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|in uētacaz nāquimiz|
|Pronunciation||[in weːtakas naːkʷimis]|
|Native to||Naquiz, northern Txapoalli|
Naquian (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ NAH-kwee-ən) is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of Ancient Naquiz, or the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Proto-Germanic and Nahuatl flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.
- k kw q qw > tx qu c c
Remove a lot of r's but not all of them
Keep initial p/ph
Final -t > -tl
Assimilated mz, nz, lz, rz nouns
Pseudo Hungarian descendant?
ammitī, ammiuī, ... = to live
naxxamō hōndah ti mīnah = thirty days and nights (lit. thirty suns and nights)
Naquian changes the voiced series of Proto-Naquic into the aspirated series and loses the velar-uvular distinction in dorsal stops.
Naquian uses about 22 consonant phonemes. The null initial is pronounced [h]. Two vowels that come in hiatus with each other may be separated by [ɦ], except that after /i/ or /o/ one tends to use /j/ or /w/ instead.
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/||[ŋ]|
|Plosive||tenuis||p /p/||t /t/||c /k/||qu /kʷ/||h /ʔ/||hu /ʔʷ~wˀ/|
|ejective||ph /pʼ/||th /tʼ/||ch /kʼ/||quh /kʷʼ/|
|Fricative||z /s/||x /ʃ/||[h~ɦ]|
|Affricate||tenuis||tz /ts/||tl /tɬ/||tx /tʃ/|
|ejective||tzh /tsʼ/||tlh /tɬʼ/||txh /tʃʼ/|
|Approximant||r /r/||l /l/||y /j/||u /w/|
- /t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d~θ/, /g~x/, /gʷ~xʷ/ between vowels.
A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel i is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.
The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʃː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː tʃʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older rC clusters.
Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.
The following initial clusters are allowed:
- tr tzr txr cr qur thr tzhr txhr chr quhr
- zt ztz ztł ztx zc zqu
|Close||i /i/||ī /iː/||u /u/||ū /uː/|
|Mid||e /ɛ/||ē /eː/||o /ɔ/||ō /oː/|
|Open||a /a/||ā /aː/|
Diphthongs: ai au ei ou /ai au ei ou/
Nasal vowels: ą ę į ǫ
Naquian has penultimate stress like Classical Nahuatl.
Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and three cases (nominative, dative, genitive). Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number and case.
Both nouns and adjectives have strong and weak forms. Strong forms serve as the first case-marked element of a noun phrase marked for case, and all elements after it are weak:
- 'a pen': pen-S
- 'the pen': the-S pen-W
- 'a good pen': good-S pen-W
- 'the good pen': the-S good-W pen-W
The definite article in only has strong forms.
Genitive phrases of the form 'a/the X's Y, the Y of a/the X' can be formed in two ways:
- when X is indefinite: either "X-S.GEN the-S Y-W" or "X-S.GEN Y-W"
- when X is definite: either "the-S.GEN X-W.GEN the-S Y-W" or "the-S X-W Y-W" (more archaic),
where the second definite article and Y are marked with the appropriate case.
- nia cāllin huactzōnitl
- DEF.SG.F.GEN.S song-SG.GEN.W anatomy-SG.NOM.W
- 'The Anatomy of Song' (title of a book by Etsoj Jopah)
but the same meaning can be expressed with nia cāllin in huactzōnitl.
- indef. mārǫ, mārīz
- def. in mārotl, in mārīz
- const. mārotl, mārīz
- indef. arīłłoz, arīłłų
- def. in arīłłotl, in ariłłouh
- const. arīłłotl, ariłłouh
tehtaz = child
- indef. tehtaz, tehtin
- def. in tehtatl, in tehtauh
- indef. quatār, quatarin
- def. in quataritl, in quatariuh
- Example, "name": ueliz, uelīn; in uelitl, in ueliuh
- Example, "song": cālli (indef sg), cāllir (indef pl); in cāllitl (def sg) in cāliuh (def pl)
"fire" (w-stem): ztūz, ztūīz, ztūīn, ztūīni, ztūitl, ztūh
- sg: quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz
- pl: quarātlīz, quarātlir, quarātlįz
- sg: quarātotl, quarātotl, quarātotl
- pl: quarātōuh, quarātīuh, quarātōuh
- nā = I
- uīr = thou
- txā = we (exc)
- quon = we (inc)
- zen = blotp
- past with separate conjugation
- present w/ redup
- present subjunctive with no redup
- past subjunctive marked with -tē-
past tense: cheppātī, cheppāuī, cheppǫ, cheppōz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir
present tense: cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppą, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl
present subjunctive: cheppān, cheppār, cheppą, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl
past subjunctive: cheppānēn, cheppānēr, cheppānę, cheppānēz, cheppānēmeh, cheppānēnti, cheppānēqui, cheppānētl
past tense: cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauę, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir
present tense: cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāuę, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl
present subjunctive: cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāuę, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl
past subjunctive: cheppāuenēn, cheppāuenēr, cheppāuenę, cheppāuenēz, cheppāuenēmeh, cheppāuenēnti, cheppāuenēqui, cheppāuenētl
- cheppāncǫ, cheppaicō, cheppāzcoz = active participle
- cheppānį, cheppānī, cheppāniz = passive participle
- -caz = nominalizer (~ PTal *-ākos)
- -ātl, -ālli, -ātliz = adjectivizer
- -imį, -imi, -imiz = adjectivizer
- -pą, -pā, -paz = nominalizer
- zeinuhį = 1st
- titzarą = 2nd
- naxxarą = 3rd
- laupharą = 4th
SVO, postpositions, gen-noun, adj-noun, noun-rel.
- neh = complementizer (related to -n in Thensarian relativizer rin)