Difference between revisions of "Quame languages"

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The '''Quame languages''' ([[Eevo]]: ''brits Cłem'', from ''*kʷēm-'', the reconstructed word for 1), also known as '''Naquo-Talmic''', are a language family in [[Verse:Tricin|Tricin]]. It is well-established that that [[Naquic languages|Naquic]] and [[Talmic languages|Talmic]] form a Naquo-Talmic family; the relationship of [[Sjowaázh]] to Naquo-Talmic is conjectured by some but not well-established.
+
The '''Quame languages''' ([[Eevo]]: ''brits Cłem'', from ''*kʷēm-'', the reconstructed word for 1), also known as '''Naquo-Talmic''', are a language family in [[Verse:Tricin|Tricin]]. It is well-established that that [[Naquic languages|Naquic]] and [[Talmic languages|Talmic]] form a Naquo-Talmic family; the relationship of [[Sowaár]] to Naquo-Talmic is conjectured by some but not well-established.
  
 
==Family tree==
 
==Family tree==
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   |label1=Proto-Quame
 
   |label1=Proto-Quame
 
   |1={{clade
 
   |1={{clade
       |label1=Proto-[[Talmic]]
+
       |label1=Roshtero-[[Talmic]]
 
       |1={{clade
 
       |1={{clade
             |label1=[[Thensarian]]  
+
             |label1=
 +
Talmic ([[Thensarian]])
 
             |1={{clade
 
             |1={{clade
 
                 |label1=[[Tigol]]  
 
                 |label1=[[Tigol]]  
 
                 |1={{clade
 
                 |1={{clade
                       |label1=West Tigolic
+
                       |label1=Anbiric
 
                       |1={{clade
 
                       |1={{clade
 +
                          |1=[[Anbirese]] (pseudo-Sino-Korean)
 +
                        }}
 +
                      |label2=Ciètic
 +
                      |2={{clade
 
                           |1=[[Ciètian]] (pseudo-Mandarin)
 
                           |1=[[Ciètian]] (pseudo-Mandarin)
                           |2=[[Anbirese]] (pseudo-Sino-Korean)
+
                           |2=[[Páuluòbeng]]
                          |3=[[Páuluòbeng]]
 
 
                         }}
 
                         }}
                       |label2=East Tigolic
+
                       |label3=Skellic
                       |2={{clade
+
                       |3={{clade
 
                           |1=[[Skellan]] (Hmooby Icelando-Welsh)
 
                           |1=[[Skellan]] (Hmooby Icelando-Welsh)
 
                           |2=[[Loðagese]]  
 
                           |2=[[Loðagese]]  
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             |1=[[Tizian]]
 
             |1=[[Tizian]]
 
             |2=[[Atzopic]]
 
             |2=[[Atzopic]]
             |3=[[Whetmer]]
+
             |3=[[Xaetjeon]]
 +
            |4=[[Whetmer]]
 
           }}
 
           }}
       |label3=
+
       |label3=[[Bonzic]]
       |3=[[Aewedanoan]]
+
       |3=[[Bonzic]]
 +
      |label4=
 +
      |4=[[Aewedanoan]]
 
     }}
 
     }}
 
}}
 
}}
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! rowspan="2" |Labial
 
! rowspan="2" |Labial
 
! rowspan="2" |Dental
 
! rowspan="2" |Dental
! rowspan="2" |Retroflex
+
! rowspan="2" |Alveolar
 
! rowspan="2" |Palatal
 
! rowspan="2" |Palatal
 
! colspan="2" |Velar
 
! colspan="2" |Velar
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! |<small>plain</small>
 
! |<small>plain</small>
 
| '''*p'''
 
| '''*p'''
 +
| '''*c'''
 
| '''*t'''
 
| '''*t'''
| '''*ṭ'''
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''*k'''
 
| '''*k'''
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! |<small>ejective</small>
 
! |<small>ejective</small>
 
| '''*pʼ'''
 
| '''*pʼ'''
 +
| '''*cʼ'''
 
| '''*tʼ'''
 
| '''*tʼ'''
| '''*ṭʼ'''
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''*kʼ'''
 
| '''*kʼ'''
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! |<small>voiced</small>
 
! |<small>voiced</small>
 
| '''*b'''
 
| '''*b'''
 +
| '''*z'''
 
| '''*d'''
 
| '''*d'''
| '''*ḍ'''
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''*g'''
 
| '''*g'''
Line 229: Line 236:
  
 
===Nominals===
 
===Nominals===
Nouns had:
+
Nouns and adjectives had:
* two genders: animate, inanimate.
+
* three genders: masculine, feminine, neuter
** There were also honorific forms which worked like a gender somewhat. The honorific turns into a feminine in [[Talmic languages|Talmic]], meanwhile animate and inanimate become masculine and neuter.
 
 
* two states: absolute and construct.  
 
* two states: absolute and construct.  
* three cases: direct, indirect, and genitive.
+
* three cases: nominative, accusative, and genitive.
* two numbers: singular and plural. There was also a third number, the collective, formed by reduplication of the first syllable.
+
** Some speculate that Proto-Quame originally had an intransitive-transitive alignment. The nominative and accusative may have originally been intransitive and transitive cases respectively, since stative verbs in the 3rd person singular have nominative endings, while eventive verbs in the 3rd person singular have endings similar to accusative endings.
 
+
* two numbers: singular and plural.  
Some nouns had plurals in a different ablaut grade.
+
** Some nouns had broken plurals formed by reduplicating of the first syllable or using a different ablaut grade. The broken plural used singular affixes.
  
 
Possible declensions:
 
Possible declensions:
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*Austronesian alignment, realized with various trigger verb prefixes.
 
*Austronesian alignment, realized with various trigger verb prefixes.
 
====Stative conjugation====
 
====Stative conjugation====
-, -woi, -ai, -aisi, -mer, -nter, -kʷer, -ber
+
-dei, -woi, -φm, -φi, -φs, -mer, -nter, -kʷer, -ber
  
 
====Active conjugation====
 
====Active conjugation====
 
-ni, -ri, -mi, -si, -ø, -mek, -nti, -kʷe, -ti
 
-ni, -ri, -mi, -si, -ø, -mek, -nti, -kʷe, -ti
  
==References==
+
==Derivations==
{{reflist}}
+
*''-tl-, -tlom'' = agent, instrument, participle
 +
*''-ā-'' = verbalizer from nouns
 +
*''-ye-, -i-'' = verbalizer from adjectives
 +
 
  
 
[[Category:Tricin]][[Category:Quame languages|*]][[Category:Proto-languages]]
 
[[Category:Tricin]][[Category:Quame languages|*]][[Category:Proto-languages]]

Latest revision as of 20:12, 10 August 2019

Quame languages/Lexicon

Quame languages/Swadesh list


Quame
Setting Tricin
Geographic
distribution:
Txapoalli, Bjeheond, Etalocin; today worldwide
Linguistic classification: One of Tricin's primary language families
Proto-language: Proto-Quame
Subdivisions:

The Quame languages (Eevo: brits Cłem, from *kʷēm-, the reconstructed word for 1), also known as Naquo-Talmic, are a language family in Tricin. It is well-established that that Naquic and Talmic form a Naquo-Talmic family; the relationship of Sowaár to Naquo-Talmic is conjectured by some but not well-established.

Family tree

Proto-Quame
Roshtero-Talmic
Talmic (Thensarian)
Tigol
Anbiric

Anbirese (pseudo-Sino-Korean)



Ciètic

Ciètian (pseudo-Mandarin)



Páuluòbeng



Skellic

Skellan (Hmooby Icelando-Welsh)



Loðagese



Vornian






Nurian




Qazhrian



Old Roshterian

Roshterian




Naquian

Tizian



Atzopic



Xaetjeon



Whetmer



Bonzic

Bonzic



Aewedanoan




Overview

Urheimat: Txapoalli

Phonology

Consonants

The following inventory of consonants is reconstructed for PQ and is now accepted by the majority of Trician scholars.

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal *m *n
Plosive plain *p *c *t *k *kʷ *q *qʷ
ejective *pʼ *cʼ *tʼ *kʼ *kʷʼ *qʼ *qʷʼ
voiced *b *z *d *g *gʷ *ɢʷ
Fricative *s *h
Resonant *l *r *y /j/ *w

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close *i *ī *u *ū
Mid *e *ē *o *ō
Open *a *ā

Suprasegmentals

Stress was phonemic.

Phonotactics

all open syllables like polynesian?

Rules:

  • Grassmann's Law operates in many descendants.

Grammar

Typology

The basic word order was V2, modifier-modified.

Proto-Quame roots were monosyllabic and obeyed the sonority hierarchy.

Pronouns

Nom/Acc

X = some laryngeal

V = some vowel

  • nā = I (Tal./Nqu. )
  • wey(-r) = thou (Thn. veir, Nqu. )
  • kā(-mi) = we (exc) (Thn. cām, Nqu. txā)
  • gwon(-mi-ti) = we (inc) (Thn. gonti, Nqu. quon)
  • sen(-kwi) = blotp (Thn. senci, Nqu. sen)

Genitive

  • χ, nχ = my (Thn. -na, -a; Nqu. a; Sjo. kha)
  • something with r = thy; (Thn. -r; Nqu. ir)
  • smo = our (exc) (Thn.-smo, Nqu. zmo)
  • sgwiX = our (inc) (Thn. -swē, Nqu. zquī)
  • dkoX (?) = blotp's (Thn. -scō, Nqu. tłō? using dk > tł)

Demonstratives

  • m- = proximal, this, here
  • kw- = distal, that, there
  • ta- = what, who
    • t(a)Xs = what (Thn. tās)

Ablaut

Much like in PIE, PQ had an ablaut system where roots (usually of 2 or 3 consonants) were inflected in different ablaut grades.

Functions of ablaut

  • Noun inflections
  • Verb inflections
  • Verb voices
  • Deriving nouns and verbs

Ablaut grades

  • o-grade: present tense
  • a-grade: derived nouns
  • e-grade: preterite tense
  • -grade: derivations
  • lengthened grades: various verb aspects/voices

Nominals

Nouns and adjectives had:

  • three genders: masculine, feminine, neuter
  • two states: absolute and construct.
  • three cases: nominative, accusative, and genitive.
    • Some speculate that Proto-Quame originally had an intransitive-transitive alignment. The nominative and accusative may have originally been intransitive and transitive cases respectively, since stative verbs in the 3rd person singular have nominative endings, while eventive verbs in the 3rd person singular have endings similar to accusative endings.
  • two numbers: singular and plural.
    • Some nouns had broken plurals formed by reduplicating of the first syllable or using a different ablaut grade. The broken plural used singular affixes.

Possible declensions:

  • a-stems
  • x̌-stems
  • i-stems
  • u-stems
  • consonant stems
  • heteroclitic stems: r/s

Animate nouns

a-stems
δoerom 'bird'
Singulative Plurative
Nominative Absolute δoerom '
Construct δoeroes δoerot
Genitive Absolute ' δoerōni
Construct '-' '-'
Accusative Absolute '-' δoerobim
Construct δoeroes δoerot
Consonant stems
māram 'tree'
Singulative Plurative
Nominative Absolute māram '
Construct mārīs mārae
Genitive Absolute ' mārini
Construct māria '-'
Accusative Absolute māribos mārebim
Construct mārīs mārae
i-stems
u-stems
x̌-stems (honorific stems)
r/s-stems

Inanimate nouns

Heteroclitic stems
a-stems
δoerom 'bird'
Singulative Plurative
Nominative Absolute δoerom δeδoerom
Construct δoeroes δoerot
Genitive Absolute δeδoerot δoerōni
Construct '-' '-'
Accusative Absolute '-' δoerobim
Construct δoeroes δoerot
Consonant stems

jénaqws 'water'

i-stems

welís 'name'

u-stems
r/s-stems

Verbs

Verbs were conjugated for subject, object, aspect, and mood (but not for voice).

  • Subject agreement: For each pronoun, and gender in 3rd person
  • Aspects: present, preterite, stative
  • Moods: indicative, subjunctive, jussive, imperative
  • Austronesian alignment, realized with various trigger verb prefixes.

Stative conjugation

-dei, -woi, -φm, -φi, -φs, -mer, -nter, -kʷer, -ber

Active conjugation

-ni, -ri, -mi, -si, -ø, -mek, -nti, -kʷe, -ti

Derivations

  • -tl-, -tlom = agent, instrument, participle
  • -ā- = verbalizer from nouns
  • -ye-, -i- = verbalizer from adjectives