ c /k/ qu /kʷ/ h /ʔ/ hu /ʔʷ~wˀ/
ejective ph /pʼ/ th /tʼ/ ch /kʼ/ quh /kʷʼ/
Fricative z /s/ x /ʃ/ [h~ɦ]
Affricate tenuis tz /ts/ tl /tɬ/ tx /tʃ/
ejective tzh /tsʼ/ tłh /tɬʼ/ txh /tʃʼ/
Approximant r /r/ l /l/ y /j/ u /w/
Notes
  • /t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d~θ/, /g~x/, /gʷ~xʷ/ between vowels.

Phonotactics

A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel i is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.

The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʃː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː tʃʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older rC clusters.

Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.

The following initial clusters are allowed:

  • tr tzr txr cr qur thr tzhr txhr chr quhr
  • zt ztz ztł ztx zc zqu

Vowels

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/ ī /iː/ u /u/ ū /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ ē /eː/ o /ɔ/ ō /oː/
Open a /a/ ā /aː/

Diphthongs: ea oa ei ou /ea oa ei ou/

Stress

Naquian has penultimate stress like Classical Nahuatl.

Orthography

Morphology

Nouns

The definite article is in.

Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).

r-stems

flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh

i-stems

  • Example, "name": ueliz (nom sg), uelīz (gen sg), uelīn (nom pl), uelīni (gen pl); uelitl (const sg); uelipeh (const pl)
  • Example, "song": cālli (nom sg), cāllia (gen sg), cāllih (nom pl), cāllīni (gen pl); cāllitl (const sg); cālipeh (const pl)

u-stems

"fire" (w-stem): ztūz, ztūīz, ztūīn, ztūīni, ztūitl, ztūipeh

Adjectives

  • quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz = moral

Pronouns

  • nā = I
  • uī = thou
  • txā = we (exc)
  • quon = we (inc)
  • zen = blotp

Verbs

Tenses:

  • past with separate conjugation
  • present w/ redup
  • present subjunctive with no redup
  • past subjunctive marked with -tē-

Voices:

  • active
  • mediopassive

Personal affixes

Active

past tense: cheppātī, cheppāzī, cheppē, cheppēz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir

present tense: cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppā, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl

present subjunctive: cheppān, cheppār, cheppā, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl

past subjunctive: cheppātēn, cheppātēr, cheppātē, cheppātēz, cheppātēmeh, cheppātēnti, cheppātēqui, cheppātētl

Mediopassive

past tense: cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauē, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir

present tense: cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāue, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl

present subjunctive: cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāue, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl

past subjunctive: cheppāuetēn, cheppāuetēr, cheppāurtē, cheppāuetēz, cheppāuetēmeh, cheppāuetēnti, cheppāuetēqui, cheppāuetētl

Participles

  • cheppācon, cheppācō, cheppācoz = active participle
  • cheppānin, cheppāni, cheppāniz = passive participle

Derivational morphology

  • -ācaz = nominalizer (~ Thens. -ācos)
  • -ātl, -ālli, -ātliz = adjectivizer
  • -imin, -imi, -imiz = adjectivizer
  • -pan, -pā, -paz = nominalizer

Numerals

  • zeinuhin = 1st
  • titzaron = 2nd
  • naxxaron = 3rd
  • laupharon = 4th

...

Syntax

Constituent order

SVO, postpositions, gen-noun / noun-gen, adj-noun.

Subordinate clauses

  • neh = complememtizer (related to -n in Thensarian relativizer rin)

See also