Quame languages

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Quame languages/Lexicon

Quame languages/Swadesh list


Quame
Naquo-Talmic
Setting Tricin
Geographic
distribution:
Txapoalli, Bjeheond, Etalocin; today worldwide
Linguistic classification: One of Tricin's primary language families
Proto-language: Proto-Quame
Subdivisions:

The Quame languages (Eevo: brits Cłem, from *kʷēm-, the reconstructed word for 1), also known as Naquo-Talmic, are a language family in Tricin. It is well-established that that Naquic and Talmic form a Naquo-Talmic family; the relationship of Sowaár to Naquo-Talmic is conjectured by some but not well-established.

The Quame urheimat is surmised to be somewhere in Etalocin (the union of Clofabolocin and Dodellia).

Family tree

Proto-Quame
Roshtero-Talmic
Talmic (Thensarian)
Tigol
Anbiric

Anbirese (pseudo-Sino-Korean)



Ciètic

Ciètian (pseudo-Mandarin)



Páuluòbeng



Skellic

Skellan (Hmooby Icelando-Welsh)



Loðagese



Vornian






Nurian




Qazhrian



Old Roshterian

Roshterian




Naquian

Tizian



Atzopic



Xaetjeon



Whetmer




Aewedanoan




Overview

Urheimat: Txapoalli

Phonology

Consonants

The following inventory of consonants is reconstructed for PQ and is now accepted by the majority of Trician scholars.

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal *m *n
Plosive plain *p *c *t *k *kʷ *q *qʷ
ejective *pʼ *cʼ *tʼ *kʼ *kʷʼ *qʼ *qʷʼ
voiced *b *z *d *g *gʷ *ɢʷ
Fricative *s *h
Resonant *l *r *y /j/ *w

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close *i *ī *u *ū
Mid *e *ē *o *ō
Open *a *ā

Suprasegmentals

Stress was phonemic.

Phonotactics

Rules:

  • Grassmann's Law operates in many descendants.

Grammar

Typology

Somewhat like German, Proto-Quame was a fusional language in which nouns, adjectives and articles inflected for four cases, three genders, and two numbers, and definiteness. The basic word order was V2, modifier-modified.

Proto-Quame roots were monosyllabic and obeyed the sonority hierarchy.

Pronouns

TODO: table

Nom/Acc

X = some laryngeal

V = some vowel

  • nā = I (Tal./Nqu. )
  • wey(-r) = thou (Thn. veir, Nqu. )
  • kā(-mi) = we (exc) (Thn. cām, Nqu. txā)
  • gwon(-mi-ti) = we (inc) (Thn. gonti, Nqu. quon)
  • sen(-kwi) = blotp (Thn. senci, Nqu. sen)

Genitive

  • χ, nχ = my (Thn. -na, -a; Nqu. a; Sjo. kha)
  • something with r = thy; (Thn. -r; Nqu. ir)
  • smo = our (exc) (Thn.-smo, Nqu. zmo)
  • sgwiX = our (inc) (Thn. -swē, Nqu. zquī)
  • dkoX = blotp's (Thn. -scō, Nqu. tłō)

Demonstratives

  • m- = proximal, this, here
  • kw- = distal, that, there
  • ta- = what, who
    • t(a)Xs = what (Thn. tās)

Ablaut

Much like PIE, PQ had an ablaut system where roots (usually of 2 or 3 consonants) were inflected in different ablaut grades.

Functions of ablaut

  • Noun inflections
  • Verb inflections
  • Verb voices
  • Deriving nouns and verbs

Ablaut grades

  • o-grade: present tense
  • a-grade: derived nouns
  • e-grade: preterite tense
  • -grade: derivations
  • lengthened grades: various verb aspects/voices

Declension

Nouns, articles and adjectives had:

  • three genders: masculine, feminine, neuter
  • four cases: nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive
    • Some speculate that Proto-Quame originally had an intransitive-transitive alignment. The nominative and accusative may have originally been intransitive and transitive cases respectively, since stative verbs in the 3rd person singular have nominative endings, while eventive verbs in the 3rd person singular have endings similar to accusative endings.
  • two numbers: singular and plural.
    • Some nouns had broken plurals formed by reduplicating of the first syllable or using a different ablaut grade. The broken plural used singular affixes.
  • for adjectives: strong and weak declensions, as in Proto-Germanic.

Possible declensions:

  • a-stems
  • x̌-stems
  • i-stems
  • u-stems
  • consonant stems
  • heteroclitic stems: r/s

Definite article *hān~hin-

  • nom: sg. hān, honi, hons; pl. nis, nar, non
  • acc: sg. nam, nas, hin; pl. nôi, nôd, nôs
  • dat: sg. nīd, nea, nis; pl. nôsis, naisis, nôsis
  • gen: sg. , nea, ; pl. nôni, naini, nôni

Nouns

Strong declension

(similar but not exactly the same endings as the definite article)

Weak declension

(a lot of redundancy; nom. def. -t > def. -tł in Naquian, const. state *-t in Talmic)

The weak declension was the form used with definite articles.

The construct state (possessed noun in genitive phrases) was indicated by a weak declension noun that was not preceded by the definite article.

  • tekts = a child (nom.)
  • hans tektat = the child (nom.)
  • hī hrondīn tektat or tektat hī hrondīn = the man's child (nom.)

Adjectives

Strong declension
Weak declension

Verbs

Verbs were conjugated for subject, object, aspect, and mood (but not for voice).

  • Subject agreement: For each pronoun, and gender in 3rd person
  • Aspects: present, preterite, stative
  • Moods: indicative, subjunctive, jussive, imperative
  • Austronesian alignment, realized with various trigger verb prefixes.

Stative conjugation

-dei, -woi, -pim, -pi, -ps, -me(r), -nte(r), -kʷe(r), -be(r)

Active conjugation

-ni, -ri, -mi, -si, -ø, -mek, -nti, -kʷi, -ti

Participles

  • -kʷom = active ptcp.
    • variant -nkʷom, -ikʷoi, -skʷos
  • -nom = passive ptcp.

Derivations

  • -tl-, -tlom = agent, instrument, participle
  • -ā- = verbalizer from nouns
  • -ye-, -i- = verbalizer from adjectives and verbs
  • -ma- = adjective