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Revision as of 10:01, 7 July 2019

Old Anrish
i thumma n-Annoroch
᛬​ᛁ·ᛏᚢᛘᛘᚭ·ᚾ·ᚭᚾᚾᚢᚱᚳᚼᚭ᛬
Pronunciation /i ˈθumːã ˈnanːəˌrɔx
Created by Aireadna Emmrais
Setting Anrish Islands, off the west coast of Ireland
Language family
Early forms:
Pre-Anrish
  • Old Anrish
Official status
Official language in Anrish Islands
ISO 639-3 qrz

Old Anrish (i thumma n-Annoroch, Runic:᛬​ᛁ·ᛏᚢᛘᛘᚭ·ᚾ·ᚭᚾᚾᚢᚱᚳᚼᚭ᛬) is a Germanic language created by Aireadna Emmrais to be a medieval language spoken by the inhabitants of the Anrish Islands (ed Annoroíed, Runic:᛬​ᛁᚦ·ᚭᚾᚾᚢᚱᚳᛁᚦ᛬), an archipelago emerging from the Rockall Plateau.

The language, while ultimately Germanic, has been influenced by Celtic languages during an extended period of contact as the Anrish people migrated from the Gallo-Germanic confederation of Balgae to south Britain and later fled to Ireland at the wake of the Roman conquest. Many characteristic features of Brittonic and Goidelic languages were shared with the Old Anrish language.

Etymology

The name "Anrish" is derived simply from a combination of the Anrish endonym Annor + -ish in English. Similarly, Annoroíed is derived from a compound in Anrish of Annor + oíed, translating to "the Anrish islands".

Phonology

Consonants

Anrish consonant phonemes
Labial Coronal Dorsal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate t͡s
Fricative voiceless f s h[note 1]
voiced ð[note 1]
Tap r ʀ[note 2]
Approximant ɹ[note 2] j
Lateral fricative ɬ[note 3]
approx. l
  1. ^ a b Complimentary distribution; could be analyzed as same phoneme.
  2. ^ a b Semi-complimentary distribution; could be analyzed as cluster allophone of /r/.
  3. ^ Semi-complimentary distribution with /l/; could be analyzed as cluster of /hl/.

Vowels

Anrish vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Hiğ i ĭɤʊ̯ u
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Low a
Anrish diphthong phonemes
Ending
Front Central Back
Intitial /ä-/ ai̯ au̯
/ɛ-/ ɛi̯ ɛa̯ ɛo̯
/i-/ iɤ̯ iu̯
/ə̠-/ ɤi̯ ʌu̯
/u-/ ui̯ uʌ̯

Prosody

Stress

Intonation

Phonotactics

Syllable Structure: (C)(r)V(C)2
Where:

  • C = Consonant
  • r = /r/
  • V = Vowel
  1. An epenthetic short vowel must occur between /r/ and a following labial in the coda.
  2. Truely voiceless consonants may only occur in initial position.
  3. If there is a /r/ in initial position, only /p/, /t/, /f/ may precede it.
  4. /r/ is often realized as [ɾ].
  5. /a/ is often realized as [ä], [ɐ̞].
  6. /f/, /b/ often mutate into variations of /v/.
  7. /pr/, /tɬ/, /tr/, /fr/, /fs/, /fd/, /ŋg/, /ŋʀ/, /ŋd/, /kʀ/, /rf/, /ɬɡ/, /ɬd/, /mb/, /mr/, /md/, /nr/, /nd/, /nt͡s/, /ʀɡ/, /ɹd/, /ɹt͡s/, /ʀs/, /ʀt/, /ʀt͡s/ are the only clusters that may occupy the coda.
  8. The coda of the syllable is often medial, and is synonymous with such for the purposes of this article.
  9. /hl/, /ðl/ cannot occur and must mutate into /ɬ/.
  10. Laterals cannot occur near labials.

Orthography

Latin

The Latin alphabet as a part of the language was introduced by Irish & Norse Christian missionaries during the Middle ages. Because of the ill-suiting of Irish phonology & its Latin to the language, coupled with the reaction to attempted colonization, their influence was left minimal, with the Nordic innovations being much better suited, allowing the written language to appear "Germanic-esque" in a sense. Another major factor in the Romanization of Anrish was the later advent of the printing press, created exclusively for Latin-based writing systems.

Runic

The Runic alphabet has existed as a part of the language even prior to the migration to the archipelago by the Anrish, and was likely the first writing system to be adopted by the language.

Morphophonology

Morphology

An example of Anrish verb morphology; a stop-siğn with "azeð" (stop.2.act.npst.sjv) on it.

Nouns

Unlike many other Germanic languages, Anrish has a 3rd-dimensional declension system consisting of a singular/plural number-distinction, a definiteness-distinction, and a case-distinction of only common, dative, & genitive. The properties of noun-declension are then divided into the 3 categories of a-stem, u-stem, & i-stem.

Adjectives

Firstly, it must be noted that adverbs are not a separate part of speech from adjectives in Anrish. Most adjectives are sufficized with either ‹-a› or ‹-e›

Aside from certain independent adjectives, adjectives are often either considered to be a conjugation of its equivalent verb and vice-versa, with contrasting causative and predicative verb equivalents where the adjective is considered to be the attributive conjugate. Adjectives that are derived from nouns are often simply a mutation on the root plus the addition of an adjective-forming -éa suffix, and lack verbal & comparative forms because of this.

Comparatives are typically derived by the addition of an ‹-ra› or /-sa/ to a mutation on the final consonant, where /k/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /t/ will give ‹-r›, and /ð/, /f/, /l/, /ɬ/, /r/, /s/ will give /-s/. The exceptions to this being a lone ‹s›, which will give ‹-rra› /-ɹa/. An uncomparativized adjective ending in ‹-a› will undergo i-umlaut to the primary vowel, particularly in disyllabic words. An interesting feature of this law is that non-syllabic vowels are considered to be a consonant for the purposes of adding the comparative-former to, but revert to a syllabic state upon the addition of the consonant.

Verbs

With conjugation divided according to classes, an arbitraty weak/strong distinction, and a impersonal/semi-transitive distinction, Anrish has a 4th-dimensional conjugation system consisting of an active/passive voice-distinction, a 1/2/3 form-distinction, a non-past/past tense-distinction, and a subjunctive/indicative mood-distinction. Regarding the form-distinction in particular, the 3 forms correspond directly to a person-distinction, but are differentiated because of sound-changes merging archaic forms, as follows:

Singular Plural
1st person in form 1
ex form 1 form 3
2nd person form 2
3rd person form 2 form 3

Aside from normal conjugation, verbs may also be declined as verbal nouns, often restricted to singular number.

Syntax

Constituent order

The constituent order of words in any given sentence is typically object-verb-subject (OVS).

Noun phrase

All relative clauses and modifiers typically precede the noun as the head of an argument.

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Morphosyntactic aliğnment

It must be noted that the language is conventionally considered to be nominative-accusative in the sense that it's Centum and not ergative-absolutive. This is due to the fact that the language does not decline nouns according to aliğnment, rather thus placing the language more in the category of direct aliğnment; a situation similar to that of English.

Example texts

Times of the day in Anrish.

Swadesh list


No. English Anrish
0Anrishtenga Ænrza
1Imea
2you (singular)ú
3hey
4weór
5you (plural)yru
6theyyr
7this
8that
9herehané
10therejàné
11whofa
12what
13where
14when
15how
16notè
17allfær
18many
19some
20few
21other
22onenau
23twopár
24threehrír
25fourfeir
26fivefimt
27bigsóra
28longhlanga
29widejona
30thickbynue
31heavy
32smallpíue
33shortgnøta
34narrow
35thin
36womanænur
37man (adult male)caur
38human beingap
39childeoð
40wife
41husbandfæð
42mothermúr
43fatheræt
44animal
45fish
46birdjarp
47dog
48lousegnyt
49snake
50wormmøt
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaffelh
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meatgorút
64blooddør
65bonegnok
66fat
67eggneik
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73earhlús
74eye
75nosenæf
76mouthmúl
77tooth
78tongueteng
79fingernail
80foot
81legløu
82knee
83handgǫnt
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neckgaz
88backhrý
89breast
90heartgert
91liver
92drink
93eatetá
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breatheǽðí
100laughcioké
101seeheuá
102hear
103knowcuná
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108livenaré
109die
110kill
111fight
112huntjaué
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walkaðá
122come
123lielíá
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140sayjeuá
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freezepælí
146swell
147sunpeaur
148moonméo
149startonu
150waterlau
151rainras
152river
153lake
154sea
155salthalá
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173greenýe
174yellow
175white
176black
177nightéft
178day
179yearætí
180warm
181coldpala
182full
183newnyøa
184old
185goodfaurha
186badlæta
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wetokua
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203withjo
204andjo
205if
206because
207name

Leipzig-Jakarta list

Leipzig-Jakarta List
Rank Meaning Anrish
1 fire
2 nose næf
3 to go aðá
4 water lau
5 mouth múl
6 tongue teng
7 blood dør
8 bone gnok
9 2sg pronoun ú
10 root
11 to come (move)
12 breast
13 rain ras
14 1sg pronoun mea
15 name
16 louse/Phthirapteron gnyt
17 wing
18 flesh/meat gorút
19 arm/hand gǫnt
20 fly (insect)/Dipteron
21 niğt (time of day) éft
22 ear hlús
23 neck gaz
24 far (prep.)
25 to do/make
26 house/structure
27 stone/rock (singular object)
28 bitter
29 to say jeuá
30 tooth
31 hair
32 big sóra
33 one (number) nau
34 who? fa
35 3sg pronoun y
36 to hit/beat
37 leg/foot løu
38 horn
39 this (pron.)
40 fish
41 yesterday
42 to drink
43 black (color)
44 navel
45 to stand
46 to bite
47 back (body-part) hrý
48 wind
49 smoke (substance)
50 what?
51 child (kin term) eoð
52 egg neik
53 to give
54 new (adj.) nyøa
55 to burn (intr.)
56 not (adj./adv.) è
57 good faurha
58 to know cuná
59 knee
60 sand
61 to lauğf cioké
62 to hear
63 soil
64 leaf felh
65 red (color)
66 liver (body-part)
67 to hide
68 skin/hide
69 to suck
70 to carry
71 ant/Formid
72 heavy
73 to take
74 old
75 to eat etá
76 thiğ
77 thick bynue
78 long (spacially) hlanga
79 to blow
80 wood
81 to run
82 to fall
83 eye (body-part)
84 ash
85 tail
86 dog
87 to cry/weep
88 to tie
89 to see heuá
90 sweet
91 rope
92 shade/shadow
93 bird jarp
94 salt halá
95 small píue
96 wide jona
97 star tonu
97 in
99 hard (materially)
100 to crush/grind

Chemistry

Anrish-language Periodic table of the Elements
Group Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 H
lauepí
Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Fr
2 Be
Mg
Ca
Sr
Ba
Ra
3 Sc
Y
La
Ac
F1 Ce
Th
F2 Pr
Pa
F3 Nd
U
F4 Pm
Np
F5 Sm
Pu
F6 Eu
Am
F7 Gd
Cm
F8 Tb
Bk
F9 Dy
Cf
F10 Ho
Es
F11 Er
Fm
F12 Tm
Md
F13 Yb
No
F14 Lu
Lr
4 Ti
Zr
Hf
Rf
5 V
Nb
Ta
Db
6 Cr
Mo
W
Sg
7 Mn
Tc
Re
Bh
8 Fe
jará
Ru
Os
Hs
9 Co
Rh
Ir
Mt
10 Ni
Pd
Pt
Ds
11 Cu
eir
Ag
arhát
Au
hamet
Rg
12 Zn
Cd
Hg
Cn
13 B
Al
Ga
In
Tl
Nh
14 C
Si
Ge/Esi
Sn
Pb
Fl
15 N
P
As
Sb
Bi
Mc
16 O
S
Se
Te
Po
Lv
17 F
Cl
Br
I
At
Ts
18 He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og


Other resources