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Think Lithuanian with:

  • breathy stops and laryngeals
  • no ā ē ō ei > o ė uo ie changes
  • no tj dj > či dži


*vṛkəx (m.) = wolf *laušnā (f.) = moon *dōrą (n.) = gift
singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual plural
Nominative *vṛkəx *vṛkō *vṛkai *laušnā *laušnāi *laušnax *dōrą *dōrai *dōrā
Genitive *vṛkašə *vṛkajau *vṛkǭ *laušnāx *laušnājau *laušnǭ *dōrašə *dōrajau *dōrǭ
Dative *vṛkəi *vṛkabʰą̄ *vṛkabʰəx *laušnāi *laušnābʰą̄ *laušnābʰəx *dōrəi *dōrabʰą̄ *dōrabʰəx
Accusative *vṛką *vṛkō *vṛkǭx *laušną̄ *laušnāi *laušną­̄x *dōrą *dōrai *dōrā
Ablative *vṛkāx *vṛkabʰą̄ *vṛkabʰəx *laušnāx *laušnābʰą̄ *laušnābʰəx *dōrāx *dōrabʰą̄ *dōrabʰəx
Instrumental *vṛkō* *vṛkabʰį̄ *vṛkaix *laušnajā *laušnābʰį̄ *laušnābʰix *dōrō* *dōrabʰį̄ *dōraix
Locative *vṛkai *vṛkajau *vṛkaišu *laušnāi *laušnājau *laušnāšu *dōrai *dōrajau *dōraišu
Vocative *vṛče! *vṛkō! *vṛkai! *laušna! *laušnai! *laušnax! *dōre! *dōrai! *dōrā

(* CIlith later replaced this by analogy with jo or i stems with . Some early prakrits retained reflexes of *-ō.)


*-ātei class

Infinitive: *šventātei~*šventāti

Gerundive: *šventātī


  • *šventą̄s = pres. active participle
  • *šventāminəx = passive participle
  • *šventāšąs = future active ptcp.

Primary conjugation

Present indicative

Active Passive
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st *šventām *šventāva *šventāmex *šventāi *šventāvadʰai *šventāmadʰai
2nd *šventāš *šventāta *šventāte *šventāsai *? *šventādʰvai
3rd *šventāt *šventātą­­̄ *šventānt *šventātai *? *šventāntai