Difference between revisions of "Naquian"

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'''{{PAGENAME}}''' (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ ''NAH-kwee-ən'') is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of Ancient [[Verse:Tricin/Naquiz|Naquiz]], or the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Proto-Germanic and Nahuatl flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.
 
'''{{PAGENAME}}''' (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ ''NAH-kwee-ən'') is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of Ancient [[Verse:Tricin/Naquiz|Naquiz]], or the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Proto-Germanic and Nahuatl flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.
 
It is related to [[Thensarian]], a Talman classical language.
 
  
 
==Todo==
 
==Todo==
Line 189: Line 187:
 
|}
 
|}
  
Diphthongs: '''ea oa ei ou''' /ea oa ei ou/
+
Diphthongs: '''ai au ei ou''' /ai au ei ou/
 +
 
 +
Nasal vowels: '''ą ę į ǫ'''
  
 
===Stress===
 
===Stress===
Line 197: Line 197:
  
 
==Morphology==
 
==Morphology==
===Nouns===
+
===Declension===
The definite article is ''in''.
+
Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and three cases (nominative, dative, genitive). Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number and case.
  
Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).
+
Both nouns and adjectives have '''strong''' and '''weak''' forms. Strong forms serve as the first case-marked element of a noun phrase marked for case, and all elements after it are weak:
 +
*'a pen': pen-S
 +
*'the pen': the-S pen-W
 +
*'a good pen': good-S pen-W
 +
*'the good pen': the-S good-W pen-W
 +
 
 +
The definite article ''in'' only has strong forms.
 +
 
 +
Genitive phrases of the form 'a/the X's Y, the Y of a/the X' can be formed in two ways:
 +
*when X is indefinite: either "X-S.GEN the-S Y-W" or "X-S.GEN Y-W"
 +
*when X is definite: either "the-S.GEN X-W.GEN the-S Y-W" or "the-S X-W Y-W" (more archaic),
 +
where the second definite article and Y are marked with the appropriate case.
 +
 
 +
For example:
 +
:'''''nia cāllin huactzōnitl'''''
 +
:DEF.SG.F.GEN.S song-SG.GEN.W anatomy-SG.NOM.W
 +
:'The Anatomy of Song' (title of a book by Etsoj Jopah)
 +
but the same meaning can be expressed with ''nia cāllin in huactzōnitl''.
 +
 
 +
===Declension paradigms===
 +
====o-stems====
 +
Masculine:
 +
*indef. ''mārǫ, mārīz''
 +
 
 +
*def. ''in mārotl, in mārīz''
 +
*const. ''mārotl, mārīz''
 +
Neuter:
 +
*indef. ''arīłłoz, arīłłų''
 +
*def. ''in arīłłotl, in ariłłouh''
 +
*const. ''arīłłotl, ariłłouh''
 +
 
 +
====a-stems====
 +
''tehtaz'' = child
 +
*indef. tehtaz, tehtin
 +
*def. in tehtatl, in tehtauh
  
 
====r-stems====
 
====r-stems====
flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh
+
flower (r-stem):  
 +
*indef. quatār, quatarin
 +
*def. in quataritl, in quatariuh
 
====i-stems====
 
====i-stems====
*Example, "name": ''ueliz'' (nom sg), ''uelīz'' (gen sg), ''uelīn'' (nom pl), ''uelīni'' (gen pl); ''uelitl'' (const sg); ''uelipeh'' (const pl)
+
*Example, "name": ''ueliz'', ''uelīn''; ''in uelitl'', ''in ueliuh''
*Example, "song": ''cālli'' (nom sg), ''cāllia'' (gen sg), ''cāllih'' (nom pl), ''cāllīni'' (gen pl); ''cāllitl'' (const sg); ''cālipeh'' (const pl)
+
*Example, "song": ''cālli'' (indef sg), ''cāllir'' (indef pl); ''in cāllitl'' (def sg) ''in cāliuh'' (def pl)
  
 
====u-stems====
 
====u-stems====
"fire" (w-stem): ''ztūz'', ''ztūīz'', ''ztūīn'', ''ztūīni'', ''ztūitl'', ''ztūipeh''
+
"fire" (w-stem): ''ztūz'', ''ztūīz'', ''ztūīn'', ''ztūīni'', ''ztūitl'', ''ztūh''
===Adjectives===
+
====tl-nouns====
*quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz = moral
+
Strong decl:
 +
*sg: quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz
 +
*pl: quarātlīz, quarātlir, quarātlįz
 +
Weak decl:
 +
*sg: quarātotl, quarātotl, quarātotl
 +
*pl: quarātōuh, quarātīuh, quarātōuh
  
 
===Pronouns===
 
===Pronouns===
 
*nā = I
 
*nā = I
*= thou
+
*uīr = thou
 
*txā = we (exc)
 
*txā = we (exc)
 
*quon = we (inc)
 
*quon = we (inc)
 
*zen = blotp
 
*zen = blotp
 +
 
===Verbs===
 
===Verbs===
 
Tenses:
 
Tenses:
Line 231: Line 273:
 
====Personal affixes====
 
====Personal affixes====
 
=====Active=====
 
=====Active=====
past tense: ''cheppātī, cheppāzī, cheppē, cheppēz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir''
+
past tense: ''cheppātī, cheppāuī, cheppǫ, cheppōz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir''
  
present tense: ''cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppā, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl''
+
present tense: ''cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppą, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl''
  
present subjunctive: ''cheppān, cheppār, cheppā, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl''
+
present subjunctive: ''cheppān, cheppār, cheppą, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl''
  
past subjunctive: ''cheppātēn, cheppātēr, cheppātē, cheppātēz, cheppātēmeh, cheppātēnti, cheppātēqui, cheppātētl''
+
past subjunctive: ''cheppānēn, cheppānēr, cheppānę, cheppānēz, cheppānēmeh, cheppānēnti, cheppānēqui, cheppānētl''
  
 
=====Mediopassive=====
 
=====Mediopassive=====
past tense: ''cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauē, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir''
+
past tense: ''cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauę, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir''
  
present tense: ''cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāue, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl''
+
present tense: ''cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāuę, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl''
  
present subjunctive: ''cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāue, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl''
+
present subjunctive: ''cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāuę, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl''
  
past subjunctive: ''cheppāuetēn, cheppāuetēr, cheppāurtē, cheppāuetēz, cheppāuetēmeh, cheppāuetēnti, cheppāuetēqui, cheppāuetētl
+
past subjunctive: ''cheppāuenēn, cheppāuenēr, cheppāuenę, cheppāuenēz, cheppāuenēmeh, cheppāuenēnti, cheppāuenēqui, cheppāuenētl
  
 
====Participles====
 
====Participles====
*cheppācon, cheppācō, cheppācoz = active participle
+
*cheppāncǫ, cheppaicō, cheppāzcoz = active participle
*cheppānin, cheppāni, cheppāniz = passive participle
+
*cheppānį, cheppānī, cheppāniz = passive participle
  
 
===Derivational morphology===
 
===Derivational morphology===
*''-ācaz'' = nominalizer (~ Thens. ''-ācos'')
+
*''-caz'' = nominalizer (~ PTal ''*-ākos'')
 
*''-ātl, -ālli, -ātliz'' = adjectivizer
 
*''-ātl, -ālli, -ātliz'' = adjectivizer
*''-imin, -imi, -imiz'' = adjectivizer
+
*''-imį, -imi, -imiz'' = adjectivizer
*''-pan, -pā, -paz'' = nominalizer
+
*''-, -pā, -paz'' = nominalizer
  
 
===Numerals===
 
===Numerals===
*''zeinuhin'' = 1st
+
*''zeinuhį'' = 1st
*''titzaron'' = 2nd
+
*''titzarą'' = 2nd
*''naxxaron'' = 3rd
+
*''naxxarą'' = 3rd
*''laupharon'' = 4th
+
*''laupharą'' = 4th
 
...
 
...
  
 
==Syntax==
 
==Syntax==
 
===Constituent order===
 
===Constituent order===
SVO, postpositions, gen-noun / noun-gen, adj-noun.
+
SVO, postpositions, gen-noun, adj-noun, noun-rel.
  
 
===Subordinate clauses===
 
===Subordinate clauses===
*''neh'' = complememtizer (related to ''-n'' in Thensarian relativizer ''rin'')
+
*''neh'' = complementizer (related to ''-n'' in Thensarian relativizer ''rin'')
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==

Latest revision as of 19:44, 28 December 2019

Naquian/Lexicon
Naquian/Swadesh list
Naquian
in uētacaz nāquimiz
Pronunciation /in weːtakas naːkʷimis/
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Naquiz, northern Txapoalli
Extinct 500dd
Language family
Quame
  • Naquian
Early forms:
Old Naquian
  • Naquian
Writing system Naquian script
ISO 639-3 qnq

Naquian (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ NAH-kwee-ən) is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of Ancient Naquiz, or the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Proto-Germanic and Nahuatl flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.

Todo

  • k kw q qw > tx qu c c

Remove a lot of r's but not all of them

Keep initial p/ph

Final -t > -tl

Assimilated mz, nz, lz, rz nouns

Pseudo Hungarian descendant?

ammitī, ammiuī, ... = to live

naxxamō hōndah ti mīnah = thirty days and nights (lit. thirty suns and nights)

Phonology

Consonants

Naquian changes the voiced series of Proto-Naquic into the aspirated series and loses the velar-uvular distinction in dorsal stops.

Naquian uses about 22 consonant phonemes. The null initial is pronounced [h]. Two vowels that come in hiatus with each other may be separated by [ɦ], except that after /i/ or /o/ one tends to use /j/ or /w/ instead.

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ [ŋ]
Plosive tenuis p /p/ t /t/ c /k/ qu /kʷ/ h /ʔ/ hu /ʔʷ~wˀ/
ejective ph /pʼ/ th /tʼ/ ch /kʼ/ quh /kʷʼ/
Fricative z /s/ x /ʃ/ [h~ɦ]
Affricate tenuis tz /ts/ tl /tɬ/ tx /tʃ/
ejective tzh /tsʼ/ tłh /tɬʼ/ txh /tʃʼ/
Approximant r /r/ l /l/ y /j/ u /w/
Notes
  • /t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d~θ/, /g~x/, /gʷ~xʷ/ between vowels.

Phonotactics

A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel i is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.

The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʃː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː tʃʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older rC clusters.

Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.

The following initial clusters are allowed:

  • tr tzr txr cr qur thr tzhr txhr chr quhr
  • zt ztz ztł ztx zc zqu

Vowels

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/ ī /iː/ u /u/ ū /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ ē /eː/ o /ɔ/ ō /oː/
Open a /a/ ā /aː/

Diphthongs: ai au ei ou /ai au ei ou/

Nasal vowels: ą ę į ǫ

Stress

Naquian has penultimate stress like Classical Nahuatl.

Orthography

Morphology

Declension

Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and three cases (nominative, dative, genitive). Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number and case.

Both nouns and adjectives have strong and weak forms. Strong forms serve as the first case-marked element of a noun phrase marked for case, and all elements after it are weak:

  • 'a pen': pen-S
  • 'the pen': the-S pen-W
  • 'a good pen': good-S pen-W
  • 'the good pen': the-S good-W pen-W

The definite article in only has strong forms.

Genitive phrases of the form 'a/the X's Y, the Y of a/the X' can be formed in two ways:

  • when X is indefinite: either "X-S.GEN the-S Y-W" or "X-S.GEN Y-W"
  • when X is definite: either "the-S.GEN X-W.GEN the-S Y-W" or "the-S X-W Y-W" (more archaic),

where the second definite article and Y are marked with the appropriate case.

For example:

nia cāllin huactzōnitl
DEF.SG.F.GEN.S song-SG.GEN.W anatomy-SG.NOM.W
'The Anatomy of Song' (title of a book by Etsoj Jopah)

but the same meaning can be expressed with nia cāllin in huactzōnitl.

Declension paradigms

o-stems

Masculine:

  • indef. mārǫ, mārīz
  • def. in mārotl, in mārīz
  • const. mārotl, mārīz

Neuter:

  • indef. arīłłoz, arīłłų
  • def. in arīłłotl, in ariłłouh
  • const. arīłłotl, ariłłouh

a-stems

tehtaz = child

  • indef. tehtaz, tehtin
  • def. in tehtatl, in tehtauh

r-stems

flower (r-stem):

  • indef. quatār, quatarin
  • def. in quataritl, in quatariuh

i-stems

  • Example, "name": ueliz, uelīn; in uelitl, in ueliuh
  • Example, "song": cālli (indef sg), cāllir (indef pl); in cāllitl (def sg) in cāliuh (def pl)

u-stems

"fire" (w-stem): ztūz, ztūīz, ztūīn, ztūīni, ztūitl, ztūh

tl-nouns

Strong decl:

  • sg: quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz
  • pl: quarātlīz, quarātlir, quarātlįz

Weak decl:

  • sg: quarātotl, quarātotl, quarātotl
  • pl: quarātōuh, quarātīuh, quarātōuh

Pronouns

  • nā = I
  • uīr = thou
  • txā = we (exc)
  • quon = we (inc)
  • zen = blotp

Verbs

Tenses:

  • past with separate conjugation
  • present w/ redup
  • present subjunctive with no redup
  • past subjunctive marked with -tē-

Voices:

  • active
  • mediopassive

Personal affixes

Active

past tense: cheppātī, cheppāuī, cheppǫ, cheppōz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir

present tense: cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppą, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl

present subjunctive: cheppān, cheppār, cheppą, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl

past subjunctive: cheppānēn, cheppānēr, cheppānę, cheppānēz, cheppānēmeh, cheppānēnti, cheppānēqui, cheppānētl

Mediopassive

past tense: cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauę, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir

present tense: cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāuę, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl

present subjunctive: cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāuę, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl

past subjunctive: cheppāuenēn, cheppāuenēr, cheppāuenę, cheppāuenēz, cheppāuenēmeh, cheppāuenēnti, cheppāuenēqui, cheppāuenētl

Participles

  • cheppāncǫ, cheppaicō, cheppāzcoz = active participle
  • cheppānį, cheppānī, cheppāniz = passive participle

Derivational morphology

  • -caz = nominalizer (~ PTal *-ākos)
  • -ātl, -ālli, -ātliz = adjectivizer
  • -imį, -imi, -imiz = adjectivizer
  • -pą, -pā, -paz = nominalizer

Numerals

  • zeinuhį = 1st
  • titzarą = 2nd
  • naxxarą = 3rd
  • laupharą = 4th

...

Syntax

Constituent order

SVO, postpositions, gen-noun, adj-noun, noun-rel.

Subordinate clauses

  • neh = complementizer (related to -n in Thensarian relativizer rin)

See also