Quame languages

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Quame languages/Lexicon

Quame languages/Swadesh list


Quame
Setting Tricin
Geographic
distribution:
Txapoalli, Bjeheond, Etalocin; today worldwide
Linguistic classification: One of Tricin's primary language families
Proto-language: Proto-Quame
Subdivisions:

The Quame languages (Eevo: brits Cłem, from *kʷēm-, the reconstructed word for 1), also known as Naquo-Talmic, are a language family in Tricin. It is well-established that that Naquic and Talmic form a Naquo-Talmic family; the relationship of Sjowaázh to Naquo-Talmic is conjectured by some but not well-established.

Family tree

Proto-Talmic
Thensarian
Tigol
West Tigolic

Ciètian (pseudo-Mandarin)



Anbirese (pseudo-Sino-Korean)



Páuluòbeng



Central Tigolic

Skellan (Hmooby Icelando-Welsh)



Loðagese



Vornian






Standard Nurian



Nuro-Thai




Qazhrian



Old Roshterian

Roshterian





Overview

Urheimat: Txapoalli

Phonology

Consonants

The following inventory of consonants is reconstructed for PQ and is now accepted by the majority of Trician scholars.

Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal *m *n
Plosive plain *p *t *ṭ *k *kʷ *q *qʷ
ejective *pʼ *tʼ *ṭʼ *kʼ *kʷʼ *qʼ *qʷʼ
voiced *b *d *ḍ *g *gʷ *ɢʷ
Fricative *s *h
Resonant *l *r *y /j/ *w

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close *i *ī *u *ū
Mid *e *ē *o *ō
Open *a *ā

Suprasegmentals

Stress was phonemic.

Phonotactics

all open syllables like polynesian?

Rules:

  • Grassmann's Law operates in many descendants.

Grammar

Typology

The basic word order was V2, modifier-modified.

Pronouns

Nom/Acc

X = some laryngeal

V = some vowel

  • nā = I (Tal./Nqu. )
  • wey(-r) = thou (Thn. veir, Nqu. )
  • kā(-mi) = we (exc) (Thn. cām, Nqu. txā)
  • gwon(-mi-ti) = we (inc) (Thn. gonti, Nqu. quon)
  • sen(-kwi) = blotp (Thn. senci, Nqu. sen)

Genitive

  • χ, nχ = my (Thn. -na, -a; Nqu. a; Sjo. kha)
  • something with r = thy; (Thn. -r; Nqu. ir)
  • smo = our (exc) (Thn.-smo, Nqu. zmo)
  • sgwiX = our (inc) (Thn. -swē, Nqu. zquī)
  • dkoX (?) = blotp's (Thn. -scō, Nqu. tłō? using dk > tł)

Demonstratives

  • m- = proximal, this, here
  • kw- = distal, that, there
  • ta- = what, who
    • t(a)Xs = what (Thn. tās)

Ablaut

Much like in PIE, PQ had an ablaut system where roots (usually of 2 or 3 consonants) were inflected in different ablaut grades.

Functions of ablaut

  • Noun inflections
  • Verb inflections
  • Verb voices
  • Deriving nouns and verbs

Ablaut grades

  • o-grade: present tense
  • a-grade: derived nouns
  • e-grade: preterite tense
  • -grade: derivations
  • lengthened grades: various verb aspects/voices

Nominals

Nouns had:

  • two genders: animate, inanimate.
    • There were also honorific forms which worked like a gender somewhat. The honorific turns into a feminine in Talmic, meanwhile animate and inanimate become masculine and neuter.
  • two states: absolute and construct.
  • three cases: direct, indirect, and genitive.
  • two numbers: singular and plural. There was also a third number, the collective, formed by reduplication of the first syllable.

Some nouns had plurals in a different ablaut grade.

Possible declensions:

  • a-stems
  • x̌-stems
  • i-stems
  • u-stems
  • consonant stems
  • heteroclitic stems: r/s

Animate nouns

a-stems
δoerom 'bird'
Singulative Plurative
Nominative Absolute δoerom '
Construct δoeroes δoerot
Genitive Absolute ' δoerōni
Construct '-' '-'
Accusative Absolute '-' δoerobim
Construct δoeroes δoerot
Consonant stems
māram 'tree'
Singulative Plurative
Nominative Absolute māram '
Construct mārīs mārae
Genitive Absolute ' mārini
Construct māria '-'
Accusative Absolute māribos mārebim
Construct mārīs mārae
i-stems
u-stems
x̌-stems (honorific stems)
r/s-stems

Inanimate nouns

Heteroclitic stems
a-stems
δoerom 'bird'
Singulative Plurative
Nominative Absolute δoerom δeδoerom
Construct δoeroes δoerot
Genitive Absolute δeδoerot δoerōni
Construct '-' '-'
Accusative Absolute '-' δoerobim
Construct δoeroes δoerot
Consonant stems

jénaqws 'water'

i-stems

welís 'name'

u-stems
r/s-stems

Verbs

Verbs were conjugated for subject, object, aspect, and mood (but not for voice).

  • Subject agreement: For each pronoun, and gender in 3rd person
  • Aspects: present, preterite, stative
  • Moods: indicative, subjunctive, jussive, imperative
  • Austronesian alignment, realized with various trigger verb prefixes.

Stative conjugation

-dī, -woi, -ai, -aisi, -mer, -nter, -kʷer, -ber

Active conjugation

-ni, -ri, -mi, -si, -ø, -mek, -nti, -kʷe, -ti

References