Difference between revisions of "Tevrés"

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==Verbs==
 
==Verbs==
 
===Agreement===
 
===Agreement===
 
Transitive verbs show three different modes of [[w:Morphosyntactic alignment|morphosyntactic alignment]], here called paradigms, depending on the arguments present. When the agent of a transitive verb or the donor of a ditransitive verb is the first or second person, the verb uses [[w:Nominative–accusative_language|nominative agreement]]. The verb agrees with the subject in person and number, and the patient, theme, or recipient is in the dative-accusative case. When the patient or recipient is the first or second person, the verb displays [[w:Ergative-absolutive language|ergative agreement]]. Here, the agent or donor is in the ergative-ablative case, and the verb agrees with the person and number of the patient or recipient. In both of these cases, first and second person pronouns are unnecessary and are dropped. If neither argument for a verb is the second or first person, then Tevrés shows a type of [[w:Split ergativity|split-ergativity]], where the agent/donor of the verb is in the direct-genitive case and the patient/recipient in the dative-accusative, whilst the verb agrees with the most oblique argument (patient or recipient).  The chart below details how arguments align in each paradigm.
 
  
 
{| class="wikitable" style="display: inline-table;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="display: inline-table;"
 
|+ Verb paradigms and alignment
 
|+ Verb paradigms and alignment
 +
|+ align="left" style="caption-side: bottom" | {{small|The chart below further details how arguments align in each paradigm. ''S'' represents the morphosyntactic [[w:Subject (grammar)|subject]], ''A'' the [[w:Agent (grammar)|agent]], ''P'' the [[w:Patient (grammar)|patient]], ''D'' the [[w:Thematic relation|donor]], ''T'' the [[w:Thematic relation|theme]], and ''R'' the [[w:Thematic relation|recipient]].}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Verb paradigm:
 
! Verb paradigm:
Line 548: Line 547:
 
| ✔︎
 
| ✔︎
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
Transitive verbs show three different modes of [[w:Morphosyntactic alignment|morphosyntactic alignment]], here called paradigms, depending on the arguments present. When the agent of a transitive verb or the donor of a ditransitive verb is the first or second person, the verb uses [[w:Nominative–accusative_language|nominative agreement]]. The verb agrees with the subject in person and number, the patient and theme are in the accusative-dative case, and the recipient is in the indirect-ablative.  Because the subject is marked on the verb and is always the first or second person, the pronoun itself is usually dropped.  However, it can be added for emphasis.
 +
 +
:{{interlinear | box=yes
 +
| tevresso ovejo
 +
| Tevrés-ACC speak-NOM.1SG
 +
| 'I speak Tevrés'}}
 +
 +
:{{interlinear | box=yes
 +
| tego jovó lla salva
 +
| 1SG-DIR.EMP write-PST.NOM.1SG DEF-C.ACC.SG salva-ACC.SG
 +
| <nowiki>'</nowiki>''I'' wrote the book!'}}
 +
 +
:{{interlinear | box=yes
 +
| ļanan çaste llos rieles me
 +
| flower-ACC.PL give-NOM.2SG DEF-T.IND.PL child-IND.PL INTERR
 +
| 'Will you give the children flowers?'}}
 +
 +
When the patient or recipient is the first or second person, the verb displays [[w:Ergative-absolutive language|ergative agreement]]. Here, the agent or donor is in the indirect-ablative case, and the verb agrees with the person and number of the patient or recipient.  The theme is still accusative-dative, but the recipient (first or second person) is in the direct-genitive. Just as above, first and second person pronouns are unnecessary and are dropped.
 +
 +
:{{interlinear | box=yes
 +
| garina querel
 +
| friend-IND.SG help-ERG.1SG
 +
| 'A friend is helping me'}}
 +
 +
:{{interlinear | box=yes
 +
| ijeña hemiol gotejo suevo
 +
| Ijen-IND.SG send-ERG.PST.1SG cap-ACC.SG new-T.ACC.SG
 +
| 'Ijen sent me a new cap'}}
 +
 +
If neither argument for a verb is the second or first person, then Tevrés shows a type of [[w:Split ergativity|split-ergativity]], where the agent/donor of the verb is in the direct-genitive case and the patient/recipient in the dative-accusative, whilst the verb agrees with the most oblique argument (patient or recipient).
 +
 +
:{{interlinear | box=yes
 +
| castil travas llo morrajoto
 +
| Castil-DIR.SG walk-3SG DEF-T.ACC.SG castle-ACC.SG
 +
| 'Castil is walking (around) the castle'}}
 +
 +
:{{interlinear | box=yes
 +
| ul as çava avro lla çella
 +
| DEF-T.DIR.SG wumbo-DIR.SG give-PST.3SG.C fish-ACC.SG DEF-C.ACC.SG cat-ACC.SG
 +
| 'The man gave the cat a fish'}}
  
 
It should be noted that the first person is higher in the hierarchy than the second person, so if the first person and second person are both present, the verb will agree with the first person.
 
It should be noted that the first person is higher in the hierarchy than the second person, so if the first person and second person are both present, the verb will agree with the first person.
Line 568: Line 608:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| style="text-align:center;" | ''e''
 
| style="text-align:center;" | ''e''
| '''''pruver''''' (to steal)
+
| '''''corer''''' (to annoy)
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| style="text-align:center;" | Weak
 
| style="text-align:center;" | Weak

Revision as of 18:38, 12 February 2020

Tevrés
Hilerán
lla çidre tevressa
Created by Limius
Setting Avrid
Spoken natively in Tevrén
Region Hileria
Ethnicity Tevor
Native speakers 12 million  (83NIA)
Language family
Maro-Ephenian
  • Iscaric
    • Aeranid
      • Southeast Epheno-Aeranid
        • Hilero-Aeranid
          • Tevrés
Early forms:
Dialects
Southern
King's Court
Northern
Official status
Official language in Tevrén
ISO 639-3

Tevrés (/tevˈɾes̺/), also known as Hilerán (/ileˈɾãn/), or the Tevren Language (lla çidre tevressa) is an Aeranid Language originating in the Çien-a-Tevrén region of northern Hileria, and has around 12 million speakers throughout the nation of Tevrén, where it is the official language, as well as another 100 thousand speakers in Fasser.

Tevrés is a member of the Hilero-Aeranid group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Late Aeranir spoken in Hileria after the fall of the Aeranid Empire in the 12th century BCA. Tevrés began to blossom as a literary language in the 6th and 7th centuries BCA, mainly from southern port cities under Fasser control, such as Azcotive and Lludazfassín. Modern Tevrés is most heavily influenced by these southern dialects and the dialects spoken around Çien-lli-Tevrén to the north, especially after these two regions were united in 36 BCA into Tevrén Vuy.

Tevrés is closely related to the Hilero-Vallic group of languages in the north east, such as Morrazol. It is less related to Ilesse, which is spoken in the region of Ilea. Nevertheless, these languages are often conflated under the banner of 'Tevrés,' or more specifically 'Hileranos.'

Name of the Language

The word tevrés descends from Aeranir tibōris (stress shifted to match accusative tibōrissin), referring to the Tiborer, an Anderian tribe which settled throughout Hileria in the wake of the Aeranid Empire. The Tiborer also lent their name to Tevrén, from tibōrāniun.

All Hilero-Aeranid languages, including Ilesse, which is technically an Eastern-Aeranid language, are often colloquially referred to as tevrés. The term hilerán is occasionally used for this purpose instead. The languages of Tevrén Vuy may be called lla çear vuya (proper language), uy tevrés vuis (proper Tevrés), or vuyán in order to differentiate it from other hileranos languages.

History

Old Tevrés

Phonology

Consonants

Consonant phonemes
Labial Coronal Palatal or
postalveolar
Velar
Lamino-
dental
Apico-
alveolar
Lateral
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive voiceless p k
voiced b ɟ g
Fricative voiceless f ɬ ʃ~x~h
voiced ɮ ʒ~ɣ~ɦ
Rhotic trill r
tap ɾ
Approximate (w) l ʎ (w)

Dialects

Due to centuries of separation, the culture of Tevrén between the north and the south form a stark contrast. This contrast is noticeable in many everyday aspects of life, including the way people speak. Southern dialects of Aeranir are considered to be 'softer' and 'more breathy' then harsher northern varieties. In addition, the language of the Court at Combrienes shows some novel innovation, merging voiced and voiceless sibilants. The following chart breaks down some of the key differences;

Differences between northern and southern pronunciation
Letter Northern Southern Court Example Letter Northern Southern Court Example
ç [s̻] [θ] [s̻] çeña ('love') ļ, ļļ* [ɬ] [ɕ] [ɬ] ļana ('flower')
z [z̻] [ð] colezos ('counties') ļ** [ɮ] [ʑ] veļa ('life')
s, ss* [s̺] [s] [s̺] suel ('sky') x [ʃ] [h] [ʃ] Moxa (a name)
s** [z̺] [z] hormesos ('salves') j [ʒ] [ɦ] oveja ('talk')

Notes:

  • * the phonemes /s̺/ and /ɬ/ are written with doubled consonants ss and ļļ respectively between vowels.
  • ** the phonemes /z̺/ and /ɮ/ (written s and ļ) occur only between vowels, or next to a voiced consonant.

Vowels

Vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

Nouns

Declension

Class I noun endings
temporary cyclical
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Direct-Genitive -e -os -a -as
Accusative-Dative -o -on -an
Indirect-Ablative -a -os -as
Class II noun endings
temporary cyclical
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Direct-Genitive -Ø, -es, -s -os -Ø, -es, -s -os
Accusative-Dative -e -en -e -en
Indirect-Ablative -es -es

Case

Direct-genitive

The direct-genitive case (DIR) is used to mark the subject of an intransitive verb, the agent of a transitive verb, or the donor of a ditransitive verb for 3rd person arguments in the split verb paradigm, and 1st and 2nd person arguments in the nominative verb paradigm. That is, the person or thing that does the action of the verb.

uy

DEF-T.DIR.SG

cueles

count-DIR.SG

llavas

laugh-IPFV.3SG.T

uy cueles llavas

DEF-T.DIR.SG count-DIR.SG laugh-IPFV.3SG.T

'The count is laughing'

ul

DEF-T.DIR.SG

as

wumbo-DIR.SG

pruviós

steal-PFV.3SG.T

llo

DEF-T.ACC.SG

gotejo

cap-ACC.SG

ul as pruviós llo gotejo

DEF-T.DIR.SG wumbo-DIR.SG steal-PFV.3SG.T DEF-T.ACC.SG cap-ACC.SG

'The wumbo stole the cap'

uy

DEF-T.DIR.SG

vuestre

elder-DIR.SG

çón

give-PFV.3PL

priezon

pen-ACC.PL

llo

DEF-T.ACC.SG

riel

child-ACC.SG

uy vuestre çón priezon llo riel

DEF-T.DIR.SG elder-DIR.SG give-PFV.3PL pen-ACC.PL DEF-T.ACC.SG child-ACC.SG

'The elder gave the child some pens'

It has another, albeit minor, role in the ergative verb paradigm, where it marks the patient of the verb. Because the ergative paradigm is triggered by a first or second person patient, this role is generally limited to the first and second persons pronouns. Furthermore, as Tevrés is heavily pro-drop these arguments are usually dropped. However, they can be reintroduced for emphasis, and when they are, they appear in the direct-genitive.

tego

1SG-DIR.EMP

oyel

see-ERG.1SG

lla

DEF-T.IND.SG

harina

priest-IND.SG

tego oyel lla harina

1SG-DIR.EMP see-ERG.1SG DEF-T.IND.SG priest-IND.SG

'The priest sees me'

There are cases where this might be used by nouns other than the first and second person pronouns. The most common would be appositive statements defining the first or second person.

tego

1SG-DIR

uy

DEF-T.DIR.SG

res

king-DIR.SG

sevol

kill-ERG.SUBJ.1SG

nen

2SG-IND

me

INTERR

tego uy res sevol nen me

1SG-DIR DEF-T.DIR.SG king-DIR.SG kill-ERG.SUBJ.1SG 2SG-IND INTERR

You would kill me, the king?

Some argue that this is not a true appositive, rather a genitive appositive as in Japanese or Ancient Greek. One piece of evidence that points to this theory is the fact that these require a personal pronoun, which is usually dropped. However, relative clauses modifying a first or second person patient can undeniably be said to have an patientive meaning, as they must agree with the head.

tego

1SG-DIR

ne

2SG-ACC

queñid

love-PFV.PTCP-T.DIR.SG

sevol

kill-ERG.SUBJ.1SG

nen

2SG-IND

me

INTERR

tego ne queñid sevol nen me

1SG-DIR 2SG-ACC love-PFV.PTCP-T.DIR.SG kill-ERG.SUBJ.1SG 2SG-IND INTERR

You would kill me, who loved you?

The direct-genitive may also be used to express relation, ownership, or other connection between two nouns. In these cases, the modified noun (the head) come first, and the modifying noun (the dependant) second; e.g. uy-gotejo-uy-vuestre (the elder's cap) not **uy-vuestre-uy-gotejo. Often times these phrases are joined by dashes, as shown in the previous example.

Tevrés genitive contstuctions may optionally distinguish relationships initiated with or without the dependants control over the head by using prepositions. The following table illustrates the a-genitive and the eu-genitive. In action nouns, the eu-genitive dependant corresponds to the head action's subject, and the a-genitive dependant to its object. Using eu implies that the dependant is active, influential, or formative towards the head, whilst the use of a implies that the head is active, influential, or formative towards the dependant.

Direct-genitive-modifying prepositions
Regular with a (to) with eu (from)
harena-uy-vuestre
the elder's letter
harena-al-vuestre
a letter to the elder
harena-el-vuestre
a letter from the elder
uy-vies-uy-cueles
the count's law
uy-vies-al-cueles
the law which governs the count
uy-vies-el-cueles
the law the count creates
lla-rentaga-uy-mader
the council's ruler
lla-rentaga-al-mader
the ruler who controls the council
lla-rentaga-el-mader
the ruler the council controls
lla-toladre-uy-res
the king's army
lla-toladre-al-res
the army belonging to the king
lla-toladre-el-res
the army sent after the king

Accusative-dative

The accusative-acc case (ACC) is used to mark the patient (also called the object) of transitive verbs, and both the theme (direct object) and recipient (indirect object) of ditransitive verbs. While in theory the overlap of these two roles may lead to confusion, in practice confusion is rare, and usually resolved via context. In cases where resolution of ambiguity is necessary the preposition a may be used to mark the indirect object.

tego

1SG-DIR.EMP

oyel

see-ERG.1SG

lla

DEF-T.IND.SG

harina

priest-IND.SG

tego oyel lla harina

1SG-DIR.EMP see-ERG.1SG DEF-T.IND.SG priest-IND.SG

'The priest sees me'

The accusative-dative can also be used with the a-applicative to mark the benefactor of an action, or with the co-applicative to mark accompaniment.

çi

REFL-DIR

mientron

sibling-ACC.PL

a-jovan

BEN=write-3PL

harenan

letter-ACC.PL

çi mientron a-jovan harenan

REFL-DIR sibling-ACC.PL BEN=write-3PL letter-ACC.PL

'They write letters for their siblings'

garinon

friend-ACC.SG

co-teudo

COM=drink-PFV.1SG

tin

tea-ACC.SG

garinon co-teudo tin

friend-ACC.SG COM=drink-PFV.1SG tea-ACC.SG

'I drank tea with friends'

Finally the accusative-dative case can be used to mark location, as well as movement motion towards something. Whether or not these uses take verbal agreement depends on the valency of the verb.

tan

but

caro

dance-DIR.1SG

en

in

çi

REFL-DIR

combre

home-ACC.SG

tan caro en çi combre

but dance-DIR.1SG in REFL-DIR home-ACC.SG

'I only dance in my own home'

nen

2SG-IND

co-vel

COM=go-SUBJ.ERG.1SG

llo

DEF-ACC.SG

cuerço

market-ACC.SG

me

INTERR

nen co-vel llo cuerço me

2SG-IND COM=go-SUBJ.ERG.1SG DEF-ACC.SG market-ACC.SG INTERR

'Will you go with me to the market?'

indirect-ablative

Articles

Definite article
temporary cyclical
Singular Plural Singular Plural
direct-Genitive ul/uy llos lla llas
Dative-Accusative llo llon llan
Ergative-Ablative lla llos llas

Pronouns

Tevrés Personal Pronouns
1st person 2nd person 3nd person
temporary cyclical
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative-
Genitive
emphatic tego yego nego rego ul/uy llos lla llas
plain ti yos ni ros
Dative-Accusative te yon ne ruen llo llon llan
Ergative-Ablative ted yos nen ros lla llos llas

Verbs

Agreement

Verb paradigms and alignment The chart below further details how arguments align in each paradigm. S represents the morphosyntactic subject, A the agent, P the patient, D the donor, T the theme, and R the recipient.
Verb paradigm: 1
nominative
2
ergative
3
split
Valency: in. tr. di. in. tr. di. in. tr. di.
Noun argument: S A P D T R S A P D T R S A P D T R
Noun case: DIR IND DIR ACC IND N/A IND DIR IND ACC DIR ACC DIR ACC
Verb agreement: ✔︎ ✔︎ ✖︎ ✔︎ ✖︎ ✖︎ N/A ✖︎ ✔︎ ✖︎ ✖︎ ✔︎ ✔︎ ✖︎ ✔︎ ✖︎ ✖︎ ✔︎

Transitive verbs show three different modes of morphosyntactic alignment, here called paradigms, depending on the arguments present. When the agent of a transitive verb or the donor of a ditransitive verb is the first or second person, the verb uses nominative agreement. The verb agrees with the subject in person and number, the patient and theme are in the accusative-dative case, and the recipient is in the indirect-ablative. Because the subject is marked on the verb and is always the first or second person, the pronoun itself is usually dropped. However, it can be added for emphasis.

tevresso

Tevrés-ACC

ovejo

speak-NOM.1SG

tevresso ovejo

Tevrés-ACC speak-NOM.1SG

'I speak Tevrés'

tego

1SG-DIR.EMP

jovó

write-PST.NOM.1SG

lla

DEF-C.ACC.SG

salva

salva-ACC.SG

tego jovó lla salva

1SG-DIR.EMP write-PST.NOM.1SG DEF-C.ACC.SG salva-ACC.SG

'I wrote the book!'

ļanan

flower-ACC.PL

çaste

give-NOM.2SG

llos

DEF-T.IND.PL

rieles

child-IND.PL

me

INTERR

ļanan çaste llos rieles me

flower-ACC.PL give-NOM.2SG DEF-T.IND.PL child-IND.PL INTERR

'Will you give the children flowers?'

When the patient or recipient is the first or second person, the verb displays ergative agreement. Here, the agent or donor is in the indirect-ablative case, and the verb agrees with the person and number of the patient or recipient. The theme is still accusative-dative, but the recipient (first or second person) is in the direct-genitive. Just as above, first and second person pronouns are unnecessary and are dropped.

garina

friend-IND.SG

querel

help-ERG.1SG

garina querel

friend-IND.SG help-ERG.1SG

'A friend is helping me'

ijeña

Ijen-IND.SG

hemiol

send-ERG.PST.1SG

gotejo

cap-ACC.SG

suevo

new-T.ACC.SG

ijeña hemiol gotejo suevo

Ijen-IND.SG send-ERG.PST.1SG cap-ACC.SG new-T.ACC.SG

'Ijen sent me a new cap'

If neither argument for a verb is the second or first person, then Tevrés shows a type of split-ergativity, where the agent/donor of the verb is in the direct-genitive case and the patient/recipient in the dative-accusative, whilst the verb agrees with the most oblique argument (patient or recipient).

castil

Castil-DIR.SG

travas

walk-3SG

llo

DEF-T.ACC.SG

morrajoto

castle-ACC.SG

castil travas llo morrajoto

Castil-DIR.SG walk-3SG DEF-T.ACC.SG castle-ACC.SG

'Castil is walking (around) the castle'

ul

DEF-T.DIR.SG

as

wumbo-DIR.SG

çava

give-PST.3SG.C

avro

fish-ACC.SG

lla

DEF-C.ACC.SG

çella

cat-ACC.SG

ul as çava avro lla çella

DEF-T.DIR.SG wumbo-DIR.SG give-PST.3SG.C fish-ACC.SG DEF-C.ACC.SG cat-ACC.SG

'The man gave the cat a fish'

It should be noted that the first person is higher in the hierarchy than the second person, so if the first person and second person are both present, the verb will agree with the first person.

Conjugation

Conjugation classes
Class Theme vowel Example
Strong a jovar (to write)
i sevir (to kill)
e corer (to annoy)
Weak Ø tiedre (to drink)

There are four conjugation classes in Tevrés, characterised by the vowel (or lack there of) used to form the infinitive. There are three strong conjugation classes, and one weak class. The weak class conjugates identically to the strong e-class in the non-past tense, and may either conjugate identically to the e-class in the past as well, or take irregular conjugation endings, in conjuncture with stem mutation.

Transitive verb endings
Singular Plural
nominative ergative split nominative ergative split
1st 2nd 1st 2nd 3rd t. 3rd c. 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 3rd
Non-past -o
-o
-o
-aste
-iste
-este
-al
-el
-el
-alas
-elas
-elas
-as
-es
-es
-a
-a
-a
-am
-im
-em
-ad
-id
-ed
-álam
-élam
-élam
-álad
-élad
-élad
-an
-en
-en
Past regular
-ió
-ió
-oste
-ioste
-ioste
-ol
-iol
-iol
-olas
-iolas
-iolas
-ós
-iós
-iós

-iá
-iá
-om
-iom
-iom
-od
-iod
-iod
-ólam
-iólam
-iólam
-ólad
-iólad
-iólad
-ón
-ión
-ión
Past irregular -o -este -el -elas -es -a -em -ed -élam -élad -en
Intransitive verb endings
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd t. 3rd c. 1st 2nd 3rd
Non-past -o
-o
-o
-aste
-iste
-este
-as
-es
-es
-a
-a
-a
-amos
-imos
-emos
-áis
-ís
-éis
-an
-en
-en
Past regular
-ió
-ió
-oste
-ioste
-ioste
-ós
-iós
-iós

-iá
-iá
-om
-iom
-iom
-od
-iod
-iod
-ón
-ión
-ión
Past irregular -o -este -es -a -em -ed -en

Writing System

Romanisation

Consonants
Letter Context IPA English approximation
b or v word-initial after a pause, or after ⟨m⟩ or ⟨n⟩ [b] practically the same as the typical English ⟨b⟩, except that it is fully voiced; e.g. about
elsewhere (i.e. after a vowel, even across a word boundary, or after any consonant other than ⟨m⟩ or ⟨n⟩) [v] same as the typical English ⟨v⟩; bevy
c before another consonant [ɣ] a sound between a light English ⟨g⟩ and the typical English ⟨h⟩ (between gold and ahold), same as Dutch ⟨g⟩; gabber
elsewhere [k] same as certain instances of English ⟨k⟩ or ⟨c⟩; e.g. skull, scan, or picking (unaspirated, i.e. without the puff of air that accompanies English /k/ at the beginning of a word, e.g. in can)
ç everywhere [] (northern Tevrén)
or
[θ] (southern Tevrén)
between mess and meth (like the typical English ⟨s⟩, but with the blade of the tongue against the back of the teeth) in northern Tevrén,
or same as the English voiceless ⟨th⟩ (as in thing) in southern Tevrén
ch everywhere [] same as the typical English ⟨ch⟩; church
d word-initial after a pause, or after ⟨l⟩ or ⟨n⟩ [d] practically the same as the typical English ⟨d⟩, except that it is fully voiced and the tip of the tongue touches the upper teeth; e.g. adore
elsewhere [ð] same as the typical English voiced ⟨th⟩; e.g. this
f everywhere [f] same as the typical English ⟨f⟩; e.g. face
g before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩ [ʒ] (nothern Tevrén)
or
[ɦ] (southern Tevrén)
same as English ⟨s⟩ in words like measure or fusion, same as French ⟨j⟩ (e.g. joie) in northern Tevrén,
or like Received Pronunciation ⟨h⟩ in words like behind, same as Dutch ⟨h⟩ (e.g. hagelslag) in southern Tevrén
not before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩, and either word-initial after a pause, or after ⟨n⟩ [g] practically the same as the typical English ⟨g⟩ sound, except that it is fully voiced; e.g. ago
not before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩, and not in the above contexts [ɣ] a sound between a light English ⟨g⟩ and the typical English ⟨h⟩ (between gold and ahold), same as Dutch ⟨g⟩; gabber
gu before ⟨a⟩ or ⟨o⟩, and either word-initial after a pause, or after ⟨n⟩ [gw] a sound like the ⟨gu⟩ in English penguin
before ⟨a⟩ or ⟨o⟩, and not in the above contexts [ɣw] similar to the typical English ⟨w⟩, but preceded by a soft guttural sound
before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩, and either word-initial after a pause, or after ⟨n⟩ [g] practically the same as the typical English ⟨g⟩ sound, except that it is fully voiced; e.g. ago
before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩, and not in the above contexts [ɣ] a sound between a light English ⟨g⟩ and the typical English ⟨h⟩ (between gold and ahold), same as Dutch ⟨g⟩; gabber
h everywhere (silent) silent (like the English ⟨h⟩ in English honor or hour)
j word final [ʃ] (nothern Tevrén)
or
[h] (southern Tevrén)
same as typical English ⟨sh⟩ (e.g. shush) in northern Tevrén,
or like typical English ⟨h⟩ (e.g. happy) in southern Tevrén
elsewhere [ʒ] (nothern Tevrén)
or
[ɦ] (southern Tevrén)
same as English ⟨s⟩ in words like measure or fusion, same as French ⟨j⟩ (e.g. joie) in northern Tevrén,
or like Received Pronunciation ⟨h⟩ in words like behind, same as Dutch ⟨h⟩ (e.g. hagelslag) in southern Tevrén
l everywhere [l] same as the typical English ⟨l⟩ (especially like the clear ⟨l⟩ of British English, rather than the dark ⟨l⟩ of American English);e.g. lull
ll everywhere [ʎ] similar to the ⟨lli⟩ in English million
ļ before a voiced consonant or between vowels [ɮ] (nothern Tevrén)
or
[ʑ] (southern Tevrén)
a sound between French ⟨j⟩ and the typical English ⟨l⟩ (between joue and lieu) in northern Tevrén,
or like Kagoshima Japanese ⟨じ⟩ in southern Tevrén
elsewhere [ɬ] (nothern Tevrén)
or
[ɕ] (southern Tevrén)
a sound between English ⟨h⟩ and the typical English ⟨l⟩ (between happy and lieu), same as Welsh ⟨ll⟩ (e.g. Ebrill) in northern Tevrén,
or like typical Japanese ⟨し⟩ in southern Tevrén
ļļ only occurs between vowels
m everywhere [m] same as the typical English ⟨m⟩; madam
n before ⟨v⟩
before ⟨f⟩ [ɱ]
same as the English ⟨m⟩ in symphony
before ⟨y⟩ [ɲ]
similar to the English ⟨ny⟩ in canyon, same as Spanish ⟨ñ⟩; niño
before ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ [ŋ]
same as the English ⟨ng⟩ in sing
elsewhere [n] same as the typical English ⟨n⟩; e.g. nun
ñ everywhere [ɲ] similar to the English ⟨ny⟩ in canyon, same as Spanish ⟨ñ⟩; niño
p in the consonant cluster ⟨pt⟩ [v] same as the typical English ⟨v⟩; bevy
elsewhere [p] same as certain instances of English ⟨p⟩; e.g. span or typing (unaspirated, i.e. without the puff of air that accompanies English /p/ at the beginning of a word, e.g. in pan)
qu only occurs before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩ [k] same as certain instances of English ⟨k⟩ or ⟨c⟩; e.g. skull, scan, or picking (unaspirated, i.e. without the puff of air that accompanies English /k/ at the beginning of a word, e.g. in can)
r word-initial, morpheme-initial, or after ⟨l⟩, ⟨n⟩, or ⟨s⟩, or syllable-final (especially before ⟨l⟩, ⟨m⟩, ⟨n⟩, or ⟨s⟩) and word-final positions (before pause or consonant-initial words only) [r] trilled or rolled ⟨r⟩
elsewhere (sometimes word-initial (after a pause or consonant-ending words only), morpheme-initial (when preceded by prefixes ending in consonants), or after ⟨l⟩, ⟨n⟩, or ⟨s⟩, or syllable-final positions, and word-final positions before vowel-initial words only) [ɾ] flapped ⟨r⟩; e.g. the same sound as the ⟨dd⟩ of ladder or ⟨tt⟩ of latter in American English, same as Spanish ⟨r⟩ between vowels, as in caro
rr only occurs between vowels [r] trilled or rolled ⟨r⟩
s before a voiced consonant or between vowels [] (nothern Tevrén)
or
[z] (southern Tevrén)
a sound between French ⟨j⟩ and the typical English ⟨z⟩ (between joue and zoo) in northern Tevrén,
or the same as the typical English ⟨z⟩ (e.g. jazz) in southern Tevrén
elsewhere [] (nothern Tevrén)
or
[s] (southern Tevrén)
a sound between English ⟨sh⟩ and the typical English ⟨s⟩ (between shush and sass) in northern Tevrén,
or the same as the typical English ⟨s⟩ (e.g. sass) in southern Tevrén
ss only occurs between vowels
t before voiced consonants [ð] same as the typical English voiced ⟨th⟩; e.g. this
elsewhere [t] same as certain instances of English ⟨t⟩; e.g. stand (unaspirated, i.e. without the puff of air that accompanies English /t/ at the beginning of a word, e.g. in tan). Also, the tip of the tongue touches the upper teeth, rather than the alveolar ridge
x everywhere [ʃ] (nothern Tevrén)
or
[h] (southern Tevrén)
same as typical English ⟨sh⟩ (e.g. shush) in northern Tevrén,
or like typical English ⟨h⟩ (e.g. happy) in southern Tevrén
y word-initial after a pause, or after ⟨l⟩ or ⟨n⟩ [ɟ] Between English dew (RP) and argue
as a semivowel (almost always in a diphthong) [j] same as the typical English ⟨y⟩ (but joined in a single syllable with another vowel sound); aye, boy
elsewhere [ʝ] similar to the typical English ⟨y⟩, or ⟨j⟩ but softer; e.g. similar to yes or Jess
z word final [] (northern Tevrén)
or
[θ] (southern Tevrén)
between mess and meth (like the typical English ⟨s⟩, but with the blade of the tongue against the back of the teeth) in northern Tevrén,
or same as the English voiceless ⟨th⟩ (as in thing) in southern Tevrén
elsewhere [] (northern Tevrén)
or
[ð] (southern Tevrén)
between raise and bathe (like the typical English ⟨z⟩, but with the blade of the tongue against the back of the teeth) in northern Tevrén,
or same as the English voiced ⟨th⟩ (as in that) in southern Tevrén

Lexicon

Tevrés Lexicon.