Difference between revisions of "Shalian"

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===Shalian accented English===
 
===Shalian accented English===
 
o:l hu:mən bi:jens ɑ: bo:n əfri: ən i:ʍəl en deknete ən rɛɪts. dɛɪ ɑ:r endəʊd weθ ri:sən ən konʃəns ən ʃod ækt to:d wæn ənæθər en ə əzberet əf əbræθəhod
 
o:l hu:mən bi:jens ɑ: bo:n əfri: ən i:ʍəl en deknete ən rɛɪts. dɛɪ ɑ:r endəʊd weθ ri:sən ən konʃəns ən ʃod ækt to:d wæn ənæθər en ə əzberet əf əbræθəhod
 +
 +
"All hooman beins are born afree and eewhal in dikniteh and rates. Dey are endoh'd with reecin and conscience and should act toward wan anather in a azbirit of abratherhood."
  
 
==Grammar==
 
==Grammar==

Revision as of 23:25, 11 June 2019

Shalian
šaσ.yus ʔa.mə.šə.wun.σ
Shálıoos cámasıownth
Pronunciation /ˈʃælʲu:s ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθ/
Created by User:IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region East Txapoalli
Language family
Dodellic
  • Shalian
Writing system Idosian abugida
ISO 639-3

Shalian (SHALL-ee-ən, natively šaσ.yus ʔa.mə.šə.wun.σ *Shalıoos cámasıownth /ˈʃælʲu:s ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθ/ lit. 'speaking like a Shalian'; Eevo: brits Xan) is a language of Verse:Tricin/Txapoalli. It is a Dodellic language related to Dodellian, and is in a sprachbund with the Tsimulh language Idosian. Shalian is a head-final, ergative, agglutinative language.

  • faiah = we
  • 'imáini = land
  • shaanf [ʃɑːnf] = woman
  • xérkhu [ˈħɐːxʊ] = any, all
  • riwháin [ɾɪˈʍɛɪn] = to sleep
  • jow = law, justice
  • jów'tıow [ˈdʒʷəʊʔtʲəʊ] = to govern
  • ya Yaa! [jɑː] = battle cry
  • ma maar [mɑː] = new
  • thaax [θɑ:ħ] = to say
  • lıífi [ˈlʲɪfɪ] = day
  • káihi [ˈkɛɪhɪ] = light
  • háathba [ˈhɑːðbə(ɹ)] = honor
  • -unk = honorific
    • Manayunk [ˈmænəjoŋk] = a river
    • ifnunk [ˈɪvnoŋk] = god
  • da'ra [ˈdæʔɹə(ɹ)] = man
  • 'ibá' [ʔɪ'bæʔ] = eye
  • chowlí'na = warrior
  • cáması- = to speak
    • cámasıownth [ˈʕaməɕəʊnθ] = language
  • 'aans [ʔɑːns] = dear, beloved
    • 'áansal [ˈʔɑːnsəɫ] = dear (term of affection)
  • 'áanwhai- [ˈʔɑːnʍɛɪ] = to cherish < *h₁onǵʰ 'dear' + *-kʷei
  • chaasti [ˈtʃɑːstɪ] = companion, comrade
  • Sálih-eech numa-dıéer-am-ad, Jun Asnówaa = You know nothing, Jon Snow
  • catéer [ʕɐˈteː(ɹ)] = to show, to prove
  • wa'óor [wəʔoː(ɹ)] = name
    • wa'oorawéen [wəʔoːɹəˈwiːn] = famous
  • ajérth [əˈdʒɜːθ~əˈdʒɐːθ] = spirit
  • yasáil' [jəˈsɛɪɫʔ] = brother
  • abra [ˈæbɾə(ɹ)] = heart
  • abrowéen [æbɾəˈwiːn] = courageous; Abrowéen is a name
  • Jibréel [dʒʷɪˈbɾiːɫ] = a name
  • di'sáaf [diʔˈsɑːf] = animal
  • Ma'k-, -fais = name elements
  • Bów'ti Ma'kbów'tfais = John Doe; random stranger
  • baisha = sun

Numbers

1. laath 2. wees 3. sıuul 4. á'bin 5. bathéem 6. xalbún 7. whaisith 8. kówcas 9. yáitakh 10. súluth

Cháastiyafaa, táwhalı da'roo abrowéen ajérth catéereel kábikhurinı yasáilafar wa'oorí thaaxamá'tha. Faish háathbarer lıifa'tha! = Today, O comrades, men are commemorating their brothers who died showing courageous spirit. What days of honor they had!
  • šo.o.tə.pɛ.yə ma.žəσ ay.məʔ.σɛ Shurrútafaia maarjírth caima'léer = Our spears shall again triumph

External history

I've been kicking around the idea of an Arabo-RP language in my head for a while – Standard Arabic and RP are two of my favorite aesthetics. I was also looking to justify a Tsimulh language (Idosian) gaining a rhotic consonant by invoking an RP-like substrate. Thus I replaced "Crockarit" (essentially a minimalistic Caucaso-RP) with this language.

In one sense Shalian could be viewed as an Anglo-Arabic counterpart to Windermere's Anglo-Hebrew. However, the English part in Shalian is modeled more after medium-to-long words in English rather than shorter, Germanic-sounding words.

Diachronics

get Shalian from an older stage of Dodellian with more clusters?

Shalian m n nı b d dı j t tı ch k ' f th s sı sh kh wh x h l lı w y c r ~ Dodellian m n n b/gʷ d d ǵ t t ḱ k h₁ p/bʰ dʰ s dʰ ǵʰ h₃ h₂ gʰ kʷ/gʷʰ l l w y/ś h₂ r

e o ee oo > i u ii uu

ä a ää aa > a a aa aa

aa > ai

TRAP-BATH split may occur before /f s θ/ in closed syllables; and before /nt ntʲ nt͡ʃ nʃ nF/, F = fricative

Some words with the TRAP-BATH split:

  • láathba [ˈlɑːðbə(ɹ)] = honor
  • 'aans [ʔɑːns] = dear, beloved
    • 'áansal [ˈʔɑːnsəɫ] = dear (term of affection)
  • 'áanwhai- [ˈʔɑːnʍɛɪ] = to cherish < *h₁ons 'dear' + *-kʷei
  • chaasti [ˈtʃɑːstɪ] = companion, comrade
  • di'sáaf [diʔˈsɑːf] = animal

History

Phonology

Todo:

  • vowel reduction
  • hamzas galore
    • hamza can occur before any consonant except '/h/3/H
  • some V:CC syllables
  • Vowels /a i u/ before intervocallic r are preserved

Vowels

Shalian has 13 vowel nuclei and 7 basic vowel qualities, an above-average sized vowel inventory.

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /ɪ~e/ "KIT" ee /iː/ "FLEECE" u /ʊ~ɒ/ oo /uː/ "GOOSE"
Mid eer, iya, eeya /eː/ "NEAR" a, er /ə/ "lettER/commA" oor, owr, ur, oowa, uwa /oː/ "POOR/FORCE"
Open-mid air, aia /ɛː/ "SQUARE" ir /ɜː~ɐː/ "NURSE"
Open a /æ~a/ "TRAP" aa, ar /ɑː/ "BATH/START"
Diphthong ai /ɛɪ/ "FACE" ow /əʊ/ "GOAT"
Notes
  • /ə/ occurred only in unstressed syllables.
  • Linking R /ɹ~ɾ/ is used between /ɑː eː ɛː oː ɜː ə/ and a following vowel.
  • /a/ is front [a] or [æ]. However it reduced to /ə/ in certain unstressed syllables.
  • /ɛɪ əʊ/ are normally [ɛɪ ə̟ʊ]. are realized as [aɪ aʊ] after /ħ ʕ/.
  • Shalian does not have vowel mergers before intervocalic R such as the Mary-marry merger and the mirror-nearer merger. For example, tıárrad /'tʲæɹəd/ 'moon; month' and tıáarad /'tʲɑːɹəd/ 'your (sg.) armor' are distinct.

Consonants

Shalian's consonant inventory is fairly large, with 28 consonants. Unlike Arabic, Shalian had no geminate consonants.

Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Radical Glottal
plain palatalized plain palatalized plain labialized
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ /nʲ/ [ŋ]
Plosive voiceless t /t/ /tʲ/ ch /tʃ/ k /k/ ' /ʔ/
voiced b /b/ d /d/ /dʲ/ j /dʒ/
Fricative f /f/ th /θ/ thı /θʲ/ s /s/ /sʲ/ sh /ʃ/ kh /x~χ/ wh /ʍ/ x /ħ/ h /h/
Approximant l /l~ɫ/ /lʲ/ r /ɹ~ɾ/ y /j/ w /w/ c /ʕ/
Notes
  • /ʔ/ is a phoneme unlike in RP. Hence glottal reinforcement is not used before voiceless stops.
  • /l/ is velarized [ɫ] when not before a vowel and clear [l] otherwise. The rule applies whether or not the following vowel comes in the next word.
  • /n/ assimilates to [ŋ] before /k/ but not before /x ʍ/.
  • /tʲ dʲ nʲ/ can be realized as laminal alveolar [t̻ʲ, d̻ʲ, n̻ʲ].
  • /s, sʲ/ are dentalized [s̪, s̪ʲ].
  • /tʃ dʒ ʃ/ are labialized [tʃʷ dʒʷ ʃʷ], as in English. This helps distinguish postalveolars from the palatalized alveolars /tʲ dʲ sʲ/.
  • /ɹ/ may be labialized [ɹʷ] or a tap [ɾ]. (The Idosians sometimes transcribed it as Idosian /d/ instead of as Idosian /ɹ/.)
  • /ʍ/ was a fricative [xʷ].
  • /ʕ/ can be realized as an epiglottal stop.

Intonation

Same as in ultra posh RP

Stress

Stress was phonemic. Primary stress is transcribed with an acute accent, and secondary stress is transcribed with a grave accent.

Vowel reduction

  • Both /a/ and /ɜː/ reduced to [ə] when immediately before or immediately after a stressed syllable.

Phonotactics

Like in Arabic, initial clusters were not allowed and many non-English clusters were present. Clusters can get pretty bad. Geminates and rC clusters were not allowed within stems, which will be assumed below.

Some clusters:

  • /ʔ ʕ/ + any consonant except for glottals and pharyngeals
  • any C except glottals and pharyngeals + /ʔ ʕ/
  • /h ħ/ + any consonant except for glottals and /x ʍ w/
  • any consonant except for glottals and /x ʍ/ + /h ħ/
  • any C except palatalized alveolars and /n l/ + /r/
  • any C except palatalized alveolars + /l/
  • any C except non-palzed alveolars + /lj/
  • twofold repetition of a given C, where C = b t tı d dı k ch j
    • Example: 'att /ʔætt/ 'father' < PD *h1ætətə. Note that the /t/ is pronounced twice, not geminated.

Shalian accented English

o:l hu:mən bi:jens ɑ: bo:n əfri: ən i:ʍəl en deknete ən rɛɪts. dɛɪ ɑ:r endəʊd weθ ri:sən ən konʃəns ən ʃod ækt to:d wæn ənæθər en ə əzberet əf əbræθəhod

"All hooman beins are born afree and eewhal in dikniteh and rates. Dey are endoh'd with reecin and conscience and should act toward wan anather in a azbirit of abratherhood."

Grammar

Head-marking grammar

Nouns

Shalian has 8 cases and is morphologically ergative:

  • absolutive (ABS): for subjects of intransitive verbs and objects of transitive verbs
  • ergative (ERG): for subjects of transitive verbs
  • genitive (GEN): inalienable possession
  • lative (LAT): "to; for; alienable possession"
  • locative (LOC): "at; in; with"
  • ablative (ABL): "from"
  • semblative (SEM): "like"
  • vocative (VOC)
násakht 'tree'
Absolutive násakht
Ergative násakhtoo
Genitive násakhter
Illative nasakhtí'a
Inessive nasakhtáac
Ablative násakhtisı
Semblative násakhtoos
Vocative násakhtaa

Nouns were pluralized with -af.

Verbs

  • kan [kæn] = is eating
    • kánal, kánad, kan, kánai(a), kánaxaar, kaná'tha [ˈkænəɫ, ˈkænəd, kæn, ˈkænɛɪ(ə), ˈkænəħɑː, kəˈnæʔθə] = 1sg, 2sg, 3sg, 1pl, 2pl, 3pl
  • kánam [ˈkænəm] = eats (habitually)
    • kanamal, kanamad, etc.
  • kánaks [ˈkænəks] = does he eat?
  • kankéer [kəŋˈkeː] = is not eating
  • kankéeram [kəŋˈkeːɹəm] = does not eat
  • kánakhur [ˈkænəxoː] = ate
  • kandıéerkhur [kənʲˈdʲeːxoː] = did not eat
  • kaníj [kəˈnɪdʒ] = will eat
  • kankeeríj [kæŋkeːˈɹɪdʒ] = will not eat
  • kana'léer [kænəʔˈleː] = will certainly eat
  • kanáa' [kəˈnɑːʔ] = eat!
  • kana'ái [kænəˈʔɛɪ] = do not eat!
  • kanéel [kəniːɫ] = eats, and...
  • kanajírth [kænəˈdʒɜːθ] = "eatingly", in order to eat; aanwhaijírth [ɑːnʍɛɪˈdʒɜːθ] = lovingly

Personal affixes

Possession and subject affixes:

  • -al: 1sg
  • -ad: 2sg
  • : 3sg
  • -ai(a): 1pl
  • -axaar: 2pl
  • -á'tha: 3pl
  • -sa': impersonal
  • cámasıownthal [ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθəɫ] = my language
  • cámasıownthad [ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθəd] = your language
  • càmasıownthí [ˌʕæməsʲəʊnˈθɪ] = his/her/its language
  • cámasıownthai [ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθɛɪ] = our language
  • cámasıownthaxaar [ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθəħɑː] = youse's language
  • càmasıownthá'tha [ˌʕæməsʲəʊnˈθæʔθə] = their language

The possessive suffix came after the case suffix: càmasıownth-áac-ad = 'in your language'.

čəw.leʔ.nuw yə.sɛy.ʔe ʔan.xʷɛ.yəm
Chowlí'noo yasài'í 'áanwhaiam.
/tʃəʊˈlɪʔnuː jəˌsɛɪˈʔɪ ˈʔɑːnʍɛɪəm/
chowlíʔn-ow yasai'-í ʔáanwhai-am
warrior-ERG brother.ABS-3SG cherish-PRES
A warrior cherishes his brothers.

Derivation

  • -ownth = abstract noun suffix
  • -fan = adjective
  • -ikh = abstract noun suffix
  • -í'na = agentive
  • -whai- = verbalizer
  • -owéen = adjective/stative verb suffix; -ish, -ful
    • maybe ~ -ownth

Poetry

Shalian poetry uses quantitative meters like the dactylic hexameter.

Sample texts

Xurnese dzusuis

Thaaxái' dub da'rarí'a kanáish whinéel, wa'khi'arí yú'al.
thaax-ái' dub da'ra-í'a kanáish whin-éel, wa'kh-í'a-í yú'al
say-IMP COMP man-DAT food not_exist-CONJ neighbor-DAT-3SG not_exist
Suppose that a man has food and his neighbor has none.
... bá'chilkha, jówfanjirth cóoraks?
order-CONJ just-ADV do-INTERR
If, in order for him to give his neighbor food, he requires [his neighbor] to ceaselessly beg and abase himself, does he act justly?