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Revision as of 19:13, 2 April 2019 by IlL (talk | contribs) (Personal affixes)
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Naquian/Swadesh list
ιν υέθαχας νάχυιμις
Pronunciation /in weːtakas naːkʷimis/
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Extinct 500dd
Language family
  • Naquian
Early forms:
Old Naquian
  • Naquian
Writing system Naquian script
ISO 639-3 qnq

Naquian (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ NAH-kwee-ən) is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Nāhuatl, Latin and Proto-Germanic flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.


  • k kw q qw > tx qu c c

Remove a lot of r's but not all of them

Cr Cl > Cl > laterals

Keep initial p/ph

Or: Nahuatl phonology but not phonotactics? e.g. initial zp, zt, zc, zqu, ztz, ztx, ztł but not zm, zn, zl

  • *sl > ztł-
  • pl tl kl > tl

quateh = flower

Final -t > -tl

Assimilated mz, nz, lz, rz nouns



Naquian changes the voiced series of Proto-Naquic into the aspirated series and loses the velar-uvular distinction in dorsal stops.

Naquian uses about 22 consonant phonemes. The null initial is pronounced [h]. Two vowels that come in hiatus with each other may be separated by [ɦ], except that after /i/ or /o/ one tends to use /j/ or /w/ instead.

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal μ /m/ ν /n/ [ŋ]
Plosive tenuis φ /p/ θ /t/ χ /k/ χυ /kʷ/ ϙ /ʔ/ ϙυ /ʔʷ~wˀ/
ejective π /pʼ/ τ /tʼ/ κ /kʼ/ κυ /kʷʼ/
Fricative σ /s/ ϧ /ɬ/ ϸ /ʃ/ [h~ɦ]
Affricate tenuis θσ /ts/ θϧ /tɬ/ θϸ /tʃ/
ejective τσ /tsʼ/ τϧ /tɬʼ/ τϸ /tʃʼ/
Approximant ρ /r/ λ /l/ ι /j/ υ /w/
  • /t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d~θ/, /g~x/, /gʷ~xʷ/ between vowels.


A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel ι is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.

The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʃː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː tʃʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older rC clusters.

Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.


Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close ι /i/ ί /iː/ υ /u/ ύ /uː/
Mid ε /ɛ/ έ /eː/ ο /ɔ/ ό /oː/
Open α /a/ ά /aː/

Diphthongs: αι αυ η ω ει ου /ai au ea oa ei ou/


Naquian has penultimate stress like Classical Nahuatl.




TODO: declension

Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).

flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh

Example, "name": ueliz (nom sg), uelīz (gen sg), uelīn (nom pl), uelīni (gen pl); uelitl (const sg); uelipeh (const pl)

"fire" (w-stem): ztūz, ztūīz, ztūīn, ztūīni, ztūitl, ztūipeh

Example, "song": cālli (nom sg), cāllia (gen sg), cāllih (nom pl), cāllīni (gen pl); cāllitl (const sg); cālipeh (const pl)


  • nā = I
  • uī = thou
  • txā = we (exc)
  • quon = we (inc)
  • zen = blotp



  • past with separate conjugation
  • present w/ redup
  • present subjunctive with no redup
  • past subjunctive marked with -tē-

Personal affixes

past tense: chēpātī, chēpāuai, chēpai, chēpaizi, chēpāmir, chēpantir, chēpaquir, chēpauir

present tense: cechēpān, cechēpār, cechēpā, cechēpāz, cechēpāmeh, cechēpanti, cechēpaqui, cechēpatl

present subjunctive: chēpān, chēpār, chēpā, chēpāz, chēpāmeh, chēpanti, chēpaqui, chēpātl

past subjunctive: chēpātēn, chēpātēr, chēpātē, chēpātēz, chēpātēmeh, chēpātēnti, chēpātēqui, chēpātētl

Derivational morphology

  • -ācaz = nominalizer (~ Thens. -ācos)


  • zeinuhin = 1st
  • titzaron = 2nd
  • naxxaron = 3rd
  • laupharon = 4th



Constituent order

OVS, postpositions, noun-gen, adj-noun.

Subordinate clauses

See also