Difference between revisions of "Togarmite"

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Revision as of 19:04, 15 August 2019

Togarmite/Lexicon
Togarmite
Þėgamiþ
Pronunciation /θegamiθ/
Created by IlL
Setting Lõis
Language family
Afro-Asiatic
ISO 639-3

Togarmite (Þėgamiþ /θegamiθ/ or lysėnyn þėgamijyn /ˈləsenən θegamijən/) is a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew. It is inspired by Lithuanian, Germanic languages (particularly Icelandic) and the Semitic conlang Alashian.

Modern Togarmite retains the Semitic root-and-pattern morphology of Old Togarmite, but has undergone some phonological and grammatical restructuring, taking features of the Turkey-Northern Levant-Iranian sprachbund, in common with L-Persian, Modern An Bhlaoighne and English:

  • Grimm's law: The Old Togarmite aspirated stops φ θ χ (from Proto-Semitic *p t k) generally become spirants /f θ x/.
  • loss of grammatical gender
  • loss of the passive binyanim
  • loss of the suffix conjugation except in a few verbs
  • the use of the w-form (inherited from the Old Togarmite waw-consecutive future) for the present progressive, mirroring English -ing < PIE *-nd-kwe
  • the development of a productive concatenative verb paradigm used to form new verbs, analogous to Germanic weak verbs

Todo

  • gdėl = big
  • makdas = (formal, mathematics) specific, particular, chosen (not arbitrary)
  • Xabšyn wy frasel /xabʃən və fɾasel/ = The sheep and the horses

History

The Old Togarmite name for the language, Θėgammīθ, is thought to have been borrowed from a pre-Togarmite source *Tāgarma. The name Togarmah from the same source is also attested in the Hebrew Bible. (The Greeks and the Romans called the Togarmite people Θηγαρμικοί and Thegarmici respectively.) The name of the language shows the Togarmite shift of Proto-Semitic ā to ė /e:/, mirroring the Canaanite shift ā > ō occuring in its close relative Hebrew.

Phonology

Consonants

Togarmite has 23 consonants, 22 of them inherited from Proto-Semitic. It gained /p/ during the Old Togarmite stage from adapting loans from Greek, Aramaic and Persian, e.g. parkes 'to act', from Ancient Greek praxis.

  • m n /m n/
  • p t c k ' /p t ts k ʔ/
  • b d g /b d g/
  • f þ s š x h /f θ s ʃ x h/
  • w z ž ȝ /v z ʒ ɣ/
  • l r j /l r j/

Vowels

Modern Togarmite has 9 vowels in stressed syllables, possibly the largest vowel inventory of any Semitic language.

a e ė i o ø u y /ɑ ɛ e i o ø u (ə)/

ai au /ai øy/

ai and au are often merged to /e ø/. Some dialects pronounce au as /y/.

Stress

Stress is always penultimate.

Orthography

Togarmite uses an abugida based on the Phoenician alphabet, called albėþyn (after the first 2 letters).

The abjadi letter names: al, bėþ, gam, dal, hė, wau, zėn, žėn, tėþ, jød, xaf, lam, mėm, nun, ȝėn, fė, pė, cad, køf, rėš, sin, šin, þau

Dialects

Pronouns

Personal

Modern Togarmite pronouns work very similarly to English pronouns. The accusative pronouns derive from inflected foms of Old Togarmite ʔiþ (emphasis particle and accusative, related to Hebrew et and Arabic iyya-). The possessive pronouns are derived from inflected forms of Old Togarmite li.

I thou (m.) thou (f.) he she it we you (pl.) they
Nominative/Conjunctive nėx hu hi že nan aþøm høm
Objective/Disjunctive þi þax þex þau þa þež þanė þaxøm þaum
Possessive li lax lex lau la lež lanė laxøm laum
Reflexive/Intensive afi afax afex afau afa afež afnė afxøm afaum

The plural pronouns aþøm and høm can be used as gender-neutral pronouns in the singular, like English they.

Demonstrative

who? what? which? where? whither? whence? when? how? why? how much?
this ži (sg); eli (pl) hen heno me hen ȝeþo xen; xamxė šøm; me hen xėrab
that žix (sg); elix (pl) šam šamo me šam
what mi ma ėjo ain aino men ain møran xaix lama xma, marby
all; every xøl bašar; xølhad xøl dbar xøl xøl mykėm ly xøl mykėm me xøl mykėm xølam xølad darxy - -
any nux bašar nux dbar nux nux mykėm ly nux mykėm me nux mykėm xølam nux darxy my nux sebt -
some bil bašar bil dbar bil bil mykėm ly bil mykėm me bil mykėm ly zman; bil zman bil darxy my bil sebt -
none lėm bašar lėm dbar lėm lėm mykėm ly lėm mykėm me lėm mykėm lėfȝam lėm darxy my lėm sebt -

Demonstratives come before nouns as in Arabic:

  • ži baiþyn 'this house'
  • eli baiþil 'these houses'

Nouns

In some ways declension has simplified: Like Knánith, Modern Togarmite has lost grammatical gender. Nouns and adjectives still have indefinite and definite states, but the construct state has been lost.

However, declension has become more complicated in other ways. For example, Modern Togarmite has innovated more declension paradigms.

Regular declension

Most nouns have a regular plural in -i, definite -il.

Example: ȝėlam 'world'

Regular noun declension
singular plural
indefinite ȝėlam ȝėlami
definite ȝėlamyn ȝėlamil

Nisba nouns

An important declension class is comprised of nouns or adjectives with the nisba suffix -i:

þėgami 'Togarmite'
singular plural
indefinite þėgami þėgamije
definite þėgamijyn þėgamijel

Singulative-collective nouns

These nouns have a marked singular in -t.

šeȝart '(strand of) hair'
singular plural
indefinite šeȝart šeȝar
definite šeȝartyn šeȝaril

Former feminines/body parts

This class consists of a small number of nouns that were feminine in Old Togarmite, such as many body parts, which take a plural in -ėþ:

øžny 'ear'
singular plural
indefinite øžny øžnė
definite øžnyn øžnėþil
lysėn 'tongue; language'
singular plural
indefinite lysėn lysėnėþ
definite lysėnyn lysėnėþil

-a nouns

These are mainly Greek words:

apoloža 'excuse (pretext)'
singular plural
indefinite apoloža apoložes
definite apoložan apoložėþil

Greek ending in -ma can have a plural in -mata:

þėma 'topic'
singular plural
indefinite þėma þėmes / þėmata
definite þėman þėmėþil / þėmataþil


By analogy, even some native words are declined this way:

heta 'sin'
singular plural
indefinite heta hetes
definite hetan hetėþil

Adjectives

Adjectives have the same declension patterns as nouns.

Degree

Adjectives do not have separate degree forms, unlike in Indo-European languages. A dedicated particle šøm is used for 'than'.

Verbs

TODO: an n-stem binyan?

  • Past = (eroded) prefix conjugation (from the PSem preterite)
    • The y- prefix is not used when the verb is negated: nėx yxėþøb 'I write', nėx lė xėþøb 'I don't write'.
  • Present = from the Proto-Semitic L-stem, via analogy
  • Imperative
    • The negative imperative is negated with al: xþøb 'write!', al xþøb! 'don't write!'
  • w-form = w + stem from the 3ms suffix conjugation in the f3øl binyan, past tense but with w- for the prefix in other binyanim
  • Infinitive
  • Participles

The suffix conjugation does not survive unlike in most other Semitic languages, except in certain irregular verbs like hwė 'to be'.

The citation form is the 2nd person singular imperative.

Binyanim

Binyan 1: føȝøl

This binyan can take -ø- (e.g. xøþøb 'to write'), -e- (sen 'to sleep) or -a- (tøȝam 'to choose') as the theme vowel.

Binyan 1 conjugation: xøþøb 'write'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yxþøb aþ/eþ yxþøb hu/hi xþøb nan xþøb aþøm xþøb høm xþøb
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyxþab fit wyxþab fė wyxþab finė wyxþab fitøm wyxþab fu wyxþab
present nėx yxėþøb aþ/eþ yxėþøb hu/hi xėþøb nan xėþøb aþøm xėþøb høm xėþøb
present progressive nėx še wyxþab aþ/eþ še wyxþab hu/hi še wyxþab nan še wyxþab aþøm šu wyxþab høm šu wyxþab
present subjunctive nėx yxþøban aþ/eþ yxþøban hu/hi xþøban nan xþøban aþøm xþøbun høm xþøbun
future ėbe xþėb tėbe xþėb jėbe xþėb nėbe xþėb tėbu xþėb jėbu xþėb
perfect li myxþub lax/lex myxþub lau/la myxþub lanė myxþub laxøm myxþub laum myxþub
imperative xøþøb!
active participle xėþeb
passive participle myxþub
w-form wyxþab
infinitive xþėb

Binyan 2: faȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic D-stem (related to Hebrew pi33el and Arabic fa33ala)

Binyan 2 conjugation: saxen 'inhabit'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ysaxen aþ/eþ ysaxen hu/hi saxen nan saxen aþøm saxen høm saxen
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wysaxen fit wysaxen fė wysaxen finė wysaxen fitøm wysaxen fu wysaxen
present nėx ysxėxen aþ/eþ ysxėxen hu/hi sxėxen nan sxėxen aþøm sxėxen høm sxėxen
present progressive nėx še wysaxen aþ/eþ še wysaxen hu/hi še wysaxen nan še wysaxen aþøm šu wysaxen høm šu wysaxen
present subjunctive ani ysaxenan aþ/eþ ysaxenan hu/hi saxenan nan saxenan aþøm saxenun høm saxenun
future ėbe saxun tėbe saxun jėbe saxun nėbe saxun tėbu saxun jėbu saxun
perfect li møsaxan lax/lex møsaxan lau/la møsaxan lanė møsaxan laxøm møsaxan laum møsaxan
imperative saxen!
active participle møsaxen
passive participle møsaxan
w-form wysaxen
infinitive saxun

For 4-letter verbs such as parkes 'to act', the present tense is formed with the stem -C₁C₂ėC₃eC₄, like nėx yprėkes 'I act'.

Binyan 3: afȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic Š-stems thus corresponds to Hebrew hif3il and Arabic ʔaf3ala.

Binyan 3 conjugation: ažxer 'remind'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ažxer aþ/eþ ažxer hu/hi ažxer nan ažxer aþøm ažxer høm ažxer
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wažxer fit wažxer fė wažxer finė wažxer fitøm wažxer fu wažxer
present nėx ažėxer aþ/eþ ažėxer hu/hi ažėxer nan ažėxer aþøm ažėxeru høm ažėxeru
present progressive nėx še wažxer aþ/eþ še wažxer hu/hi še wažxer nan še wažxer aþøm šu wažxer høm šu wažxer
present subjunctive nėx ažxeran aþ/eþ ažxeran hu/hi ažxeran nan ažxeran aþøm ažxerun høm ažxerun
future ėbe hažxur tėbe hažxur jėbe hažxur nėbe hažxur tėbu hažxur jėbu hažxur
perfect li mažxar lax/lex mažxar lau/la mažxar lanė mažxar laxøm mažxar laum mažxar
imperative ažxer!
active participle mažxer
passive participle mažxar
w-form wažxer
infinitive ažxur

Binyan 4: yftyȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic t-stem and shares similarities with the Hebrew binyan hitpa33el and Arabic ifta3ala. It is characterized by the þ- prefix that comes from the *t infix.

Meanings:

  • reflexive
  • reciprocal

The prefix þ metathesizes with C1 when

  • C1 = f x s š c h z ž ȝ: þf þx þs þš þh þz þž þȝ > ft xt st št ct ht zd žd ȝd
  • C1 = d t þ: þd þt þþ > d t þ
Binyan 4 conjugation: hyþlymed 'find one's way around'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yþlymed aþ/eþ yþlymed hu/hi þlymed nan þlymed aþøm þlymed høm þlymed
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyþlymed fit wyþlymed fė wyþlymed finė wyþlymed fitøm wyþlymed fu wyþlymed
present nėx yþlėmed aþ/eþ yþlėmed hu/hi þlėmed nan þlėmed aþøm þlėmed høm þlėmed
present progressive nėx še wyþlymed aþ/eþ še wyþlymed hu/hi še wyþlymed nan še wyþlymed aþøm šu wyþlymed høm šu wyþlymed
present subjunctive nėx yþlymedan aþ/eþ yþlymedan hu/hi þlymedan nan þlymedan aþøm þlymedun høm þlymedun
future ėbe hyþlymud tėbe hyþlymud jėbe hyþlymud nėbe hyþlymud tėbu hyþlymud jėbu hyþlymud
perfect li møþlymad lax/lex møþlymad lau/la møþlymad lanė møþlymad laxøm møþlymad laum møþlymad
imperative yþlymed!
active participle møþlymed
passive participle møþlymad
w-form wyþlymėd
infinitive hyþlymud

Binyan 5: þyfaȝel

This binyan comes from the tD-stem (t- with geminate stem) and corresponds directly to the Arabic binyan tafa33ala.

The main meanings of this binyan are:

  • reciprocal or back-and-forth action
  • reaction/back, re-: perhaps the most common modern meaning
    • þy'awer 'to reflect', from aur 'light'
    • þyparkes 'to react', from parkis 'action'
    • þysalem 'to repay', from √s-l-m 'peace, whole'
    • þyȝanė 'to satisfy', from √ȝ-n-j 'distress, need'; probably influenced by a now obsolete meaning 'to answer' of the same root
  • unpredictable change in meaning

The resemblance of this binyan to the very common faȝel binyan has led to the þy- prefix becoming productive, with some semantic overlap with the prefix re- in English.

Binyan 5 conjugation: þydares 'teach'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yþydares aþ/eþ yþydares hu/hi þydares nan þydares aþøm þydares høm þydares
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyþydares fit wyþydares fė wyþydares finė wyþydares fitøm wyþydares fu wyþydares
present nėx yþydrėres aþ/eþ yþydrėres hu/hi þydrėres nan þydrėres aþøm þydrėres høm þydrėres
present progressive nėx še wyþydares aþ/eþ še wyþydares hu/hi še wyþydares nan še wyþydares aþøm šu wyþydares høm šu wyþydares
present subjunctive nėx yþydaresan aþ/eþ yþydaresan hu/hi þydaresan nan þydaresan aþøm þydaresun høm þydaresun
future ėbe þydarus tėbe þydarus jėbe þydarus nėbe þydarus tėbu þydarus jėbu þydarus
perfect li møþydaras lax/lex møþydaras lau/la møþydaras lanė møþydaras laxøm møþydaras laum møþydaras
imperative þydares!
active participle møþydares
passive participle møþydaras
w-form wyþydares
infinitive þydarus

Binyan 6: eþyfȝel

This binyan comes from the Nt-stem, with the mediopassive n- marker and the reflexive/reciprocal t-marker: the stem comes from *intap3il. cf. Hebrew nitpa33el, a variant of the hitpa33el binyan and the Arabic infa3ala binyan.

Binyan 6 conjugation: eþygdel 'grow up'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx eþygdel aþ/eþ eþygdel hu/hi eþygdel nan eþygdel aþøm eþygdelu høm eþygdelu
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti weþygdel fit weþygdel fė weþygdel finė weþygdel fitøm weþygdel fu waþygdel
present nėx eþygėdel aþ/eþ eþygėdel hu/hi eþygėdel nan eþygėdel aþøm eþygėdelu høm eþygėdelu
present progressive nėx še weþygdel aþ/eþ še weþygdel hu/hi še weþygdel nan še weþygdel aþøm šu weþygdel høm šu weþygdel
present subjunctive nėx eþygdelan aþ/eþ eþygdelan hu/hi eþygdelan nan eþygdelan aþøm eþygdelun høm eþygdelun
future ėbe heþygdul tėbe heþygdul jėbe heþygdul nėbe heþygdul tėbu heþygdul jėbu heþygdul
perfect li meþygdal lax/lex meþygdal lau/la meþygdal lanė meþygdal laxøm meþygdal laum meþygdal
imperative - heþygdel! - - heþygdelu! -
active participle meþygdel
passive participle meþygdal
w-form waþygdel
infinitive heþygdul

Binyan 7: styfȝel

This binyan comes from the Št-stem and is directly related to the binyan istaf3ala in Arabic and the very rare binyan hishtaf3el in Biblical Hebrew.

Binyan 7 conjugation: stytȝem 'try out'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ystytȝem aþ/eþ ystytȝem hu/hi stytȝem nan stytȝem aþøm stytȝem høm stytȝem
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wystytȝem fit wystytȝem fė wystytȝem finė wystytȝem fitøm wystytȝem fu wystytȝem
present nėx ystytėȝem aþ/eþ ystytėȝem hu/hi stytėȝem nan stytėȝem aþøm stytėȝem høm stytėȝem
present progressive nėx še wystytȝem aþ/eþ še wystytȝem hu/hi še wystytȝem nan še wystytȝem aþøm šu wystytȝem høm šu wystytȝem
present subjunctive nėx ystytȝeman aþ/eþ ystytȝeman hu/hi stytȝeman nan stytȝeman aþøm stytȝemun jystytȝemun
future ėbe stytȝum tėbe stytȝum jėbe stytȝum nėbe stytȝum tėbu stytȝum jėbu stytȝum
perfect li møstytȝam lax/lex møstytȝam lau/la møstytȝam lanė møstytȝam laxøm møstytȝam laum møstytȝam
imperative - stytȝem! - - stytȝemu! -
active participle møstytȝem
passive participle møstytȝam
w-form wystytȝem
infinitive stytȝum

Concatenative verbs

The concatenative paradigm, analogous to Germanic weak verbs, is formed by adding prefixes and suffixes, without changing the stem. The past and imperative forms are formed by adding -i or -ji to the noun, when no other suffix is added.

It is used for recent loan verbs like maksimezi 'to maximize', but can also be used to derive verbs from native nouns:

  • mydrasi 'to school' (from mydras 'school')
  • þaxili 'to consume' (from þaxil 'consumption', itself from the root √ʔ-x-l 'to eat')
  • žaxoji 'to entitle, to allow' (from žaxo 'right')
  • ȝaini 'to eye' (from ȝain 'eye')

The endings are mainly derived from Middle Togarmite forms of 3-y verbs.

  • [STEM]-i = active
  • þy-[STEM]-i = re-
  • mø- = active participle
  • -ėþ = infinitive
Weak verb conjugation: mydrasi 'to school'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ymydrasi aþ/eþ ymydrasi hu/hi mydrasi nan mydrasi aþøm mydrasi høm mydrasi
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wymydrasi fit wymydrasi fė wymydrasi finė wymydrasi fitøm wymydrasi fu wymydrasi
present nėx ymydrasė aþ/eþ ymydrasė hu/hi mydrasė nan mydrasė aþøm mydrasė høm mydrasė
present progressive yše wymydrasi tyše wymydrasi jyše wymydrasi nyše wymydrasi tyšu wymydrasi jyšu wymydrasi
present subjunctive nėx ymydrasan aþ/eþ ymydrasan hu/hi mydrasan nan mydrasan aþøm mydrasun høm mydrasun
future ėbe mydrasėþ tėbe mydrasėþ jėbe mydrasėþ nėbe mydrasėþ tėbu mydrasėþ jėbu mydrasėþ
perfect li mømydrasa lax/lex mømydrasa lau/la mømydrasa lanė mømydrasa laxøm mømydrasa laum mømydrasa
imperative mydrasi!
active participle mømydrasė
passive participle mømydrasa
w-form wymydrasi
infinitive mydrasėþ

fe 'to be'

The verb 'to be' is perhaps the most irregular verb of the language; it displays suppletion and it uses the Proto-Semitic suffix conjugation in the past tense.

fe 'to be'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional fiti fit finė fitøm fu
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyfė fit wyfė fė wyfė finė wyfė fitøm wyfė fu wyfė
present nėx še (or nėx) aþ/eþ še (or aþ/eþ) hu/hi še (or hu/hi) nan še (or nan) aþøm šu (or aþøm) høm šu (or høm)
present progressive yše wyfė tyše wyfė jyše wyfė nyše wyfė tyšu wyfė jyšu wyfė
present subjunctive yfijan tyfijan jyfijan nyfijan tyfijun jyfijun
future ėbe fėþ tėbe fėþ jėbe fėþ nėbe fėþ tėbu fėþ jėbu fėþ
imperative fe!
active participle hėwi
passive participle fuj
w-form wyfė
infinitive fėþ

xėl 'can'

xėl 'can'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional uxal tuxal juxal nuxalu tuxalu juxalu
past subjunctive fiti wėxel fit wėxel fė wėxel finė wėxel fitøm wėxel fu wėxel
present nėx wyxėl aþ/eþ wyxėl hu/hi wyxėl nan wyxėlu aþøm wyxėlu høm wyxėlu
present subjunctive nėx yxelan aþ/eþ yxelan hu/hi xelan nan xelan aþøm xelun høm xelun
future ėbe xėl tėbe xėl jėbe xėl nėbe xėl tėbu xėl jėbu xėl
active participle -
passive participle fuj wėxel
w-form wėxel
infinitive xėl

høbė 'should; ought'

høba 'should; ought'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
present nėx høbė aþ/eþ høbė hu/hi høbė nan høbu aþøm høbu høm høbu

ryšė 'to want'

ryšė 'to want'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional yrši tyrši jyrši nyršu tyršu jyršu
past subjunctive hwiti wyrši hwit wyrši hwė wyrši hwinė wyrši hwitøm wyrši hwu wyrši
present nėx ryšė aþ/eþ ryšė hu/hi ryšė nan ryšu aþøm ryšu høm ryšu
future ėbe ryšėþ tėbe ryšėþ jėbe ryšėþ nėbe ryšėþ tėbu ryšėþ jėbu ryšėþ
w-form wyrši
active participle rėši
passive participle myršuj
infinitive ryšėþ

Gzarot

Main article: Togarmite/Gzarot

In Semitic languages, gzarot (Hebrew גְּזָרוֹת‎, sg. gizra גִּזְרָה 'figure, form, pattern') are variations of an inflectional (especially verbal) paradigm that are determined by the choice of consonants in the consonantal root. Thus, a paradigm has not only a regular gizra but various irregular ones, which occur most commonly when

  • the consonantal root contains a "guttural" (ʔ ȝ h) or a semivowel (j w);
  • the consonantal root contains a n, since nC tends to assimilate into CC
  • the consonantal root has 2 letters.

Because Togarmite only uses the prefix conjugation, modern Togarmite gzarot are in some ways less bad than Hebrew gzarot; most of the irregularities occur in binyan fȝøl. However, there are often so many irregularities even within each gizra, and cases of analogy between verbs of different gzarot, that the concept of gzarot in Modern Togarmite has been questioned: in Togarmite, a "gizra" just describes general tendencies of verbs with a certain root consonant.

Prepositions

Some prepositions:

  • en 'in' [from PSem *ina]
  • ly (l before V) 'to'
  • by (b before V) 'by, at'
  • šydo 'out' (from *śadiy-ah 'to the field')
  • me (men before V) 'from'
  • ȝem 'with'
  • ȝal 'on'
  • lid 'of (possessive)'
  • ȝbar 'over'
  • þaþ 'under'
  • arþo 'down' (from *ʔarþ-ah "earthward")

Syntax of prepositions

Numerals

0: cefry 1: yhad 2: šnain / attributive šnė 3: šlėš (animate šlėšt) 4: yrbaȝ (animate yrbaȝt) 5: hymes (animate hymest) 6: sec/sets (animate sect) 7: sabȝy (animate sabȝyt) 8: šmėni (animate šmėnt) 9: þesȝy (animate tesȝyt) 10: ȝašry (animate ȝašryt) 20: ȝešrin 30: šlėšin 40: yrbȝin 50: hymsin 60: setsin 70: sybȝin 80: šmėnin 90: þesȝin 100: me'yþ 200: meþėn 300: šlėš me'yþ 400: yrbaȝ me'yþ 1000: alfy 2000: alfėn 3000: šlėš alf 1000000: alfun 10^9: bėþfun 10^12: gamfun etc.

Syntax

Faulty accusative marker

The faulty accusative marker is used. (like MSA accusative case and Welsh soft mutation)

Questions

Yes-no questions require the question marker ha to be placed at the beginning of the sentence.

What-questions have a syntax similar to English.

Existentials

The word is used to indicate existence. It is also used with the preposition ly 'to' or the possessive pronouns to indicate possession. The negative of is lėš.

  • Iš mykėm ėn xøl bašar šaš = There is a place where everyone is happy.
  • Ha iš lex zman? = Do you have time?

The particle uses the accusative marker when the "object" is animate.

Conditional clauses

  • "if" = em
  • "then" =

Relative clauses

The relative pronoun xi is used for both relative and complement clauses. It takes prepositional cases, just like English relative pronouns.

Derivation

Noun and adjective patterns

  • CaCCy(þ), CeCCy(þ), CøCCy(þ) = segolates
  • CyCiC = adjective; -able
  • CyCuC = adjective; color
  • CyCaCt, CyCeCt, CyCøCt
  • CaCøCt = describes a condition
  • CyCeCCaC = diminutive
  • myCCaC(t), meCCaC(t), myCCėC: noun, often denoting place
  • maCCaCt = causative version of myCCaC(t)
  • myCCeC(t) = instrument
  • maCCeCt = causative version of myCCeC(t)
  • þyCCuC, þyCCiC, þyCCėC = action or process
  • þyCCøCt = (hypothetical cognate of Hebrew tiCCóCet) = system of things
  • CaCėC = agentive
    • CaCaCt = feminine agentive (not always used)
    • or CaCėC?
  • CaCCan = agentive; -an is an agentive
  • CaCCėn, CeCCėn, and CeCaCėn = nouns, often an augmentative

Affixes

  • -an = forms agentives and adjectives
  • -uþ = (borrowed from Hebrew) abstract noun
  • -i = forms adjectives
  • -iþ = forms adverbs
  • i- = non-, un-
  • tarmy- = pre-, not yet
  • -yr = someone who is characterized by X (from English)
  • -ri = -ry (from English)
  • auto- = self-

Sample texts

Newton's laws of motion

I: Dbar šėbøþ by dymi, o by ȝyþėk enomorfy, lulė ydraȝ prėkes ȝal þež.

I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.

II: Šanujyn en þyȝþikyn lid gaf še myþxøni ly øþisin møþyfacaryn ȝal gafyn; wy šanujyn kėrė darxan kauyn þykinyn ȝal xi žix øþisin še møþyfacar.

II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.

III: Iš ly xøl parkis iþ þyparkis is w' anteþet.

III: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

O how quickly the sculpture of life

O! Xma myhiriþ myklaȝyn lid hajin
Šbėber ly temaša ktantani!
Mygiluþyn lid malxyn ȝal þrøn lau
Še xliliþ mygruf by gali jam.
Aþøm lyxi jaþ heno mømancabta hen,
Ȝabry hen Elėh aþøm lawani ȝal arþyn.
Xøl lanė mødajan ȝal parkisi lanė;
Þnenė þėþ ly ȝnijyn, w' agaþeržijėþ had ly wdud.

O how quickly the sculpture of life
Shatters into tiny fragments!
The splendor of the king on his throne
Is completely swept away by sea-waves.
Ye who come hither stationed here,
By the grace of God ye are guests on earth.
All of us are judged according to our actions;
Let us give to the needy, and do charity towards one another.

Lysėn þėgamiþ, lysėn þlul

  • Yhad texni, rab texnes; yhad þėgami, rab þėgames = one skill, many skills; one Togarmite, many Togarmites (the correct plural of þėgami is þėgamije)

UDHR

Xøl ynėsi še mewøladi hyruri w' isi en akšoprepjan wy žyxawil laum. Høm še møþyhanani ȝym ložeki wy synidisi wy høbu ly parkus l' odšni in ruh lid ahwuþ.

all human-PL COP be.born/PASS.PART-PL free-PL and equal-PL in dignity-DEF.SG and right/PL-DEF.PL 3PL.POSS. 3PL COP grant/PASS.PART-PL with reason and conscience and ought-3PL to act.VN to one_another in spirit of brotherhood

/xøl ə'nesi ʃɛ mɛvø'ladi hə'ruri 'visi in akʃo'prepjan v ʒə'xavil løym || høm ʃɛ møθəha'nani ɣəm lo'ʒɛki fsəni'disi və 'høbu lə 'parkus 'lotʃni bə ruh lid 'ahvuθ/