Difference between revisions of "Pulqer/Old Pulqer"

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(Possessive Pronouns)
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The demonstrative pronouns are ''khustu'' "this", ''khullu'' "that", which decline by gender, number and case according to the noun being described (''khustu, khusta, khusti, khuste'' etc.).
The demonstrative pronouns are ''khustu'' "this", ''khullu'' "that", which decline by gender, number and case according to the noun being described (''khustu, khusta, khusti, khuste'' etc.).
: '''First Conjugation: ''-aere'' verbs'''
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="text-align:center;"
! rowspan="2;" style="width: 100px;" | ''AMAERE'' <br /> "love"
! colspan="3;" | Indicative
! colspan="2;" | Subjunctive
! rowspan="2;" style="width: 120px;"  | Imperative
! style="width: 120px;" | Present
! style="width: 120px;" | Preterite
! style="width: 120px;" | Imperfect
! style="width: 120px;" | Present
! style="width: 120px;" | Imperfect
! 1st Sg <br /> 2nd Sg <br /> 3rd Sg <br /> 1st Pl <br /> 2nd Pl <br /> 3rd Pl
| ''aemu'' <br /> ''aema'' <br /> ''aematt'' <br /> ''amaemu'' <br /> ''amaetti'' <br /> ''aemant''
| ''amái'' <br /> ''amaesti'' <br /> ''amáutt'' <br /> ''amaemu'' <br /> ''amaesti'' <br /> ''amaerunt''
| ''amaepu'' <br /> ''amaepa'' <br /> ''amaepatt'' <br /> ''amapaemu'' <br /> ''amapaetti'' <br /> ''amaepant''
| ''aeme'' <br /> ''aeme'' <br /> ''aemett'' <br /> ''ameimu'' <br /> ''ameitti'' <br /> ''aement''
| ''amaere'' <br /> ''amaere'' <br /> ''amaerett'' <br /> ''amareimu'' <br /> ''amareitti'' <br /> ''amaerent''
| - <br /> ''aema'' <br /> - <br /> - <br /> ''amaette'' <br /> -
! Infinitive <br /> Gerund <br /> Past Participle
| colspan="6;" style="text-align:left;" | ''amaere'' <br /> ''amantu'' <br /> ''amaettu''
: '''Second Conjugation: ''iere'' verbs'''

Revision as of 19:48, 6 June 2019

Old Pulqer (Pul. Pulkaeri) is a Romance language spoken between approximately the 3rd and 10th centuries AD in the island of Jaques (Pul. Tśaqa).

Phonology and Orthography


Front Back
Close i(ː) u(ː)
Open-mid ɛ
Open a

The high vowels /i, u/ are long in stressed open syllables, when followed by a single consonant + vowel (e.g. muru /muːru/), and they are short in all other environments. The low vowels /a, ɛ/ are always short (their long variants are diphthongised to /ae, ei/).

The following diphthongs also occur: /ae, ai, au, ei, ui/.


Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Velar
Plain Labial
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
Plosive Aspirated ph, pp /pʰ/ th, tt /tʰ/ kh, kk /kʰ/ qh, qq /kʷʰ/
Unaspirated p /p/ t /t/ k /k/ q /kʷ/
Fricative f /ɸ/ s /s/ ś /ʃ/
Affricate ts /t͡s/ /t͡ʃ/
Trill r /r/
Lateral app. l /l/


  • The aspirated plosives are written ph, th etc word-initially and pp, tt etc medially.
  • Plosives and fricatives may not occur as geminates.
  • Liquids (/n, m, l, r/) may be geminated and are written double, e.g. nn, rr etc.



Nouns are marked for gender (masculine or feminine), number (singular or plural) and case (Nominative-Accusative or Genitive-Dative). These are marked on the noun with suffixes according to three declensions:

1. A-Stems (feminine)
filtśa "daughter"
Sing. Pl.
Nom-Acc. filtśa filtśe
Gen-Dat. filtśe filtśi

2. U-Stems (masculine)
mueru "wall"
Sing. Pl.
Nom-Acc. mueru mueri
Gen-Dat. mueri

3. E-Stems (masculine & feminine)
ifante "baby"
Sing. Pl.
Nom-Acc. ifante ifanti
Gen-Dat. ifanti ifantu


There are both definite (isu) and indefinite (unu) articles, declined in much the same way as nouns and agreeing in gender, number and case with the noun they qualify. Unu occurs only in the singular.

isu (definite article)
Masculine Feminine
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
Nom-Acc isu isi isa ise
Gen-Dat. isi ise isi


  • isu unne "the man"
  • isa filtśa te isi unni "the man's daughter"
  • ise khatte "the cats"
unu (indefinite article)
Masculine Feminine
Sing. Sing.
Nom-Acc unu una
Gen-Dat. uni une


  • unu unne "a man"
  • at une khaese "to a house"
  • una arpre "a tree"


Positive adjectives are declined in much the same way as nouns and agree in gender, number and case with the noun they qualify. There are two declensions for adjectives: the first takes u-stem endings for masculine nouns and a-stem endings with feminine nouns; the second follows the e-stem endings end does not differ for gender. Adjectives follow their head noun.

Masculine Feminine
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
Nom-Acc puenu pueni puena puene
Gen-Dat. pueni puene pueni


  • isu unne puenu "the good man"
  • isa tśaena mantśa "the big door"
  • aratsueni pueni "good reasons"
Sing. Pl.
Nom-Acc thriste thristi
Gen-Dat. thristi thristu


  • isu unne thriste "the sad man"
  • ise tśaene pirte "the green doors"
  • isa filtśa filiekke te une finne thristi "the happy daughter of a sad woman"


The comparative of regular adjectives may be formed with the adverbs mai "more" or mankku "less" followed by the positive adjective:

  • mai filiekke "happier"
  • mankku thriste "less sad"
  • mai nu "newer"

The object of comparison is introduced with qha, e.g. mai khaltu qha fuekku "hotter than fire".

The superlative is formed in the same way with the article preceding either the adverb (in predicates) or the noun (in attributes):

  • Martsu es isu mai filiekke "Martsu is the happiest"
  • isa nutte mai lunku "the longest night"
  • ise phersuene mai thristi te isu muntu "the saddest people in the world"

The following adjectives have irregular comparative forms:

Comparative Superlative
puenu "good" meltśuere isu meltśuere
maelu "bad" petśuere isu petśuere
tśuene "young" tśuntśuere isu tśuntśuere
mantśu "big" matśuere isu matśuere



Cardinals are placed before the noun they qualify and most are indeclinable. Only unu "one", tuu "two", or compounds ending in these numerals (e.g. pintiunu "21") are declined, agreeing in gender, number and case with the following noun. As with English, nouns following "one" are in the singular and all other nouns, including those following compounds of "one" are in the plural. Thus, when followed by a noun, a numeral like pintiunu will always be in the plural (e.g. pintiuni khaeni "21 dogs". Note that khentu "hundred" does not decline, but the plural -kkenti used in compounds has feminine forms -kkente (NApl) and -kkenti (GDpl), e.g. tukkenti unni "two hundred men", tukkente finne "two hundred women".


The ordinal numerals are adjectives that decline like any other and usually follow the noun they modify, agreeing in gender, case and number with that noun. Note that phriemu "first" means simply the first in a series when following the noun, but means "foremost, superior" when preceding (e.g. isu phriemu arike "the foremost king" vs. isu arike phriemu "the first man").

Cardinal Ordinal
1 unu, una phriemu
2 tuu, tua sekkuntu
3 thri thertsu
4 qattru qartu
5 tsinqe qintu
6 ses sestu
7 sette settimu
8 uttu uttaepu, uttimu
9 nuepe nunu, nuepimu
10 tekke tetsimu
11 untsi untsimu
12 tutsi tutsimu
13 thretsi thretsimu
14 qatuertsi qatuertsimu
15 qintsi qintsimu
16 sitsi sitsimu
17 tekkesette tekkesettimu
18 tekkuttu tekkuttimu
19 tekkenupe tekkenupimu
20 pinti pikkismu, pintimu
21 pintiunu pintiunimu
22 pintituu pintituimu
23 pintittri pintittrimu
30 thrinta thrintimu
40 qarainta qaraintimu
50 tsinqainta tsinqaintimu
60 sesainta sesaintimu
70 settainta settaintimu
80 uttainta uttaintimu
90 nunainta nunaintimu
100 khentu khentimu
101 khentu unu khentu phrimu
102 khentu tuu khentu sekkuntu
200 tukkenti tukkentimu
300 thrikkenti thrikkentimu
1000 mille millimu
2000 tumille tumillimu


Most fractions are identical to their ordinal form, e.g. unu thertsu "one third", qattru sesti "four sixths", thri qarti "three quarters". The word for "half" is metśu.

There are extended nominal forms indicating standard parts of a whole, meittatte "half", thertsaertśu "third", qartaertśu "quarter", tsintaertśu "fifth", sestaertśu "sixth".


Multiplicatives are formed from the cardinal numerals followed by the feminine noun pieke "time" (pl. pieki), e.g. una pieke "once", tua pieki "twice", thri pieki "thrice" etc.



Personal pronouns are marked for gender, number and case, though they do not follow the same Nom-Acc. and Gen-Dat. distinction as other parts of speech. Personal pronouns proper are only declined according to Nom., Acc. or Dat., agreeing with the referent.

1st 2nd 3rd (m / f) Reflexive
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
Nom. tśu nu thu pu isu / isa isi / ise -
Acc. mi thi si
Dat. nupi pupi isi / ise isi sipi

Possessive Pronouns

The possessive pronouns are really adjectives that decline much like any other, agreeing in gender, case and number with the noun they modify. They may be used pronominally as a predicate (e.g. {THIS} es thuu "this is yours", or adjectivally preceding a noun (e.g. thua matre "your mother"). There are different pronouns for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd persons in singular and plural, but no distinction is made between the gender of the 'subject'. The basic (masc. sing.) forms are meu "my", theu "thy, you (sg)", seu "his, her, its", nustru "our", pustru "your (pl.)" and isuru "their". For example, seu khaene "his dog" vs sua khatta "his cat" vs sue pakke "his cows" vs at sue khaese "to his house".

The full declension is shown below:

Masculine Feminine
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
1st Sg.
Nom-Acc meu mei mia mie
Gen-Dat. mei mie mei
2nd Sg.
Nom-Acc theu thei thua thue
Gen-Dat. thei thue thei
3rd Sg.
"his, her, its"
Nom-Acc seu sei sua sue
Gen-Dat. sei sue sei
1st Pl.
Nom-Acc nustru nustri nustra nustre
Gen-Dat. nustri nustre nustri
2nd Pl.
Nom-Acc pustru pustri pustra pustre
Gen-Dat. pustri pustre pustri
3rd Pl.
Nom-Acc isuru isuri isura isure
Gen-Dat. isuri isure isuri


The demonstrative pronouns are khustu "this", khullu "that", which decline by gender, number and case according to the noun being described (khustu, khusta, khusti, khuste etc.).


First Conjugation: -aere verbs
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Present Preterite Imperfect Present Imperfect
1st Sg
2nd Sg
3rd Sg
1st Pl
2nd Pl
3rd Pl
Past Participle

Second Conjugation: iere verbs


English Old Pulqer
before ante
to at
action attsune, f.
act (n.) attu, m.
act (v) aekre, aek-
other altru
love (v.) amaere, aem-
friend amiekka, f., amiekku, m.
year annu, m.
water aqqa, f.
tree arpre, f.
or autt
bath pantśu, m.
good, well (adv.) peine
arm prattsu, m.
good puenu
horse khapallu, m.
fall khatre, khaet-
dog khaene, m.
sing khantaere, khant-
song khantsune, f.
house (humble) khaesa, f; (elite) tuemu, m.
centre khenttru, m.
city tsuttaette, f.
start khumintsaere, khumints-
count khuntaere, khunt-
heart khure, m.
body khurpu, m.
believe khretre, khreit-
belief khretentsa, f.
with khun
of te
owe tipiere, tiep-
say tiekre, tiek-
lady tunna, f.
lord tunnu, m.
I tśu
mare eqqa, f.
be esre (irreg.)
and ett
speak faplaere, fapl-
make faekre, faek-
fact fattu, m.
happy filiekke
woman finna, f.
daughter filtśa, f.
son filtśu, m.
finish finiere, fien-
flower fluere, m.
fire fuekku, m.
shape furma, f.
have apiere (irreg.)
if ukk
today utśe
man unne, m.
already tśa
in in'
he ise
she isa
the isu, isa
work lapuere, m.
milk latte, m.
lake laekku', m.
language linqa, f.
light (n.) luekke, f.
success lukkru, m.
beast, monster lueppu, m.
big mantśu
more mai
inn maśune, f.
hand maenu, m.
mother mattre, f.
me me (acc.), mi (dat.)
less manku
recently muetu
wall mueru, m.
wife multśeire, f,
night nutte, f.
name nunne, m.
not nun
we, us nu
new nuevu
nothing nulla
father phattre, m.
skin phelle, f.
lose phertre, phert-
stone phettra, f.
hair phielu, m.
rain phrutśa, f.
door tśaena, f.
gate phurtta, f.
for phor
than qha
which qhaele
when qhantu
how much qhanttu
seek kheirre, kheir-
who khi
what khit
that khut
how khumu
reason ratsune, f.
blood sanqine, m.
know astsiere
write askripre, asckrip-
sign sintśu, m.
hope aspiraere, aspier-
above supre
late tharte
you sg: thu (nom.), the (acc.), thi (dat.); pl: pu
hold theniere, thein-
time themppu, m.
land therra, f.
fear thimre, thiem-
sad thriste
one unu
a, an unu, una
come peniere, pein-
wind pentu, m.
word perpu, m.
truth pirttaette, f.
true piru
see pitiere, piet-
live piepre, piep-
voice puekke, f.