|Txapoalli, Bjeheond, Etalocin; today worldwide|
|Linguistic classification:||One of Tricin's primary language families|
The Quame languages (Eevo: brits Cłem, from *kʷēm-, the reconstructed word for 1), also known as Naquo-Talmic, are a language family in Tricin. It is well-established that that Naquic and Talmic form a Naquo-Talmic family; the relationship of Sowaár to Naquo-Talmic is conjectured by some but not well-established.
- 1 Family tree
- 2 Overview
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Grammar
- 4.1 Typology
- 4.2 Pronouns
- 4.3 Ablaut
- 4.4 Nominals
- 4.5 Verbs
- 5 References
The following inventory of consonants is reconstructed for PQ and is now accepted by the majority of Trician scholars.
|Close||*i *ī||*u *ū|
|Mid||*e *ē||*o *ō|
Stress was phonemic.
all open syllables like polynesian?
- Grassmann's Law operates in many descendants.
The basic word order was V2, modifier-modified.
Proto-Quame roots were monosyllabic and obeyed the sonority hierarchy.
X = some laryngeal
V = some vowel
- nā = I (Tal./Nqu. nā)
- wey(-r) = thou (Thn. veir, Nqu. uī)
- kā(-mi) = we (exc) (Thn. cām, Nqu. txā)
- gwon(-mi-ti) = we (inc) (Thn. gonti, Nqu. quon)
- sen(-kwi) = blotp (Thn. senci, Nqu. sen)
- χ, nχ = my (Thn. -na, -a; Nqu. a; Sjo. kha)
- something with r = thy; (Thn. -r; Nqu. ir)
- smo = our (exc) (Thn.-smo, Nqu. zmo)
- sgwiX = our (inc) (Thn. -swē, Nqu. zquī)
- dkoX (?) = blotp's (Thn. -scō, Nqu. tłō? using dk > tł)
- m- = proximal, this, here
- kw- = distal, that, there
- ta- = what, who
- t(a)Xs = what (Thn. tās)
Much like in PIE, PQ had an ablaut system where roots (usually of 2 or 3 consonants) were inflected in different ablaut grades.
Functions of ablaut
- Noun inflections
- Verb inflections
- Verb voices
- Deriving nouns and verbs
- o-grade: present tense
- a-grade: derived nouns
- e-grade: preterite tense
- ∅-grade: derivations
- lengthened grades: various verb aspects/voices
Nouns and adjectives had:
- two genders: animate, inanimate.
- There were also honorific forms which worked like a gender somewhat. The honorific turns into a feminine in Talmic, meanwhile animate and inanimate become masculine and neuter.
- two states: absolute and construct.
- three cases: nominative, accusative, and genitive.
- two numbers: singular and plural. There was also a third number, the collective, formed by reduplication of the first syllable.
Some nouns had plurals in a different ablaut grade.
- consonant stems
- heteroclitic stems: r/s
x̌-stems (honorific stems)
Verbs were conjugated for subject, object, aspect, and mood (but not for voice).
- Subject agreement: For each pronoun, and gender in 3rd person
- Aspects: present, preterite, stative
- Moods: indicative, subjunctive, jussive, imperative
- Austronesian alignment, realized with various trigger verb prefixes.
-dei, -woi, -φm, -φi, -φs, -mer, -nter, -kʷer, -ber
-ni, -ri, -mi, -si, -ø, -mek, -nti, -kʷe, -ti