Difference between revisions of "Togarmite"

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}}
 
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'''Togarmite''' (''þėgamiþ'' /θegamiθ/ or ''yn lysėn yn þėgami'' /ə ˈləsenən ə θegami/) is a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew. It is inspired by Lithuanian, Germanic languages (particularly Icelandic) and the Semitic conlang Alashian.
+
'''Togarmite''' (''Þėgamiþ'' /θegamiθ/ or ''yn lysėn Þėgami'') is a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew. It is inspired by Lithuanian, Germanic languages (particularly Icelandic) and the Semitic conlang Alashian.
  
 
Modern Togarmite retains the Semitic root-and-pattern morphology of [[Togarmite/Old|Old Togarmite]], but has undergone some phonological and grammatical restructuring, taking features of the [[Verse:Lõis/Levantine sprachbund|Turkey-Northern Levant-Iranian sprachbund]], in common with [[L-Persian]], [[Padmanábha]] and [[Time Traveler English|English]]:
 
Modern Togarmite retains the Semitic root-and-pattern morphology of [[Togarmite/Old|Old Togarmite]], but has undergone some phonological and grammatical restructuring, taking features of the [[Verse:Lõis/Levantine sprachbund|Turkey-Northern Levant-Iranian sprachbund]], in common with [[L-Persian]], [[Padmanábha]] and [[Time Traveler English|English]]:
Line 63: Line 63:
  
 
The abjadi letter names:
 
The abjadi letter names:
''al, bėþ, gam, dal, hė, wau, zėn, žėn, tėþ, jėd, xaf, lam, mėm, nun, ȝėn, fė, pė, cad, køf, rėš, sin, šin, þau''
+
''al, bėþ, gam, dal, hė, wau, zėn, žėn, tėþ, jød, xaf, lam, mėm, nun, ȝėn, fė, pė, cad, køf, rėš, sin, šin, þau''
 
 
 
==Dialects==
 
==Dialects==
 
==Pronouns==
 
==Pronouns==
Line 75: Line 74:
 
|-
 
|-
 
!|Nominative/Conjunctive
 
!|Nominative/Conjunctive
|''nėx''||''aþ''||''eþ''||''hu''||''hi''||''že''||''nan''||''adøm''||''høm''
+
|''nėx''||''aþ''||''eþ''||''hu''||''hi''||''že''||''nan''||''aþøm''||''høm''
 
|-
 
|-
 
!|Objective/Disjunctive
 
!|Objective/Disjunctive
Line 101: Line 100:
 
|colspan=3| ''ži'' (sg); ''eli'' (pl) || ''šam'' || ''šamo'' || ''me šam'' || ''ež''
 
|colspan=3| ''ži'' (sg); ''eli'' (pl) || ''šam'' || ''šamo'' || ''me šam'' || ''ež''
 
|-
 
|-
! what?
+
! what
 
| ''mi'' || ''ma'' || ''ėjo'' || ''ein'' || ''eino'' || ''men ein'' || ''møran'' || ''xeix'' || ''lama'' ||''xma, marby''
 
| ''mi'' || ''ma'' || ''ėjo'' || ''ein'' || ''eino'' || ''men ein'' || ''møran'' || ''xeix'' || ''lama'' ||''xma, marby''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! all; every
 
! all; every
| ''xøl bašar; xølhad'' || ''xøl tbar'' || ''xøl'' || ''xølein'' || ''xøleino'' || ''me xølein'' || ''xølam'' || ''xølad darxy'' || ''-'' || ''-''
+
| ''xøl bašar; xølhad'' || ''xøl dbar'' || ''xøl'' || ''xølein'' || ''xøleino'' || ''me xølein'' || ''xølam'' || ''xølad darxy'' || ''-'' || ''-''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! any
 
! any
| ''nux bašar'' || ''nux tbar'' || ''nux'' || ''nuxein'' || ''nuxeino'' || ''me nuxein'' || ''xølam''  
+
| ''nux bašar'' || ''nux dbar'' || ''nux'' || ''nuxein'' || ''nuxeino'' || ''me nuxein'' || ''xølam''  
 
|| ''nux darxy'' || ''my nux sebt'' || ''-''
 
|| ''nux darxy'' || ''my nux sebt'' || ''-''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! some
 
! some
| ''bil bašar'' || ''bil tbar'' || ''bil '' || ''bilein'' || ''bileino'' || ''me bilein'' || ''ly zman''; ''bil zman''  
+
| ''bil bašar'' || ''bil dbar'' || ''bil '' || ''bilein'' || ''bileino'' || ''me bilein'' || ''ly zman''; ''bil zman''  
 
|| ''bil darxy'' || ''my bil sebt'' || ''-''
 
|| ''bil darxy'' || ''my bil sebt'' || ''-''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! none
 
! none
| ''lėm bašar'' || ''lėm tbar'' || ''lėm'' || ''lėmein'' || ''lėmeino'' || ''me lėmein'' || ''lėfȝam''  
+
| ''lėm bašar'' || ''lėm dbar'' || ''lėm'' || ''lėmein'' || ''lėmeino'' || ''me lėmein'' || ''lėfȝam''  
 
|| ''lėm darxy'' || ''my lėm sebt'' || ''-''
 
|| ''lėm darxy'' || ''my lėm sebt'' || ''-''
 
|}
 
|}
Demonstratives come before nouns as in Arabic:
+
Demonstratives come before nouns as in Arabic. The demonstratives "this" and "that" take the definite form.
*''žini beiþ'' 'this house'
+
*''žini beiþyn'' 'this house'
*''eli beiþi'' 'those houses'
+
*''eli beiþil'' 'those houses'
  
 
==Nouns==
 
==Nouns==
In some ways declension has simplified: Like [[Knánith]], Modern Togarmite has lost grammatical gender. The construct state has been lost, and the Old Togarmite definite state ''ʔan-'' has been reanalyzed as a separate definite article ''yn''.
+
In some ways declension has simplified: Like [[Knánith]], Modern Togarmite has lost grammatical gender. Nouns and adjectives still have indefinite and definite states, but the construct state has been lost.  
  
However, declension has become more complicated in other ways. For example, Modern Togarmite has innovated more pluralization paradigms.
+
However, declension has become more complicated in other ways. For example, Modern Togarmite has innovated more declension paradigms.
 
===Regular declension===
 
===Regular declension===
 
Most nouns have a regular plural in ''-i'', definite ''-il''.
 
Most nouns have a regular plural in ''-i'', definite ''-il''.
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! indefinite
 
! indefinite
 
| ''ȝėlam'' || ''ȝėlam'''i'''''
 
| ''ȝėlam'' || ''ȝėlam'''i'''''
 +
|-
 +
! definite
 +
| ''ȝėlam'''yn''''' || ''ȝėlam'''il'''''
 
|}
 
|}
 
===Segolates===
 
===Segolates===
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! indefinite
 
! indefinite
 
| ''xalby'' || ''xlab'''i'''''
 
| ''xalby'' || ''xlab'''i'''''
 +
|-
 +
! definite
 +
| ''xalby'''n''''' || ''xlab'''il'''''
 
|}
 
|}
  
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! indefinite
 
! indefinite
 
| ''þėgam'''i''''' || ''þėgam'''ije'''''
 
| ''þėgam'''i''''' || ''þėgam'''ije'''''
 +
|-
 +
! definite
 +
| ''þėgami'''jyn''''' || ''þėgami'''jel'''''
 
|}
 
|}
  
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! indefinite
 
! indefinite
 
| ''šeȝar'''t''''' || ''šeȝar''
 
| ''šeȝar'''t''''' || ''šeȝar''
 +
|-
 +
! definite
 +
| ''šeȝar'''tyn''''' || ''šeȝar'''il'''''
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
===Former feminines/body parts===
 
===Former feminines/body parts===
This class consists of a small number of nouns that were feminine in Old Togarmite, such as many body parts, which take a plural in ''-ėt'':
+
This class consists of a small number of nouns that were feminine in Old Togarmite, such as many body parts, which take a plural in ''-ėþ'':
  
 
{| class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="text-align:center;"  
 
{| class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="text-align:center;"  
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! indefinite
 
! indefinite
 
| ''øžny'' || ''øžn'''ė'''''
 
| ''øžny'' || ''øžn'''ė'''''
 +
|-
 +
! definite
 +
| ''øžn'''yn''''' || ''øžn'''ėþil'''''
 
|}
 
|}
  
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|-
 
|-
 
! indefinite
 
! indefinite
| ''lysėn'' || ''lysėn'''ėt'''''
+
| ''lysėn'' || ''lysėn'''ėþ'''''
 +
|-
 +
! definite
 +
| ''lysėn'''yn''''' || ''lysėn'''ėþil'''''
 
|}
 
|}
  
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! indefinite
 
! indefinite
 
| ''apolož'''a''''' || ''apolož'''es'''''
 
| ''apolož'''a''''' || ''apolož'''es'''''
 +
|-
 +
! definite
 +
| ''apolož'''an''''' || ''apolož'''ėþil'''''
 
|}
 
|}
  
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{| class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="text-align:center;"  
 
{| class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="text-align:center;"  
|+''þima'' 'topic'
+
|+''þėma'' 'topic'
 
! || singular || plural  
 
! || singular || plural  
 
|-
 
|-
 
! indefinite
 
! indefinite
| ''þim'''a''''' || ''þim'''es''''' / ''þim'''ata'''''
+
| ''þėm'''a''''' || ''þėm'''es''''' / ''þėm'''ata'''''
 +
|-
 +
! definite
 +
| ''þėm'''an''''' || ''þėmė'''þil''''' / ''þėmat'''aþil'''''
 
|}
 
|}
  
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! indefinite
 
! indefinite
 
| ''het'''a''''' || ''het'''es'''''
 
| ''het'''a''''' || ''het'''es'''''
 +
|-
 +
! definite
 +
| ''het'''an''''' || ''het'''ėþil'''''
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==Adjectives==
 
==Adjectives==
Adjectives have the same declension patterns as nouns.
+
Adjectives have the same declension patterns as nouns.
 
 
A regular adjective: ''gdėl'' 'big' has plural ''gdėli''.
 
 
===Degree===
 
===Degree===
 
Adjectives do not have separate degree forms, unlike in Indo-European languages. A dedicated particle ''šøm'' is used for 'than'.
 
Adjectives do not have separate degree forms, unlike in Indo-European languages. A dedicated particle ''šøm'' is used for 'than'.
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The citation form is the 2nd person singular imperative.
 
The citation form is the 2nd person singular imperative.
 
===Binyanim===
 
===Binyanim===
Modern Togarmite inherits all 7 binyanim of Old Togarmite. The ''þy-'' of Binyan 6 (''dyfaȝel'') verbs has become a productive derivational prefix, however, so Binyan 6 can be analyzed as a result of ''þy-'' added to ''faȝel'' verbs, rather than as a binyan in its own right.
+
Modern Togarmite inherits all 7 binyanim of Old Togarmite. The ''þy-'' of Binyan 6 (''þyfaȝel'') verbs has become a productive derivational prefix, however, so some analyze Binyan 6 as a result of ''þy-'' added to ''faȝel'' verbs, rather than as a binyan in its own right.
 
====Binyan 1: ''føȝøl''====
 
====Binyan 1: ''føȝøl''====
 
This binyan can take -ø- (e.g. ''xøþøb'' 'to write'), -e- (''sen'' 'to sleep') or -a- (''tøȝam'' 'to choose') as the theme vowel.
 
This binyan can take -ø- (e.g. ''xøþøb'' 'to write'), -e- (''sen'' 'to sleep') or -a- (''tøȝam'' 'to choose') as the theme vowel.
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|-
 
|-
 
! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
| ''nėx yxdøb''
+
| ''nėx yxþøb''
| ''ad/ed yxdøb''
+
| ''/eþ yxþøb''
| ''hu/hi xdøb''
+
| ''hu/hi xþøb''
| ''nan xdøb''
+
| ''nan xþøb''
| ''adøm xdøb''
+
| ''aþøm xþøb''
| ''høm xdøb''
+
| ''høm xþøb''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
| ''fidi wyxdab''
+
| ''fiti wyxþab''
| ''fid wyxdab''
+
| ''fit wyxþab''
| ''fė wyxdab''
+
| ''fė wyxþab''
| ''finė wyxdab''
+
| ''finė wyxþab''
| ''fidøm wyxdab''
+
| ''fitøm wyxþab''
| ''fu wyxdab''
+
| ''fu wyxþab''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
| ''nėx yxėdøb''
+
| ''nėx yxėþøb''
| ''ad/ed yxėdøb''
+
| ''/eþ yxėþøb''
| ''hu/hi xėdøb''
+
| ''hu/hi xėþøb''
| ''nan xėdøb''
+
| ''nan xėþøb''
| ''adøm xėdøb''
+
| ''aþøm xėþøb''
| ''høm xėdøb''
+
| ''høm xėþøb''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present progressive
 
! present progressive
| ''nėx še wyxdab''
+
| ''nėx še wyxþab''
| ''ad/ed še wyxdab''
+
| ''/še wyxþab''
| ''hu/hi še wyxdab''
+
| ''hu/hi še wyxþab''
| ''nan še wyxdab''
+
| ''nan še wyxþab''
| ''adøm šu wyxdab''
+
| ''aþøm šu wyxþab''
| ''høm šu wyxdab''
+
| ''høm šu wyxþab''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present subjunctive
 
! present subjunctive
| ''nėx yxdøban''
+
| ''nėx yxþøban''
| ''ad/ed yxdøban''
+
| ''/eþ yxþøban''
| ''hu/hi xdøban''
+
| ''hu/hi xþøban''
| ''nan xdøban''
+
| ''nan xþøban''
| ''adøm xdøban''
+
| ''aþøm xþøbun''
| ''høm xdøban''
+
| ''høm xþøbun''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! future
 
! future
| ''ėbe xdėb''
+
| ''ėbe xþėb''
| ''tėbe xdėb''
+
| ''tėbe xþėb''
| ''jėbe xdėb''
+
| ''jėbe xþėb''
| ''nėbe xdėb''
+
| ''nėbe xþėb''
| ''tėbu xdėb''
+
| ''tėbu xþėb''
| ''jėbu xdėb''
+
| ''jėbu xþėb''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! perfect
 
! perfect
| ''li myxdub''
+
| ''li myxþub''
| ''lax/lex myxdub''
+
| ''lax/lex myxþub''
| ''lau/la myxdub''
+
| ''lau/la myxþub''
| ''lanė myxdub''
+
| ''lanė myxþub''
| ''laxøm myxdub''
+
| ''laxøm myxþub''
| ''laum myxdub''
+
| ''laum myxþub''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! imperative
 
! imperative
|colspan=6| ''xødøb!''
+
|colspan=6| ''xøþøb!''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! active participle
 
! active participle
|colspan=6| ''xėdeb''
+
|colspan=6| ''xėþeb''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! passive participle
 
! passive participle
|colspan=6| ''myxdub''
+
|colspan=6| ''myxþub''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! w-form
 
! w-form
|colspan=6| ''wyxdab''
+
|colspan=6| ''wyxþab''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! infinitive
 
! infinitive
|colspan=6| ''xdėb''
+
|colspan=6| ''xþėb''
 
|}
 
|}
  
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! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
 
| ''nėx ysaxen''
 
| ''nėx ysaxen''
| ''ad/ed ysaxen''
+
| ''/ysaxen''
 
| ''hu/hi saxen''
 
| ''hu/hi saxen''
 
| ''nan saxen''
 
| ''nan saxen''
| ''adøm saxen''
+
| ''aþøm saxen''
 
| ''høm saxen''
 
| ''høm saxen''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
| ''fidi wysaxen''
+
| ''fiti wysaxen''
| ''fid wysaxen''
+
| ''fit wysaxen''
 
| ''fė wysaxen''
 
| ''fė wysaxen''
 
| ''finė wysaxen''
 
| ''finė wysaxen''
| ''fidøm wysaxen''
+
| ''fitøm wysaxen''
 
| ''fu wysaxen''
 
| ''fu wysaxen''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
 
| ''nėx ysxėxen''
 
| ''nėx ysxėxen''
| ''ad/ed ysxėxen''
+
| ''/ysxėxen''
 
| ''hu/hi sxėxen''
 
| ''hu/hi sxėxen''
 
| ''nan sxėxen''
 
| ''nan sxėxen''
| ''adøm sxėxen''
+
| ''aþøm sxėxen''
 
| ''høm sxėxen''
 
| ''høm sxėxen''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present progressive
 
! present progressive
 
| ''nėx še wysaxen''
 
| ''nėx še wysaxen''
| ''ad/ed še wysaxen''
+
| ''/še wysaxen''
 
| ''hu/hi še wysaxen''
 
| ''hu/hi še wysaxen''
 
| ''nan še wysaxen''
 
| ''nan še wysaxen''
| ''adøm šu wysaxen''
+
| ''aþøm šu wysaxen''
 
| ''høm šu wysaxen''
 
| ''høm šu wysaxen''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present subjunctive
 
! present subjunctive
 
| ''ani ysaxenan''
 
| ''ani ysaxenan''
| ''ad/ed ysaxenan''
+
| ''/ysaxenan''
 
| ''hu/hi saxenan''
 
| ''hu/hi saxenan''
 
| ''nan saxenan''
 
| ''nan saxenan''
| ''adøm saxenan''
+
| ''aþøm saxenun''
| ''høm saxenan''
+
| ''høm saxenun''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! future
 
! future
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! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
 
| ''nėx ažxer''
 
| ''nėx ažxer''
| ''ad/ed ažxer''
+
| ''/ažxer''
 
| ''hu/hi ažxer''
 
| ''hu/hi ažxer''
 
| ''nan ažxer''
 
| ''nan ažxer''
| ''adøm ažxer''
+
| ''aþøm ažxer''
 
| ''høm ažxer''
 
| ''høm ažxer''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
| ''fidi wažxer''
+
| ''fiti wažxer''
| ''fid wažxer''
+
| ''fit wažxer''
 
| ''fė wažxer''
 
| ''fė wažxer''
 
| ''finė wažxer''
 
| ''finė wažxer''
| ''fidøm wažxer''
+
| ''fitøm wažxer''
 
| ''fu wažxer''
 
| ''fu wažxer''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
 
| ''nėx ažėxer''
 
| ''nėx ažėxer''
| ''ad/ed ažėxer''
+
| ''/ažėxer''
 
| ''hu/hi ažėxer''
 
| ''hu/hi ažėxer''
 
| ''nan ažėxer''
 
| ''nan ažėxer''
| ''adøm ažėxeru''
+
| ''aþøm ažėxeru''
 
| ''høm ažėxeru''
 
| ''høm ažėxeru''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present progressive
 
! present progressive
 
| ''nėx še wažxer''
 
| ''nėx še wažxer''
| ''ad/ed še wažxer''
+
| ''/še wažxer''
 
| ''hu/hi še wažxer''
 
| ''hu/hi še wažxer''
 
| ''nan še wažxer''
 
| ''nan še wažxer''
| ''adøm šu wažxer''
+
| ''aþøm šu wažxer''
 
| ''høm šu wažxer''
 
| ''høm šu wažxer''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present subjunctive
 
! present subjunctive
 
| ''nėx ažxeran''
 
| ''nėx ažxeran''
| ''ad/ed ažxeran''
+
| ''/ažxeran''
 
| ''hu/hi ažxeran''
 
| ''hu/hi ažxeran''
 
| ''nan ažxeran''
 
| ''nan ažxeran''
| ''adøm ažxeran''
+
| ''aþøm ažxerun''
| ''høm ažxeran''
+
| ''høm ažxerun''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! future
 
! future
Line 500: Line 524:
  
 
====Binyan 4: ''yftyȝel''====
 
====Binyan 4: ''yftyȝel''====
This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic t-stem and shares similarities with the Hebrew binyan ''hitpa33el'' and Arabic ''ifta3ala''. It is characterized by the t- prefix that comes from the *t infix.
+
This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic t-stem and shares similarities with the Hebrew binyan ''hitpa33el'' and Arabic ''ifta3ala''. It is characterized by the þ- prefix that comes from the *t infix.
  
 
Meanings:
 
Meanings:
Line 506: Line 530:
 
*reciprocal
 
*reciprocal
  
The prefix ''t'' metathesizes with C1 when
+
The prefix ''þ'' metathesizes with C1 when
*C1 = f x s š c h z ž ȝ: ''tf tx ts tš th tz tž tȝ'' > ''ft xt st št ct ht zd žd ȝd''
+
*C1 = f x s š c h z ž ȝ: ''þf þx þs þš þh þz þž þȝ'' > ''ft xt st št ct ht zd žd ȝd''
*C1 = d t þ: ''td tt tþ'' > ''d t þ''
+
*C1 = d t þ: ''þd þt þþ'' > ''d t þ''
  
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
|+ Binyan 4 conjugation: ''hytlymet'' 'find one's way around'
+
|+ Binyan 4 conjugation: ''hyþlymed'' 'find one's way around'
 
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 
! style="width: 75px; " | 1sg
 
! style="width: 75px; " | 1sg
Line 521: Line 545:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
| ''nėx ytlymet''
+
| ''nėx yþlymed''
| ''ad/ed ytlymet''
+
| ''/eþ yþlymed''
| ''hu/hi tlymet''
+
| ''hu/hi þlymed''
| ''nan tlymet''
+
| ''nan þlymed''
| ''adøm tlymet''
+
| ''aþøm þlymed''
| ''høm tlymet''
+
| ''høm þlymed''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
| ''fidi wytlymet''
+
| ''fiti wyþlymed''
| ''fid wytlymet''
+
| ''fit wyþlymed''
| ''fė wytlymet''
+
| ''fė wyþlymed''
| ''finė wytlymet''
+
| ''finė wyþlymed''
| ''fidøm wytlymet''
+
| ''fitøm wyþlymed''
| ''fu wytlymet''
+
| ''fu wyþlymed''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
| ''nėx ytlėmet''
+
| ''nėx yþlėmed''
| ''ad/ed ytlėmet''
+
| ''/eþ yþlėmed''
| ''hu/hi tlėmet''
+
| ''hu/hi þlėmed''
| ''nan tlėmet''
+
| ''nan þlėmed''
| ''adøm tlėmet''
+
| ''aþøm þlėmed''
| ''høm tlėmet''
+
| ''høm þlėmed''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present progressive
 
! present progressive
| ''nėx še wytlymet''
+
| ''nėx še wyþlymed''
| ''ad/ed še wytlymet''
+
| ''/še wyþlymed''
| ''hu/hi še wytlymet''
+
| ''hu/hi še wyþlymed''
| ''nan še wytlymet''
+
| ''nan še wyþlymed''
| ''adøm šu wytlymet''
+
| ''aþøm šu wyþlymed''
| ''høm šu wytlymet''
+
| ''høm šu wyþlymed''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present subjunctive
 
! present subjunctive
| ''nėx ytlymetan''
+
| ''nėx yþlymedan''
| ''ad/ed ytlymetan''
+
| ''/eþ yþlymedan''
| ''hu/hi tlymetan''
+
| ''hu/hi þlymedan''
| ''nan tlymetan''
+
| ''nan þlymedan''
| ''adøm tlymetun''
+
| ''aþøm þlymedun''
| ''høm tlymetun''
+
| ''høm þlymedun''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! future
 
! future
| ''ėbe hytlymut''
+
| ''ėbe hyþlymud''
| ''tėbe hytlymut''
+
| ''tėbe hyþlymud''
| ''jėbe hytlymut''
+
| ''jėbe hyþlymud''
| ''nėbe hytlymut''
+
| ''nėbe hyþlymud''
| ''tėbu hytlymut''
+
| ''tėbu hyþlymud''
| ''jėbu hytlymut''
+
| ''jėbu hyþlymud''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! perfect
 
! perfect
| ''li møtlymat''
+
| ''li møþlymad''
| ''lax/lex møtlymat''
+
| ''lax/lex møþlymad''
| ''lau/la møtlymat''
+
| ''lau/la møþlymad''
| ''lanė møtlymat''
+
| ''lanė møþlymad''
| ''laxøm møtlymat''
+
| ''laxøm møþlymad''
| ''laum møtlymat''
+
| ''laum møþlymad''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! imperative
 
! imperative
|colspan=6|''ytlymet!''
+
|colspan=6|''yþlymed!''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! active participle
 
! active participle
|colspan=6| ''møtlymet''
+
|colspan=6| ''møþlymed''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! passive participle
 
! passive participle
|colspan=6| ''møtlymat''
+
|colspan=6| ''møþlymad''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! w-form
 
! w-form
|colspan=6| ''wytlymėt''
+
|colspan=6| ''wyþlymėd''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! infinitive
 
! infinitive
|colspan=6| ''hytlymut''
+
|colspan=6| ''hyþlymud''
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 596: Line 620:
  
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
|+ Binyan 5 conjugation: ''edygtel'' 'grow up'
+
|+ Binyan 5 conjugation: ''eþygdel'' 'grow up'
 
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 
! style="width: 75px; " | 1sg
 
! style="width: 75px; " | 1sg
Line 606: Line 630:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
| ''nėx edygtel''
+
| ''nėx eþygdel''
| ''ad/ed edygtel''
+
| ''/eþ eþygdel''
| ''hu/hi edygtel''
+
| ''hu/hi eþygdel''
| ''nan edygtel''
+
| ''nan eþygdel''
| ''adøm edygtel''
+
| ''aþøm eþygdelu''
| ''høm edygtel''
+
| ''høm eþygdelu''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
| ''fidi wedygtel''
+
| ''fiti weþygdel''
| ''fid wetygtel''
+
| ''fit weþygdel''
| ''fė wetygtel''
+
| ''fė weþygdel''
| ''finė wetygtel''
+
| ''finė weþygdel''
| ''fidøm wetygtel''
+
| ''fitøm weþygdel''
| ''fu wedygtel''
+
| ''fu waþygdel''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
| ''nėx eþygėtel''
+
| ''nėx eþygėdel''
| ''ad/ed edygėtel''
+
| ''/eþ eþygėdel''
| ''hu/hi edygėtel''
+
| ''hu/hi eþygėdel''
| ''nan edygėtel''
+
| ''nan eþygėdel''
| ''adøm edygėtelu''
+
| ''aþøm eþygėdelu''
| ''høm edygėtelu''
+
| ''høm eþygėdelu''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present progressive
 
! present progressive
 
| ''nėx še weþygdel''
 
| ''nėx še weþygdel''
| ''ad/ed še weþygdel''
+
| ''/še weþygdel''
 
| ''hu/hi še weþygdel''
 
| ''hu/hi še weþygdel''
 
| ''nan še weþygdel''
 
| ''nan še weþygdel''
| ''adøm šu weþygdel''
+
| ''aþøm šu weþygdel''
 
| ''høm šu weþygdel''
 
| ''høm šu weþygdel''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present subjunctive
 
! present subjunctive
 
| ''nėx eþygdelan''
 
| ''nėx eþygdelan''
| ''ad/ed eþygdelan''
+
| ''/eþygdelan''
 
| ''hu/hi eþygdelan''
 
| ''hu/hi eþygdelan''
 
| ''nan eþygdelan''
 
| ''nan eþygdelan''
| ''adøm eþygdelun''
+
| ''aþøm eþygdelun''
 
| ''høm eþygdelun''
 
| ''høm eþygdelun''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! future
 
! future
| ''ėbe hedygtul''
+
| ''ėbe heþygdul''
| ''tėbe hedygtul''
+
| ''tėbe heþygdul''
| ''jėbe hedygtul''
+
| ''jėbe heþygdul''
| ''nėbe hedygtul''
+
| ''nėbe heþygdul''
| ''tėbu hedygtul''
+
| ''tėbu heþygdul''
| ''jėbu hedygtul''
+
| ''jėbu heþygdul''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! perfect
 
! perfect
| ''li medygtal''
+
| ''li meþygdal''
| ''lax/lex medygtal''
+
| ''lax/lex meþygdal''
| ''lau/la medygtal''
+
| ''lau/la meþygdal''
| ''lanė medygtal''
+
| ''lanė meþygdal''
| ''laxøm medygtal''
+
| ''laxøm meþygdal''
| ''laum medygtal''
+
| ''laum meþygdal''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! imperative
 
! imperative
|colspan=6| ''hedygtel!''
+
| ''-''
 +
| ''heþygdel!''
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''-''
 +
| ''heþygdelu!''
 +
| ''-''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! active participle
 
! active participle
Line 677: Line 706:
 
|}
 
|}
  
====Binyan 6: ''dyfaȝel''====
+
====Binyan 6: ''þyfaȝel''====
 
This binyan comes from the tD-stem (t- with geminate stem) and corresponds directly to the Arabic binyan ''tafa33ala''.
 
This binyan comes from the tD-stem (t- with geminate stem) and corresponds directly to the Arabic binyan ''tafa33ala''.
  
Line 683: Line 712:
 
*reciprocal or back-and-forth action
 
*reciprocal or back-and-forth action
 
*reaction/back, re-: the most productive modern meaning
 
*reaction/back, re-: the most productive modern meaning
**''dy'awer'' 'to reflect', from ''aur'' 'light'
+
**''þy'awer'' 'to reflect', from ''aur'' 'light'
**''dyparkes'' 'to react', from ''parkis'' 'action'
+
**''þyparkes'' 'to react', from ''parkis'' 'action'
**''dysalem'' 'to repay', from √s-l-m 'peace, whole'
+
**''þysalem'' 'to repay', from √s-l-m 'peace, whole'
**''dyȝanė'' 'to satisfy', from √ȝ-n-j 'distress, need'; probably influenced by a now obsolete meaning 'to answer' of the same root
+
**''þyȝanė'' 'to satisfy', from √ȝ-n-j 'distress, need'; probably influenced by a now obsolete meaning 'to answer' of the same root
 
*unpredictable change in meaning
 
*unpredictable change in meaning
  
The resemblance of this binyan to the very common ''faȝel'' binyan has led to the ''dy-'' prefix becoming productive, with some semantic overlap with the prefix ''re-'' in English.
+
The resemblance of this binyan to the very common ''faȝel'' binyan has led to the ''þy-'' prefix becoming productive, with some semantic overlap with the prefix ''re-'' in English.
  
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
|+ Binyan 6 conjugation: ''dytares'' 'teach'
+
|+ Binyan 6 conjugation: ''þydares'' 'teach'
 
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 
! style="width: 75px; " | 1sg
 
! style="width: 75px; " | 1sg
Line 702: Line 731:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
| ''nėx ydytares''
+
| ''nėx yþydares''
| ''ad/ed ydytares''
+
| ''/eþ yþydares''
| ''hu/hi dytares''
+
| ''hu/hi þydares''
| ''nan dytares''
+
| ''nan þydares''
| ''adøm dytares''
+
| ''aþøm þydares''
| ''høm dytares''
+
| ''høm þydares''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
| ''fiti wydytares''
+
| ''fiti wyþydares''
| ''fit wydytares''
+
| ''fit wyþydares''
| ''fė wydytares''
+
| ''fė wyþydares''
| ''finė wydytares''
+
| ''finė wyþydares''
| ''fitøm wydytares''
+
| ''fitøm wyþydares''
| ''fu wydytares''
+
| ''fu wyþydares''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
| ''nėx ydytrėres''
+
| ''nėx yþydrėres''
| ''ad/ed ydytrėres''
+
| ''/eþ yþydrėres''
| ''hu/hi dytrėres''
+
| ''hu/hi þydrėres''
| ''nan dytrėres''
+
| ''nan þydrėres''
| ''adøm dytrėres''
+
| ''aþøm þydrėres''
| ''høm dytrėres''
+
| ''høm þydrėres''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present progressive
 
! present progressive
| ''nėx še wydytares''
+
| ''nėx še wyþydares''
| ''ad/ed še wydytares''
+
| ''/še wyþydares''
| ''hu/hi še wydytares''
+
| ''hu/hi še wyþydares''
| ''nan še wydytares''
+
| ''nan še wyþydares''
| ''adøm šu wydytares''
+
| ''aþøm šu wyþydares''
| ''høm šu wydytares''
+
| ''høm šu wyþydares''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present subjunctive
 
! present subjunctive
| ''nėx ydytaresan''
+
| ''nėx yþydaresan''
| ''ad/ed ydytaresan''
+
| ''/eþ yþydaresan''
| ''hu/hi dytaresan''
+
| ''hu/hi þydaresan''
| ''nan dytaresan''
+
| ''nan þydaresan''
| ''adøm dytaresun''
+
| ''aþøm þydaresun''
| ''høm dytaresun''
+
| ''høm þydaresun''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! future
 
! future
| ''ėbe dytarus''
+
| ''ėbe þydarus''
| ''tėbe dytarus''
+
| ''tėbe þydarus''
| ''jėbe dytarus''
+
| ''jėbe þydarus''
| ''nėbe dytarus''
+
| ''nėbe þydarus''
| ''tėbu dytarus''
+
| ''tėbu þydarus''
| ''jėbu dytarus''
+
| ''jėbu þydarus''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! perfect
 
! perfect
| ''li mødytaras''
+
| ''li møþydaras''
| ''lax/lex mødytaras''
+
| ''lax/lex møþydaras''
| ''lau/la mødytaras''
+
| ''lau/la møþydaras''
| ''lanė mødytaras''
+
| ''lanė møþydaras''
| ''laxøm mødytaras''
+
| ''laxøm møþydaras''
| ''laum mødytaras''
+
| ''laum møþydaras''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! imperative
 
! imperative
|colspan=6|''dytares!''
+
|colspan=6|''þydares!''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! active participle
 
! active participle
|colspan=6| ''mødytares''
+
|colspan=6| ''møþydares''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! passive participle
 
! passive participle
|colspan=6| ''mødytaras''
+
|colspan=6| ''møþydaras''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! w-form
 
! w-form
|colspan=6| ''wydytares''
+
|colspan=6| ''wyþydares''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! infinitive
 
! infinitive
|colspan=6| ''dytarus''
+
|colspan=6| ''þydarus''
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 776: Line 805:
 
This binyan comes from the Št-stem and is directly related to the binyan ''istaf3ala'' in Arabic and the very rare binyan ''hishtaf3el'' in Biblical Hebrew.
 
This binyan comes from the Št-stem and is directly related to the binyan ''istaf3ala'' in Arabic and the very rare binyan ''hishtaf3el'' in Biblical Hebrew.
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
|+ Binyan 7 conjugation: ''styþȝem'' 'try out'
+
|+ Binyan 7 conjugation: ''stytȝem'' 'try out'
 
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 
! style="width: 75px; "| → Person<br/>↓ Tense
 
! style="width: 75px; " | 1sg
 
! style="width: 75px; " | 1sg
Line 786: Line 815:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
| ''nėx ystyþȝem''
+
| ''nėx ystytȝem''
| ''ad/ed ystyþȝem''
+
| ''/eþ ystytȝem''
| ''hu/hi styþȝem''
+
| ''hu/hi stytȝem''
| ''nan styþȝem''
+
| ''nan stytȝem''
| ''adøm styþȝem''
+
| ''aþøm stytȝem''
| ''høm styþȝem''
+
| ''høm stytȝem''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
| ''fidi wystyþȝem''
+
| ''fiti wystytȝem''
| ''fid wystyþȝem''
+
| ''fit wystytȝem''
| ''fė wystyþȝem''
+
| ''fė wystytȝem''
| ''finė wystyþȝem''
+
| ''finė wystytȝem''
| ''fidøm wystyþȝem''
+
| ''fitøm wystytȝem''
| ''fu wystyþȝem''
+
| ''fu wystytȝem''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
| ''nėx ystyþėȝem''
+
| ''nėx ystytėȝem''
| ''ad/ed ystyþėȝem''
+
| ''/eþ ystytėȝem''
| ''hu/hi styþėȝem''
+
| ''hu/hi stytėȝem''
| ''nan styþėȝem''
+
| ''nan stytėȝem''
| ''adøm styþėȝem''
+
| ''aþøm stytėȝem''
| ''høm styþėȝem''
+
| ''høm stytėȝem''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present progressive
 
! present progressive
| ''nėx še wystyþȝem''
+
| ''nėx še wystytȝem''
| ''ad/ed še wystyþȝem''
+
| ''/še wystytȝem''
| ''hu/hi še wystyþȝem''
+
| ''hu/hi še wystytȝem''
| ''nan še wystyþȝem''
+
| ''nan še wystytȝem''
| ''adøm šu wystyþȝem''
+
| ''aþøm šu wystytȝem''
| ''høm šu wystyþȝem''
+
| ''høm šu wystytȝem''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present subjunctive
 
! present subjunctive
| ''nėx ystyþȝeman''
+
| ''nėx ystytȝeman''
| ''ad/ed ystyþȝeman''
+
| ''/eþ ystytȝeman''
| ''hu/hi styþȝeman''
+
| ''hu/hi stytȝeman''
| ''nan styþȝeman''
+
| ''nan stytȝeman''
| ''adøm styþȝemun''
+
| ''aþøm stytȝemun''
| ''jystyþȝemun''
+
| ''jystytȝemun''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! future
 
! future
| ''ėbe styþȝum''
+
| ''ėbe stytȝum''
| ''tėbe styþȝum''
+
| ''tėbe stytȝum''
| ''jėbe styþȝum''
+
| ''jėbe stytȝum''
| ''nėbe styþȝum''
+
| ''nėbe stytȝum''
| ''tėbu styþȝum''
+
| ''tėbu stytȝum''
| ''jėbu styþȝum''
+
| ''jėbu stytȝum''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! perfect
 
! perfect
| ''li møstyþȝam''
+
| ''li møstytȝam''
| ''lax/lex møstyþȝam''
+
| ''lax/lex møstytȝam''
| ''lau/la møstyþȝam''
+
| ''lau/la møstytȝam''
| ''lanė møstyþȝam''
+
| ''lanė møstytȝam''
| ''laxøm møstyþȝam''
+
| ''laxøm møstytȝam''
| ''laum møstyþȝam''
+
| ''laum møstytȝam''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! imperative
 
! imperative
 
| ''-''
 
| ''-''
| ''styþȝem!''
+
| ''stytȝem!''
 
| ''-''
 
| ''-''
 
| ''-''
 
| ''-''
| ''styþȝemu!''
+
| ''stytȝemu!''
 
| ''-''
 
| ''-''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! active participle
 
! active participle
|colspan=6| ''møstyþȝem''
+
|colspan=6| ''møstytȝem''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! passive participle
 
! passive participle
|colspan=6| ''møstyþȝam''
+
|colspan=6| ''møstytȝam''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! w-form
 
! w-form
|colspan=6| ''wystyþȝem''
+
|colspan=6| ''wystytȝem''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! infinitive
 
! infinitive
|colspan=6| ''styþȝum''
+
|colspan=6| ''stytȝum''
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 867: Line 896:
 
It is used for recent loan verbs like ''maksimezi'' 'to maximize', but can also be used to derive verbs from native nouns:
 
It is used for recent loan verbs like ''maksimezi'' 'to maximize', but can also be used to derive verbs from native nouns:
 
*''mydrasi'' 'to school' (from ''mydras'' 'school')
 
*''mydrasi'' 'to school' (from ''mydras'' 'school')
*''daxili'' 'to consume' (from ''daxil'' 'consumption', itself from the root √ʔ-x-l 'to eat')
+
*''þaxili'' 'to consume' (from ''þaxil'' 'consumption', itself from the root √ʔ-x-l 'to eat')
 
*''žaxoji'' 'to entitle, to allow' (from ''žaxo'' 'right')
 
*''žaxoji'' 'to entitle, to allow' (from ''žaxo'' 'right')
 
*''ȝeini'' 'to eye' (from ''ȝein'' 'eye')
 
*''ȝeini'' 'to eye' (from ''ȝein'' 'eye')
Line 873: Line 902:
 
The endings are mainly derived from Middle Togarmite forms of 3-y verbs.
 
The endings are mainly derived from Middle Togarmite forms of 3-y verbs.
 
*[STEM]-i = active
 
*[STEM]-i = active
*dy-[STEM]-i = re-
+
*þy-[STEM]-i = re-
 
*mø- = active participle
 
*mø- = active participle
*-ėt = infinitive
+
*-ėþ = infinitive
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="bluetable lightbluebg" style="width: 700px; text-align:center;"
 
|+ Weak verb conjugation: ''mydrasi'' 'to school'
 
|+ Weak verb conjugation: ''mydrasi'' 'to school'
Line 888: Line 917:
 
! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
 
| ''nėx ymydrasi''
 
| ''nėx ymydrasi''
| ''ad/ed ymydrasi''
+
| ''/ymydrasi''
 
| ''hu/hi mydrasi''
 
| ''hu/hi mydrasi''
 
| ''nan mydrasi''
 
| ''nan mydrasi''
| ''adøm mydrasi''
+
| ''aþøm mydrasi''
 
| ''høm mydrasi''
 
| ''høm mydrasi''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
| ''fidi wymydrasi''
+
| ''fiti wymydrasi''
| ''fid wymydrasi''
+
| ''fit wymydrasi''
 
| ''fė wymydrasi''
 
| ''fė wymydrasi''
 
| ''finė wymydrasi''
 
| ''finė wymydrasi''
| ''fidøm wymydrasi''
+
| ''fitøm wymydrasi''
 
| ''fu wymydrasi''
 
| ''fu wymydrasi''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
 
| ''nėx ymydrasė''
 
| ''nėx ymydrasė''
| ''ad/ed ymydrasė''
+
| ''/ymydrasė''
 
| ''hu/hi mydrasė''
 
| ''hu/hi mydrasė''
 
| ''nan mydrasė''
 
| ''nan mydrasė''
| ''adøm mydrasė''
+
| ''aþøm mydrasė''
 
| ''høm mydrasė''
 
| ''høm mydrasė''
 
|-
 
|-
Line 920: Line 949:
 
! present subjunctive
 
! present subjunctive
 
| ''nėx ymydrasan''
 
| ''nėx ymydrasan''
| ''ad/ed ymydrasan''
+
| ''/ymydrasan''
 
| ''hu/hi mydrasan''
 
| ''hu/hi mydrasan''
 
| ''nan mydrasan''
 
| ''nan mydrasan''
| ''adøm mydrasun''
+
| ''aþøm mydrasun''
 
| ''høm mydrasun''
 
| ''høm mydrasun''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! future
 
! future
| ''ėbe mydrasėt''
+
| ''ėbe mydrasėþ''
| ''tėbe mydrasėt''
+
| ''tėbe mydrasėþ''
| ''jėbe mydrasėt''
+
| ''jėbe mydrasėþ''
| ''nėbe mydrasėt''
+
| ''nėbe mydrasėþ''
| ''tėbu mydrasėt''
+
| ''tėbu mydrasėþ''
| ''jėbu mydrasėt''
+
| ''jėbu mydrasėþ''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! perfect
 
! perfect
Line 955: Line 984:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! infinitive
 
! infinitive
|colspan=6| ''mydrasėt''
+
|colspan=6| ''mydrasėþ''
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 971: Line 1,000:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
| ''fidi''
+
| ''fiti''
| ''fid''
+
| ''fit''
 
| ''fė''
 
| ''fė''
 
| ''finė''
 
| ''finė''
| ''fidøm''
+
| ''fitøm''
 
| ''fu''
 
| ''fu''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
 
! past progressive; past subjunctive
| ''fidi wyfė''
+
| ''fiti wyfė''
| ''fid wyfė''
+
| ''fit wyfė''
 
| ''fė wyfė''
 
| ''fė wyfė''
 
| ''finė wyfė''
 
| ''finė wyfė''
| ''fidøm wyfė''
+
| ''fitøm wyfė''
 
| ''fu wyfė''
 
| ''fu wyfė''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
 
| ''nėx še'' (or ''nėx'')
 
| ''nėx še'' (or ''nėx'')
| ''ad/ed še'' (or ''ad/ed'')
+
| ''/še'' (or ''/'')
 
| ''hu/hi še'' (or ''hu/hi'')
 
| ''hu/hi še'' (or ''hu/hi'')
 
| ''nan še'' (or ''nan'')
 
| ''nan še'' (or ''nan'')
| ''adøm šu'' (or ''adøm'')
+
| ''aþøm šu'' (or ''aþøm'')
 
| ''høm šu'' (or ''høm'')
 
| ''høm šu'' (or ''høm'')
 
|-
 
|-
Line 1,011: Line 1,040:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! future
 
! future
| ''ėbe fėt''
+
| ''ėbe fėþ''
| ''tėbe fėt''
+
| ''tėbe fėþ''
| ''jėbe fėt''
+
| ''jėbe fėþ''
| ''nėbe fėt''
+
| ''nėbe fėþ''
| ''tėbu fėt''
+
| ''tėbu fėþ''
| ''jėbu fėt''
+
| ''jėbu fėþ''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! imperative
 
! imperative
Line 1,031: Line 1,060:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! infinitive
 
! infinitive
|colspan=6| ''fėt''
+
|colspan=6| ''fėþ''
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 1,047: Line 1,076:
 
! past; conditional
 
! past; conditional
 
| ''nex yxel''
 
| ''nex yxel''
| ''ad/ed yxel''
+
| ''/yxel''
 
| ''hu/hi xel''
 
| ''hu/hi xel''
 
| ''nan xel''
 
| ''nan xel''
| ''adøm xel''
+
| ''aþøm xel''
 
| ''høm xel''
 
| ''høm xel''
 
|-
 
|-
Line 1,071: Line 1,100:
 
! present subjunctive
 
! present subjunctive
 
| ''nėx yxelan''
 
| ''nėx yxelan''
| ''ad/ed yxelan''
+
| ''/yxelan''
 
| ''hu/hi xelan''
 
| ''hu/hi xelan''
 
| ''nan xelan''
 
| ''nan xelan''
| ''adøm xelun''
+
| ''aþøm xelun''
 
| ''høm xelun''
 
| ''høm xelun''
 
|-
 
|-
Line 1,111: Line 1,140:
 
! present
 
! present
 
| ''nėx høbė''
 
| ''nėx høbė''
| ''ad/ed høbė''
+
| ''/høbė''
 
| ''hu/hi høbė''
 
| ''hu/hi høbė''
 
| ''nan høbu''
 
| ''nan høbu''
| ''adøm høbu''
+
| ''aþøm høbu''
 
| ''høm høbu''
 
| ''høm høbu''
 
|}
 
|}
Line 1,138: Line 1,167:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! past subjunctive
 
! past subjunctive
| ''hwidi wyrši''
+
| ''hwiti wyrši''
| ''hwid wyrši''
+
| ''hwit wyrši''
 
| ''hwė wyrši''
 
| ''hwė wyrši''
 
| ''hwinė wyrši''
 
| ''hwinė wyrši''
| ''hwidøm wyrši''
+
| ''hwitøm wyrši''
 
| ''hwu wyrši''
 
| ''hwu wyrši''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! present
 
! present
 
| ''nėx ryšė''
 
| ''nėx ryšė''
| ''ad/ed ryšė''
+
| ''/ryšė''
 
| ''hu/hi ryšė''
 
| ''hu/hi ryšė''
 
| ''nan ryšu''
 
| ''nan ryšu''
| ''adøm ryšu''
+
| ''aþøm ryšu''
 
| ''høm ryšu''
 
| ''høm ryšu''
 
|-
 
|-
Line 1,188: Line 1,217:
 
*''ly'' (''l'' before V) 'to'
 
*''ly'' (''l'' before V) 'to'
 
*''by'' (''b'' before V) 'by, at'
 
*''by'' (''b'' before V) 'by, at'
*''šyto'' 'out of' (from *śadiy-ah 'to the field')
+
*''šydo'' 'out of' (from *śadiy-ah 'to the field')
 
*''me'' (''men'' before V) 'from'
 
*''me'' (''men'' before V) 'from'
 
*''ȝem'' 'with'
 
*''ȝem'' 'with'
 
*''ȝal'' 'on'
 
*''ȝal'' 'on'
*''lit'' 'of (possessive)'
+
*''lid'' 'of (possessive)'
 
*''ȝbar'' 'over'
 
*''ȝbar'' 'over'
*''dad'' 'under'
+
*''þaþ'' 'under'
*''ardo'' 'down' (from *ʔarþ-ah "earthward")
+
*''arþo'' 'down' (from *ʔarþ-ah "earthward")
*''tarxan'' 'along'
+
*''darxan'' 'along'
 
===Syntax of prepositions===
 
===Syntax of prepositions===
  
Line 1,202: Line 1,231:
 
===Cardinal===
 
===Cardinal===
 
0: cefry
 
0: cefry
1: yhat
+
1: yhad
 
2: šnein / attributive šnė
 
2: šnein / attributive šnė
 
3: šlėš (animate šlėšt)
 
3: šlėš (animate šlėšt)
Line 1,210: Line 1,239:
 
7: sabȝy (animate sabȝyt)
 
7: sabȝy (animate sabȝyt)
 
8: šmėni (animate šmėnt)
 
8: šmėni (animate šmėnt)
9: desȝy (animate desȝyt)
+
9: þesȝy (animate tesȝyt)
 
10: ȝašry (animate ȝašryt)
 
10: ȝašry (animate ȝašryt)
11: ȝašry yhat
+
11: ȝašry yhad
 
12: ȝašry šnein
 
12: ȝašry šnein
 
20: ȝešrin
 
20: ȝešrin
Line 1,221: Line 1,250:
 
70: sybȝin
 
70: sybȝin
 
80: šmėnin
 
80: šmėnin
90: desȝin
+
90: þesȝin
100: me'yt
+
100: me'
101: me'yt yhat
+
101: me'yþ yhad
200: metein
+
200: meþein
300: šlėš me'yt
+
300: šlėš me'
400: yrbaȝ me'yt
+
400: yrbaȝ me'
 
1000: alfy
 
1000: alfy
 
2000: alfein
 
2000: alfein
 
3000: šlėš alf
 
3000: šlėš alf
 
1000000: alfun
 
1000000: alfun
10^9: bėdfun
+
10^9: bėþfun
 
10^12: gamfun
 
10^12: gamfun
 
etc.
 
etc.
Line 1,237: Line 1,266:
 
Plural numerals usually take plural nouns. They used to take singular nouns, however this is considered archaic.
 
Plural numerals usually take plural nouns. They used to take singular nouns, however this is considered archaic.
  
Numbers ending in digits "3" through "9" (thus ending in ''šlėš'' through ''desȝy''), or "10" (thus ending in ''ȝašry''), have two forms depending on the animacy of the noun: ''hymes myrþemi'' 'five abacuses', but ''hymest ahėt'' 'five sisters'. The animate forms come from the masculine forms (reverse polarity) marked with ''*-t'' in Proto-Semitic.
+
Numbers ending in digits "3" through "9" (thus ending in ''šlėš'' through ''tesȝy''), or "10" (thus ending in ''ȝašry''), have two forms depending on the animacy of the noun: ''hymes myrþemi'' 'five abacuses', but ''hymest ahėþ'' 'five sisters'. The animate forms come from the masculine forms (reverse polarity) marked with ''*-t'' in Proto-Semitic.
  
 
===Ordinal===
 
===Ordinal===
Line 1,250: Line 1,279:
 
*7th = sbuȝ
 
*7th = sbuȝ
 
*8th = šmun
 
*8th = šmun
*9th = dsuȝ
+
*9th = þsuȝ
 
*10th = ȝšur
 
*10th = ȝšur
 
*11th = ȝašry-yȝlė
 
*11th = ȝašry-yȝlė
Line 1,258: Line 1,287:
  
 
===Fractional===
 
===Fractional===
Fractional numerals are formed with the segolate pattern CøCCy (pl. CøCaCi). Compound numerals can be inflected as well, like in the case of ordinal numerals. The analogized form ''øhty'' is used for numerals ending in "1".
+
Fractional numerals are formed with the segolate pattern CøCCy (pl. CøCaCi). Compound numerals can be inflected as well, like in the case of ordinal numerals. The analogized form ''øhdy'' is used for numerals ending in "1".
 
*half = gøb (from *gunb- 'side')
 
*half = gøb (from *gunb- 'side')
 
*3rd = šølšy
 
*3rd = šølšy
 
*4th = røbȝy
 
*4th = røbȝy
*11th = ȝašry-øhty
+
*11th = ȝašry-øhdy
  
 
To express "m/n", Togarmite uses "m nths": "2/3" is ''šnė šølaši''.
 
To express "m/n", Togarmite uses "m nths": "2/3" is ''šnė šølaši''.
Line 1,268: Line 1,297:
 
==Syntax==
 
==Syntax==
 
===Faulty accusative marker===
 
===Faulty accusative marker===
The faulty accusative marker ''id'' is used. It behaves like MSA accusative case and Welsh soft mutation: when there is a constituent separating the verb or predicate from a second constituent, ''id'' comes between the two constituents regardless of whether the second constituent is actually a direct object. Example:
+
The faulty accusative marker '''' is used. It behaves like MSA accusative case and Welsh soft mutation: when there is a constituent separating the verb or predicate from a second constituent, '''' comes between the two constituents regardless of whether the second constituent is actually a direct object. Example:
  
*''Halex wyfė li '''id''' šlėšt xlabi, wy ȝedo lėš li '''id''' nux.'' = I used to have three dogs, and now I don't have any.
+
*''Halex wyfė li '''''' šlėšt xlabi, wy ȝeþo lėš li '''''' nux.'' = I used to have three dogs, and now I don't have any.
*''Yn tėrest li ryšė li '''id''' ȝyšėþ rab damuni beid.'' = My teacher wants me to do a lot of homework.
+
*''Dėrestyn li ryšė li '''''' ȝyšėþ rab þamuni beiþ.'' = My teacher wants me to do a lot of homework.
  
 
===Questions===
 
===Questions===
Line 1,282: Line 1,311:
 
*''Ha iš lex zman?'' = Do you (f. sg.) have time?
 
*''Ha iš lex zman?'' = Do you (f. sg.) have time?
  
The particle ''iš'' uses the accusative marker ''id'' when the "object" is animate.
+
The particle ''iš'' uses the accusative marker '''' when the "object" is animate.
  
 
===Conditional clauses===
 
===Conditional clauses===
 
*"if" = ''em''
 
*"if" = ''em''
 
*"then" = ''ež''
 
*"then" = ''ež''
*"unless" = ''lulė''
 
  
 
===Relative clauses===
 
===Relative clauses===
Line 1,294: Line 1,322:
 
For relative clauses whose heads are prepositional objects in the relative clause, there are two strategies like in English:
 
For relative clauses whose heads are prepositional objects in the relative clause, there are two strategies like in English:
  
*In informal Togarmite, the relativizer is treated as a resumptive pronoun which takes the preposition, like English ''which'': ''Yn gabry ly xi nėx yden yn madan'', lit. 'the man to which I gave the gift'. This syntax arose from the influence of surrounding languages like English.
+
*In informal Togarmite, the relativizer is treated as a resumptive pronoun which takes the preposition, like English ''which'': ''gabryn ly xi nėx yþen maþanyn'', lit. 'the man to which I gave the gift'. This syntax arose from the influence of surrounding languages like English.
*In formal Togarmite, the preposition goes to the end of the clause: ''yn gabry xi nėx yden yn madan ly'' lit. 'the man which I gave the gift to'. This syntax arose from the native Semitic construction which used a resumptive pronoun on the preposition: after the resumptive pronoun lost the stress, the preposition lost its pronominal suffix and moved to the end of the clause.
+
*In formal Togarmite, the preposition goes to the end of the clause: ''gabryn xi nėx yþen maþanyn ly'' lit. 'the man which I gave the gift to'. This syntax arose from the native Semitic construction which used a resumptive pronoun on the preposition: after the resumptive pronoun lost the stress, the preposition lost its pronominal suffix and moved to the end of the clause.
*A combination of both strategies can be used: ''yn gabry ly xi nėx yden yn madan ly'', lit. 'The man to which I gave the gift to'.
+
*A combination of both strategies can be used: ''gabryn ly xi nėx yþen maþanyn ly'', lit. 'The man to which I gave the gift to'.
  
 
==Derivation==
 
==Derivation==
 
===Noun and adjective patterns===
 
===Noun and adjective patterns===
*''CaCCy(t), CeCCy(t), CøCCy(t)'' = segolates
+
*''CaCCy(þ), CeCCy(þ), CøCCy(þ)'' = segolates
 
*''CyCiC'' = adjective; -able
 
*''CyCiC'' = adjective; -able
 
*''CyCuC'' = adjective; color
 
*''CyCuC'' = adjective; color
Line 1,310: Line 1,338:
 
*''myCCeC(t)'' = instrument
 
*''myCCeC(t)'' = instrument
 
*''maCCeCt'' = causative version of ''myCCeC(t)''  
 
*''maCCeCt'' = causative version of ''myCCeC(t)''  
*''dyCCuC'', ''dyCCiC'', ''dyCCėC'' = action or process
+
*''þyCCuC'', ''þyCCiC'', ''þyCCėC'' = action or process
*''dyCCøCt'' = (hypothetical cognate of Hebrew tiCCóCet) = system of things
+
*''þyCCøCt'' = (hypothetical cognate of Hebrew tiCCóCet) = system of things
 
*''CaCėC'' = agentive
 
*''CaCėC'' = agentive
 
**''CaCaCt'' = feminine agentive (not always used)
 
**''CaCaCt'' = feminine agentive (not always used)
Line 1,322: Line 1,350:
 
*''-in'' = collectives
 
*''-in'' = collectives
 
**''lamusin'' 'charity'
 
**''lamusin'' 'charity'
*''-ud'' = abstract noun
+
*''-'' = abstract noun
 
*''-i'' = forms adjectives
 
*''-i'' = forms adjectives
*''-it'' = forms adverbs
+
*''-'' = forms adverbs
 
*''i-'' = non-, un-
 
*''i-'' = non-, un-
 
**''ibašari'' 'incorporeal'
 
**''ibašari'' 'incorporeal'
 
**''iwøxli'' 'impossible'
 
**''iwøxli'' 'impossible'
*''þarmy-'' = pre-, not yet
+
*''tarmy-'' = pre-, not yet
**''þarmy-mynaša'' 'never married'
+
**''tarmy-mynaša'' 'never married'
 
*''-yr'' = someone who is characterized by X (from English)
 
*''-yr'' = someone who is characterized by X (from English)
**''wtuȝyr'' 'know-it-all', from ''wtuȝ'' 'knowledgeable'
+
**''wduȝyr'' 'know-it-all', from ''wduȝ'' 'knowledgeable'
 
*''-ri'' = -ry (from English)
 
*''-ri'' = -ry (from English)
 
**''kdėsri'' = excessive piousness or asceticism, from ''kdės'' 'holy'
 
**''kdėsri'' = excessive piousness or asceticism, from ''kdės'' 'holy'
Line 1,338: Line 1,366:
 
*''e-'' = a- (from ʔiC-, an assimilated form of the OTog preposition ''ʔin'' 'in'); these adjectives can usually only be predicative
 
*''e-'' = a- (from ʔiC-, an assimilated form of the OTog preposition ''ʔin'' 'in'); these adjectives can usually only be predicative
 
**''e'est'' 'ablaze'
 
**''e'est'' 'ablaze'
**''etarxy'' 'away'
+
**''edarxy'' 'away'
**''edal'' 'galore' (lit. a-mound)
+
**''eþal'' 'galore' (lit. a-mound)
 
**''emein'' 'drowned, lost forever', lit. awater
 
**''emein'' 'drowned, lost forever', lit. awater
 
*''-byl'' = -able (from English -able and native ''abȝel'' 'to be able to')
 
*''-byl'' = -able (from English -able and native ''abȝel'' 'to be able to')
Line 1,345: Line 1,373:
 
==Sample texts==
 
==Sample texts==
 
===Newton's laws of motion===
 
===Newton's laws of motion===
''I: Tbar šėbød by tymi, o by ȝyþėk enomorfy, lulė ytraȝ prėkes ȝal dež.''
+
''I: Dbar šėbøþ by dymi, o by ȝyþėk enomorfy, lulė ydraȝ prėkes ȝal þež.''
  
 
I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.
 
I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.
  
''II: Yn šanuj in yn dyȝdik lit gaf še mydxøni la øþis yn mødyfacar ȝal yn gaf; wa šanuj kėrė tarxan yn kau yn dykin žė ži øþis še mødyfacar ȝal.''
+
''II: Šanujyn in þyȝþikyn lid gaf še myþxøni l' øþisin møþyfacaryn ȝal gafyn; wy šanujyn kėrė darxan kauyn þykinyn žė ži øþisin še møþyfacar ȝal.''
  
 
II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.
 
II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.
  
''III: Iš ly xøl parkis id dyparkis is w' anteþet.''
+
''III: Iš ly xøl parkis iþ þyparkis is w' anteþet.''
  
 
III: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
 
III: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
Line 1,359: Line 1,387:
 
===O how quickly the sculpture of life===
 
===O how quickly the sculpture of life===
 
<poem>
 
<poem>
''O! Xma myhirit yn myklaȝ lid yn hein''
+
''O! Xma myhiriþ myklaȝyn lid hein''
 
''Šaber in temaša zȝarȝeri!''
 
''Šaber in temaša zȝarȝeri!''
''Yn mygilud lit yn malxy ȝal yn þrøn lau''
+
''Mygiluþyn lid malxyn ȝal þrønyn lau''
''Še xlilit mygruf etarxy by gali jam.''
+
''Še xliliþ mygruf edarxy by gali jam.''
''Adøm xi jėd heno mømancabta hen,''
+
''Aþøm xi jėþ heno mømancabta hen,''
''Ȝabry hen Elėh adøm lawani ȝal yn ard.''
+
''Ȝabry hen Elėh aþøm lawani ȝal arþyn.''
''Xøl lanė møtajan ȝal parkisi lanė;''
+
''Xøl lanė mødajan ȝal parkisi lanė;''
''Dnenė dėt la ȝni, wy agaþeržijėt hat ly wtut.''
+
''Þnenė þėþ ly ȝnijyn, wy agaþeržijėþ had ly wdud.''
  
 
O how quickly the sculpture of life
 
O how quickly the sculpture of life
Line 1,380: Line 1,408:
 
===Stairway To Heaven===
 
===Stairway To Heaven===
 
<poem>
 
<poem>
'''Maȝlyt lyn Symeinit'''
+
'''Maȝlyþ ly Symeiniþyn'''
gabryt xi še šur
+
gabryþ xi še šur
 
Xøl xi nėher še žahab
 
Xøl xi nėher še žahab
Wy hi še wykna maȝlyt lyn symeinit
+
Wy hi še wykna maȝlyþ ly symeiniþyn
 
</poem>
 
</poem>
  
 
===UDHR===
 
===UDHR===
''Xøl ynėsi še mewølati hyruri w' isi in akšoprepja wy žyxawi. Høm še mødyhanani ȝym ložeki wy synidisi wy høbu ly parkus l' otšni in ruh lit ahwud.''
+
''Xøl ynėsi še mewøladi hyruri w' isi in akšoprepjan wy žyxawil laum. Høm še møþyhanani ȝym ložeki wy synidisi wy høbu ly parkus l' odšni in ruh lid ahwuþ.''
  
all human-PL COP be.born/PASS.PART-PL free-PL and equal-PL in dignity and right-PL. 3PL COP grant/PASS.PART-PL with reason and conscience and ought-3PL to act.VN to one_another in spirit of brotherhood
+
all human-PL COP be.born/PASS.PART-PL free-PL and equal-PL in dignity-DEF.SG and right/PL-DEF.PL 3PL.POSS. 3PL COP grant/PASS.PART-PL with reason and conscience and ought-3PL to act.VN to one_another in spirit of brotherhood
  
/xøl ə'nesi ʃɛ mɛvø'lati hə'ruri 'visi in akʃo'prepjan ʒə'xavi  || høm ʃɛ møθəha'nani ɣəm lo'ʒɛki və səni'disi və 'høbu lə 'parkus 'lotʃni in ruh lit 'ahvud/
+
/xøl ə'nesi ʃɛ mɛvø'ladi hə'ruri 'visi in akʃo'prepjan v ʒə'xavil løym || høm ʃɛ møθəha'nani ɣəm lo'ʒɛki fsəni'disi və 'høbu lə 'parkus 'lotʃni in ruh lid 'ahvuθ/
 
[[Category:Semitic languages]]
 
[[Category:Semitic languages]]
 
[[Category:Lõis]]
 
[[Category:Lõis]]

Revision as of 18:21, 13 September 2019

Togarmite/Lexicon
Togarmite
Þėgamiþ
Pronunciation /θegamiθ/
Created by IlL
Setting Lõis
Language family
Afro-Asiatic
ISO 639-3

Togarmite (Þėgamiþ /θegamiθ/ or yn lysėn Þėgami) is a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew. It is inspired by Lithuanian, Germanic languages (particularly Icelandic) and the Semitic conlang Alashian.

Modern Togarmite retains the Semitic root-and-pattern morphology of Old Togarmite, but has undergone some phonological and grammatical restructuring, taking features of the Turkey-Northern Levant-Iranian sprachbund, in common with L-Persian, Padmanábha and English:

  • Grimm's law: The Old Togarmite aspirated stops φ θ χ (from Proto-Semitic *p t k) generally become spirants /f θ x/.
  • loss of grammatical gender
  • loss of the passive binyanim
  • loss of the suffix conjugation except in a few verbs
  • the use of the w-form (inherited from the Old Togarmite waw-consecutive future) for the present progressive, mirroring English -ing < PIE *-nd-kwe
  • the development of a productive concatenative verb paradigm used to form new verbs, analogous to Germanic weak verbs

Todo

  • Gzarot
  • Syntax
  • Declensions

History

The Old Togarmite name for the language, Θėgammīθ, is thought to have been borrowed from a pre-Togarmite source *Tāgarma. The name Togarmah from the same source is also attested in the Hebrew Bible. (The Greeks and the Romans called the Togarmite people Θηγαρμικοί and Thegarmici respectively.) The name of the language shows the Togarmite shift of Proto-Semitic ā to ė /e:/, mirroring the Canaanite shift ā > ō occuring in its close relative Hebrew.

Phonology

Consonants

Togarmite has 23 consonants, 22 of them inherited from Proto-Semitic. It gained /p/ during the Old Togarmite stage from adapting loans from Greek, Aramaic and Persian, e.g. parkes 'to act', from Ancient Greek praxis. It also merged Old Togarmite ħ /χ/ and h /h/ into h /h/.

  • m n /m n/
  • p t c k ' /p t ts k ʔ/
  • b d g /b d g/
  • f þ s š x h /f θ s ʃ x h/
  • w z ž ȝ /v z ʒ ɣ/
  • l r j /l r j/

Vowels

Modern Togarmite has 9 vowels in stressed syllables, possibly the largest vowel inventory of any Semitic language.

a e ė i o ø u y /ɑ ɛ e i o ø u (ə)/

ei au /ai øy/

ei and au are often merged to /e ø/. Some dialects pronounce au as /y/.

Stress

Stress is always penultimate.

Orthography

Togarmite uses an abugida based on the Phoenician alphabet, called yn albėþ (after the first 2 letters).

The abjadi letter names: al, bėþ, gam, dal, hė, wau, zėn, žėn, tėþ, jød, xaf, lam, mėm, nun, ȝėn, fė, pė, cad, køf, rėš, sin, šin, þau

Dialects

Pronouns

Personal

Modern Togarmite pronouns work very similarly to English pronouns. The accusative pronouns derive from inflected foms of Old Togarmite ʔiθ (emphasis particle and accusative, related to Hebrew et and Arabic iyya-). The possessive pronouns are derived from inflected forms of Old Togarmite la-. Other inflected prepositions don't survive, except in fixed expressions such as slėm ȝalėxøm 'hello (formal)' (lit. peace be upon you).

I thou (m.) thou (f.) he she it we you (pl.) they
Nominative/Conjunctive nėx hu hi že nan aþøm høm
Objective/Disjunctive þi þax þex þau þa þež þanė þaxøm þaum
Possessive li lax lex lau la lež lanė laxøm laum
Reflexive/Intensive afi afax afex afau afa afež afnė afxøm afaum

The plural pronouns aþøm and høm can be used as gender-neutral pronouns in the singular, like English they.

Demonstrative

who? what? which? where? whither? whence? when? how? why? how much?
this žini (sg); elini (pl) hen heno me hen ȝeþo xė; xamxė šøm; me hen xėrab
that ži (sg); eli (pl) šam šamo me šam
what mi ma ėjo ein eino men ein møran xeix lama xma, marby
all; every xøl bašar; xølhad xøl dbar xøl xølein xøleino me xølein xølam xølad darxy - -
any nux bašar nux dbar nux nuxein nuxeino me nuxein xølam nux darxy my nux sebt -
some bil bašar bil dbar bil bilein bileino me bilein ly zman; bil zman bil darxy my bil sebt -
none lėm bašar lėm dbar lėm lėmein lėmeino me lėmein lėfȝam lėm darxy my lėm sebt -

Demonstratives come before nouns as in Arabic. The demonstratives "this" and "that" take the definite form.

  • žini beiþyn 'this house'
  • eli beiþil 'those houses'

Nouns

In some ways declension has simplified: Like Knánith, Modern Togarmite has lost grammatical gender. Nouns and adjectives still have indefinite and definite states, but the construct state has been lost.

However, declension has become more complicated in other ways. For example, Modern Togarmite has innovated more declension paradigms.

Regular declension

Most nouns have a regular plural in -i, definite -il.

Example: ȝėlam 'world'

ȝėlam 'world'
singular plural
indefinite ȝėlam ȝėlami
definite ȝėlamyn ȝėlamil

Segolates

These nouns come from CVCC nouns in Proto-Semitic and thus are related to segolates in Hebrew.

xalby 'dog'
singular plural
indefinite xalby xlabi
definite xalbyn xlabil

Nisba nouns

An important declension class is comprised of nouns or adjectives with the nisba suffix -i:

þėgami 'Togarmite'
singular plural
indefinite þėgami þėgamije
definite þėgamijyn þėgamijel

Singulative-collective nouns

These nouns have a marked singular in -t.

šeȝart '(strand of) hair'
singular plural
indefinite šeȝart šeȝar
definite šeȝartyn šeȝaril

Former feminines/body parts

This class consists of a small number of nouns that were feminine in Old Togarmite, such as many body parts, which take a plural in -ėþ:

øžny 'ear'
singular plural
indefinite øžny øžnė
definite øžnyn øžnėþil
lysėn 'tongue; language'
singular plural
indefinite lysėn lysėnėþ
definite lysėnyn lysėnėþil

-a nouns

These are mainly Greek words:

apoloža 'excuse (pretext)'
singular plural
indefinite apoloža apoložes
definite apoložan apoložėþil

Greek ending in -ma can have a plural in -mata:

þėma 'topic'
singular plural
indefinite þėma þėmes / þėmata
definite þėman þėmėþil / þėmataþil


By analogy, even some native words are declined this way:

heta 'sin'
singular plural
indefinite heta hetes
definite hetan hetėþil

Adjectives

Adjectives have the same declension patterns as nouns.

Degree

Adjectives do not have separate degree forms, unlike in Indo-European languages. A dedicated particle šøm is used for 'than'.

Verbs

TODO: an n-stem binyan?

  • Past = (eroded) suffix conjugation that became analogized with the prefix present
    • The y- prefix is not used when the verb is negated: nėx yxėþøb 'I write', nėx lė xėþøb 'I don't write'.
  • Present = from the Proto-Semitic L-stem, via analogy
  • Imperative
    • The imperative is negated with alt: Xøþøb! 'write!', Alt xøþøb! 'don't write!'
  • w-form = w + stem from the 3ms suffix conjugation in the f3øl binyan, past tense but with w- for the prefix in other binyanim
  • Infinitive
  • Participles

The suffix conjugation does not survive unlike in most other Semitic languages, except in certain irregular verbs like hwė 'to be'.

The citation form is the 2nd person singular imperative.

Binyanim

Modern Togarmite inherits all 7 binyanim of Old Togarmite. The þy- of Binyan 6 (þyfaȝel) verbs has become a productive derivational prefix, however, so some analyze Binyan 6 as a result of þy- added to faȝel verbs, rather than as a binyan in its own right.

Binyan 1: føȝøl

This binyan can take -ø- (e.g. xøþøb 'to write'), -e- (sen 'to sleep') or -a- (tøȝam 'to choose') as the theme vowel.

Binyan 1 conjugation: xøþøb 'write'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yxþøb aþ/eþ yxþøb hu/hi xþøb nan xþøb aþøm xþøb høm xþøb
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyxþab fit wyxþab fė wyxþab finė wyxþab fitøm wyxþab fu wyxþab
present nėx yxėþøb aþ/eþ yxėþøb hu/hi xėþøb nan xėþøb aþøm xėþøb høm xėþøb
present progressive nėx še wyxþab aþ/eþ še wyxþab hu/hi še wyxþab nan še wyxþab aþøm šu wyxþab høm šu wyxþab
present subjunctive nėx yxþøban aþ/eþ yxþøban hu/hi xþøban nan xþøban aþøm xþøbun høm xþøbun
future ėbe xþėb tėbe xþėb jėbe xþėb nėbe xþėb tėbu xþėb jėbu xþėb
perfect li myxþub lax/lex myxþub lau/la myxþub lanė myxþub laxøm myxþub laum myxþub
imperative xøþøb!
active participle xėþeb
passive participle myxþub
w-form wyxþab
infinitive xþėb

Binyan 2: faȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic D-stem (related to Hebrew pi33el and Arabic fa33ala)

Binyan 2 conjugation: saxen 'inhabit'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ysaxen aþ/eþ ysaxen hu/hi saxen nan saxen aþøm saxen høm saxen
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wysaxen fit wysaxen fė wysaxen finė wysaxen fitøm wysaxen fu wysaxen
present nėx ysxėxen aþ/eþ ysxėxen hu/hi sxėxen nan sxėxen aþøm sxėxen høm sxėxen
present progressive nėx še wysaxen aþ/eþ še wysaxen hu/hi še wysaxen nan še wysaxen aþøm šu wysaxen høm šu wysaxen
present subjunctive ani ysaxenan aþ/eþ ysaxenan hu/hi saxenan nan saxenan aþøm saxenun høm saxenun
future ėbe saxun tėbe saxun jėbe saxun nėbe saxun tėbu saxun jėbu saxun
perfect li møsaxan lax/lex møsaxan lau/la møsaxan lanė møsaxan laxøm møsaxan laum møsaxan
imperative saxen!
active participle møsaxen
passive participle møsaxan
w-form wysaxen
infinitive saxun

For 4-letter verbs such as parkes 'to act', the present tense is formed with the stem -C₁C₂ėC₃eC₄, like nėx yprėkes 'I act'.

Binyan 3: afȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic Š-stems thus corresponds to Hebrew hif3il and Arabic ʔaf3ala.

Binyan 3 conjugation: ažxer 'remind'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ažxer aþ/eþ ažxer hu/hi ažxer nan ažxer aþøm ažxer høm ažxer
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wažxer fit wažxer fė wažxer finė wažxer fitøm wažxer fu wažxer
present nėx ažėxer aþ/eþ ažėxer hu/hi ažėxer nan ažėxer aþøm ažėxeru høm ažėxeru
present progressive nėx še wažxer aþ/eþ še wažxer hu/hi še wažxer nan še wažxer aþøm šu wažxer høm šu wažxer
present subjunctive nėx ažxeran aþ/eþ ažxeran hu/hi ažxeran nan ažxeran aþøm ažxerun høm ažxerun
future ėbe hažxur tėbe hažxur jėbe hažxur nėbe hažxur tėbu hažxur jėbu hažxur
perfect li mažxar lax/lex mažxar lau/la mažxar lanė mažxar laxøm mažxar laum mažxar
imperative ažxer!
active participle mažxer
passive participle mažxar
w-form wažxer
infinitive ažxur

Binyan 4: yftyȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic t-stem and shares similarities with the Hebrew binyan hitpa33el and Arabic ifta3ala. It is characterized by the þ- prefix that comes from the *t infix.

Meanings:

  • reflexive
  • reciprocal

The prefix þ metathesizes with C1 when

  • C1 = f x s š c h z ž ȝ: þf þx þs þš þh þz þž þȝ > ft xt st št ct ht zd žd ȝd
  • C1 = d t þ: þd þt þþ > d t þ
Binyan 4 conjugation: hyþlymed 'find one's way around'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yþlymed aþ/eþ yþlymed hu/hi þlymed nan þlymed aþøm þlymed høm þlymed
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyþlymed fit wyþlymed fė wyþlymed finė wyþlymed fitøm wyþlymed fu wyþlymed
present nėx yþlėmed aþ/eþ yþlėmed hu/hi þlėmed nan þlėmed aþøm þlėmed høm þlėmed
present progressive nėx še wyþlymed aþ/eþ še wyþlymed hu/hi še wyþlymed nan še wyþlymed aþøm šu wyþlymed høm šu wyþlymed
present subjunctive nėx yþlymedan aþ/eþ yþlymedan hu/hi þlymedan nan þlymedan aþøm þlymedun høm þlymedun
future ėbe hyþlymud tėbe hyþlymud jėbe hyþlymud nėbe hyþlymud tėbu hyþlymud jėbu hyþlymud
perfect li møþlymad lax/lex møþlymad lau/la møþlymad lanė møþlymad laxøm møþlymad laum møþlymad
imperative yþlymed!
active participle møþlymed
passive participle møþlymad
w-form wyþlymėd
infinitive hyþlymud

Binyan 5: eþyfȝel

This binyan comes from the Nt-stem, with the mediopassive n- marker and the reflexive/reciprocal t-marker: the stem comes from *intap3il. cf. Hebrew nitpa33el, a variant of the hitpa33el binyan and the Arabic infa3ala binyan.

Binyan 5 conjugation: eþygdel 'grow up'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx eþygdel aþ/eþ eþygdel hu/hi eþygdel nan eþygdel aþøm eþygdelu høm eþygdelu
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti weþygdel fit weþygdel fė weþygdel finė weþygdel fitøm weþygdel fu waþygdel
present nėx eþygėdel aþ/eþ eþygėdel hu/hi eþygėdel nan eþygėdel aþøm eþygėdelu høm eþygėdelu
present progressive nėx še weþygdel aþ/eþ še weþygdel hu/hi še weþygdel nan še weþygdel aþøm šu weþygdel høm šu weþygdel
present subjunctive nėx eþygdelan aþ/eþ eþygdelan hu/hi eþygdelan nan eþygdelan aþøm eþygdelun høm eþygdelun
future ėbe heþygdul tėbe heþygdul jėbe heþygdul nėbe heþygdul tėbu heþygdul jėbu heþygdul
perfect li meþygdal lax/lex meþygdal lau/la meþygdal lanė meþygdal laxøm meþygdal laum meþygdal
imperative - heþygdel! - - heþygdelu! -
active participle meþygdel
passive participle meþygdal
w-form waþygdel
infinitive heþygdul

Binyan 6: þyfaȝel

This binyan comes from the tD-stem (t- with geminate stem) and corresponds directly to the Arabic binyan tafa33ala.

The main meanings of this binyan are:

  • reciprocal or back-and-forth action
  • reaction/back, re-: the most productive modern meaning
    • þy'awer 'to reflect', from aur 'light'
    • þyparkes 'to react', from parkis 'action'
    • þysalem 'to repay', from √s-l-m 'peace, whole'
    • þyȝanė 'to satisfy', from √ȝ-n-j 'distress, need'; probably influenced by a now obsolete meaning 'to answer' of the same root
  • unpredictable change in meaning

The resemblance of this binyan to the very common faȝel binyan has led to the þy- prefix becoming productive, with some semantic overlap with the prefix re- in English.

Binyan 6 conjugation: þydares 'teach'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yþydares aþ/eþ yþydares hu/hi þydares nan þydares aþøm þydares høm þydares
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyþydares fit wyþydares fė wyþydares finė wyþydares fitøm wyþydares fu wyþydares
present nėx yþydrėres aþ/eþ yþydrėres hu/hi þydrėres nan þydrėres aþøm þydrėres høm þydrėres
present progressive nėx še wyþydares aþ/eþ še wyþydares hu/hi še wyþydares nan še wyþydares aþøm šu wyþydares høm šu wyþydares
present subjunctive nėx yþydaresan aþ/eþ yþydaresan hu/hi þydaresan nan þydaresan aþøm þydaresun høm þydaresun
future ėbe þydarus tėbe þydarus jėbe þydarus nėbe þydarus tėbu þydarus jėbu þydarus
perfect li møþydaras lax/lex møþydaras lau/la møþydaras lanė møþydaras laxøm møþydaras laum møþydaras
imperative þydares!
active participle møþydares
passive participle møþydaras
w-form wyþydares
infinitive þydarus

Binyan 7: styfȝel

This binyan comes from the Št-stem and is directly related to the binyan istaf3ala in Arabic and the very rare binyan hishtaf3el in Biblical Hebrew.

Binyan 7 conjugation: stytȝem 'try out'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ystytȝem aþ/eþ ystytȝem hu/hi stytȝem nan stytȝem aþøm stytȝem høm stytȝem
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wystytȝem fit wystytȝem fė wystytȝem finė wystytȝem fitøm wystytȝem fu wystytȝem
present nėx ystytėȝem aþ/eþ ystytėȝem hu/hi stytėȝem nan stytėȝem aþøm stytėȝem høm stytėȝem
present progressive nėx še wystytȝem aþ/eþ še wystytȝem hu/hi še wystytȝem nan še wystytȝem aþøm šu wystytȝem høm šu wystytȝem
present subjunctive nėx ystytȝeman aþ/eþ ystytȝeman hu/hi stytȝeman nan stytȝeman aþøm stytȝemun jystytȝemun
future ėbe stytȝum tėbe stytȝum jėbe stytȝum nėbe stytȝum tėbu stytȝum jėbu stytȝum
perfect li møstytȝam lax/lex møstytȝam lau/la møstytȝam lanė møstytȝam laxøm møstytȝam laum møstytȝam
imperative - stytȝem! - - stytȝemu! -
active participle møstytȝem
passive participle møstytȝam
w-form wystytȝem
infinitive stytȝum

Concatenative verbs

The concatenative paradigm, analogous to Germanic weak verbs, is formed by adding prefixes and suffixes, without changing the stem. The past and imperative forms are formed by adding -i or -ji to the noun, when no other suffix is added.

It is used for recent loan verbs like maksimezi 'to maximize', but can also be used to derive verbs from native nouns:

  • mydrasi 'to school' (from mydras 'school')
  • þaxili 'to consume' (from þaxil 'consumption', itself from the root √ʔ-x-l 'to eat')
  • žaxoji 'to entitle, to allow' (from žaxo 'right')
  • ȝeini 'to eye' (from ȝein 'eye')

The endings are mainly derived from Middle Togarmite forms of 3-y verbs.

  • [STEM]-i = active
  • þy-[STEM]-i = re-
  • mø- = active participle
  • -ėþ = infinitive
Weak verb conjugation: mydrasi 'to school'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ymydrasi aþ/eþ ymydrasi hu/hi mydrasi nan mydrasi aþøm mydrasi høm mydrasi
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wymydrasi fit wymydrasi fė wymydrasi finė wymydrasi fitøm wymydrasi fu wymydrasi
present nėx ymydrasė aþ/eþ ymydrasė hu/hi mydrasė nan mydrasė aþøm mydrasė høm mydrasė
present progressive yše wymydrasi tyše wymydrasi jyše wymydrasi nyše wymydrasi tyšu wymydrasi jyšu wymydrasi
present subjunctive nėx ymydrasan aþ/eþ ymydrasan hu/hi mydrasan nan mydrasan aþøm mydrasun høm mydrasun
future ėbe mydrasėþ tėbe mydrasėþ jėbe mydrasėþ nėbe mydrasėþ tėbu mydrasėþ jėbu mydrasėþ
perfect li mømydrasa lax/lex mømydrasa lau/la mømydrasa lanė mømydrasa laxøm mømydrasa laum mømydrasa
imperative mydrasi!
active participle mømydrasė
passive participle mømydrasa
w-form wymydrasi
infinitive mydrasėþ

fe 'to be'

The verb 'to be' is perhaps the most irregular verb of the language; it displays suppletion and it uses the Proto-Semitic suffix conjugation in the past tense.

fe 'to be'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional fiti fit finė fitøm fu
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyfė fit wyfė fė wyfė finė wyfė fitøm wyfė fu wyfė
present nėx še (or nėx) aþ/eþ še (or aþ/eþ) hu/hi še (or hu/hi) nan še (or nan) aþøm šu (or aþøm) høm šu (or høm)
present progressive yše wyfė tyše wyfė jyše wyfė nyše wyfė tyšu wyfė jyšu wyfė
present subjunctive yfijan tyfijan jyfijan nyfijan tyfijun jyfijun
future ėbe fėþ tėbe fėþ jėbe fėþ nėbe fėþ tėbu fėþ jėbu fėþ
imperative fe!
active participle hėwi
passive participle fuj
w-form wyfė
infinitive fėþ

xėl 'can'

xėl 'can'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nex yxel aþ/eþ yxel hu/hi xel nan xel aþøm xel høm xel
past subjunctive fiti wėxel fit wėxel fė wėxel finė wėxel fitøm wėxel fu wėxel
present wyxėlti wyxėlt wyxėl wyxėlnė wyxėltøm wyxėlu
present subjunctive nėx yxelan aþ/eþ yxelan hu/hi xelan nan xelan aþøm xelun høm xelun
future ėbe xėl tėbe xėl jėbe xėl nėbe xėl tėbu xėl jėbu xėl
active participle -
passive participle fuj wėxel
w-form wėxel
infinitive xėl

høbė 'should; ought'

høba 'should; ought'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
present nėx høbė aþ/eþ høbė hu/hi høbė nan høbu aþøm høbu høm høbu

ryšė 'to want'

ryšė 'to want'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional yrši tyrši jyrši nyršu tyršu jyršu
past subjunctive hwiti wyrši hwit wyrši hwė wyrši hwinė wyrši hwitøm wyrši hwu wyrši
present nėx ryšė aþ/eþ ryšė hu/hi ryšė nan ryšu aþøm ryšu høm ryšu
future ėbe ryšėþ tėbe ryšėþ jėbe ryšėþ nėbe ryšėþ tėbu ryšėþ jėbu ryšėþ
w-form wyrši
active participle rėši
passive participle myršuj
infinitive ryšėþ

Gzarot

Main article: Togarmite/Gzarot

In Semitic languages, gzarot (Hebrew גְּזָרוֹת‎, sg. gizra גִּזְרָה 'figure, form, pattern') are variations of an inflectional (especially verbal) paradigm that are determined by the choice of consonants in the consonantal root. Thus, a paradigm has not only a regular gizra but various irregular ones, which occur most commonly when

  • the consonantal root contains a "guttural" (ʔ ȝ h) or a semivowel (j w);
  • the consonantal root contains a n, since nC tends to assimilate into CC
  • the consonantal root has 2 letters.

Because Togarmite only uses the prefix conjugation, modern Togarmite gzarot are in some ways less bad than Hebrew gzarot; most of the irregularities occur in binyan fȝøl. However, there are often so many irregularities even within each gizra, and cases of analogy between verbs of different gzarot, that the concept of gzarot in Modern Togarmite has been questioned: in Togarmite, a "gizra" just describes general tendencies of verbs with a certain root consonant.

Prepositions

Some prepositions:

  • in 'in' [from PSem *ina]
  • ly (l before V) 'to'
  • by (b before V) 'by, at'
  • šydo 'out of' (from *śadiy-ah 'to the field')
  • me (men before V) 'from'
  • ȝem 'with'
  • ȝal 'on'
  • lid 'of (possessive)'
  • ȝbar 'over'
  • þaþ 'under'
  • arþo 'down' (from *ʔarþ-ah "earthward")
  • darxan 'along'

Syntax of prepositions

Numerals

Cardinal

0: cefry 1: yhad 2: šnein / attributive šnė 3: šlėš (animate šlėšt) 4: yrbaȝ (animate yrbaȝt) 5: hymes (animate hymest) 6: setš (animate setšt) 7: sabȝy (animate sabȝyt) 8: šmėni (animate šmėnt) 9: þesȝy (animate tesȝyt) 10: ȝašry (animate ȝašryt) 11: ȝašry yhad 12: ȝašry šnein 20: ȝešrin 30: šlėšin 40: yrbȝin 50: hymsin 60: setšin 70: sybȝin 80: šmėnin 90: þesȝin 100: me'yþ 101: me'yþ yhad 200: meþein 300: šlėš me'yþ 400: yrbaȝ me'yþ 1000: alfy 2000: alfein 3000: šlėš alf 1000000: alfun 10^9: bėþfun 10^12: gamfun etc.

Plural numerals usually take plural nouns. They used to take singular nouns, however this is considered archaic.

Numbers ending in digits "3" through "9" (thus ending in šlėš through tesȝy), or "10" (thus ending in ȝašry), have two forms depending on the animacy of the noun: hymes myrþemi 'five abacuses', but hymest ahėþ 'five sisters'. The animate forms come from the masculine forms (reverse polarity) marked with *-t in Proto-Semitic.

Ordinal

Ordinals are formed using the pattern CCuC; as in English, "1st" and "2nd" are irregular, from elatives *ʔaʕlay- 'topmost' and *ʔaʕqab- 'the immediately following' respectively. In compound numerals, the last number word is inflected to the ordinal form.

  • 1st = yȝlė
  • 2nd = yȝkab
  • 3rd = šluš
  • 4th = rbuȝ
  • 5th = hmus
  • 6th = stuš
  • 7th = sbuȝ
  • 8th = šmun
  • 9th = þsuȝ
  • 10th = ȝšur
  • 11th = ȝašry-yȝlė
  • 12th = ȝašry-yȝkab
  • 13th = ȝašry-šluš

etc.

Fractional

Fractional numerals are formed with the segolate pattern CøCCy (pl. CøCaCi). Compound numerals can be inflected as well, like in the case of ordinal numerals. The analogized form øhdy is used for numerals ending in "1".

  • half = gøb (from *gunb- 'side')
  • 3rd = šølšy
  • 4th = røbȝy
  • 11th = ȝašry-øhdy

To express "m/n", Togarmite uses "m nths": "2/3" is šnė šølaši.

Syntax

Faulty accusative marker

The faulty accusative marker is used. It behaves like MSA accusative case and Welsh soft mutation: when there is a constituent separating the verb or predicate from a second constituent, comes between the two constituents regardless of whether the second constituent is actually a direct object. Example:

  • Halex wyfė li šlėšt xlabi, wy ȝeþo lėš li nux. = I used to have three dogs, and now I don't have any.
  • Dėrestyn li ryšė li ȝyšėþ rab þamuni beiþ. = My teacher wants me to do a lot of homework.

Questions

Yes-no questions require the question marker ha to be placed at the beginning of the sentence.

What-questions have a syntax similar to English.

Existentials

The word is used to indicate existence. It is also used with the preposition ly 'to' or the possessive pronouns to indicate possession. The negative of is lėš.

  • Lėš mykėm ėn xøl bašar šaš. = There is no place where everyone is happy.
  • Ha iš lex zman? = Do you (f. sg.) have time?

The particle uses the accusative marker when the "object" is animate.

Conditional clauses

  • "if" = em
  • "then" =

Relative clauses

The relative pronoun xi or žė is used for both relative and complement clauses. It may takes prepositional cases, just like English relative pronouns. The word žė is from PSem *ðā, a form of the demonstrative *ðū; cf. Biblical Hebrew זו zu, Aramaic די .

For relative clauses whose heads are prepositional objects in the relative clause, there are two strategies like in English:

  • In informal Togarmite, the relativizer is treated as a resumptive pronoun which takes the preposition, like English which: gabryn ly xi nėx yþen maþanyn, lit. 'the man to which I gave the gift'. This syntax arose from the influence of surrounding languages like English.
  • In formal Togarmite, the preposition goes to the end of the clause: gabryn xi nėx yþen maþanyn ly lit. 'the man which I gave the gift to'. This syntax arose from the native Semitic construction which used a resumptive pronoun on the preposition: after the resumptive pronoun lost the stress, the preposition lost its pronominal suffix and moved to the end of the clause.
  • A combination of both strategies can be used: gabryn ly xi nėx yþen maþanyn ly, lit. 'The man to which I gave the gift to'.

Derivation

Noun and adjective patterns

  • CaCCy(þ), CeCCy(þ), CøCCy(þ) = segolates
  • CyCiC = adjective; -able
  • CyCuC = adjective; color
  • CyCaCt, CyCeCt, CyCøCt
  • CaCøCt = describes a condition
  • CyCeCCaC = diminutive
  • myCCaC(t), meCCaC(t), myCCėC: noun, often denoting place
  • maCCaCt = causative version of myCCaC(t)
  • myCCeC(t) = instrument
  • maCCeCt = causative version of myCCeC(t)
  • þyCCuC, þyCCiC, þyCCėC = action or process
  • þyCCøCt = (hypothetical cognate of Hebrew tiCCóCet) = system of things
  • CaCėC = agentive
    • CaCaCt = feminine agentive (not always used)
    • or CaCėC?
  • CaCCan = agentive; -an is an agentive
  • CaCCėn, CeCCėn, and CeCaCėn = nouns, often an augmentative

Affixes

  • -an = forms agentives and adjectives
  • -in = collectives
    • lamusin 'charity'
  • -uþ = abstract noun
  • -i = forms adjectives
  • -iþ = forms adverbs
  • i- = non-, un-
    • ibašari 'incorporeal'
    • iwøxli 'impossible'
  • tarmy- = pre-, not yet
    • tarmy-mynaša 'never married'
  • -yr = someone who is characterized by X (from English)
    • wduȝyr 'know-it-all', from wduȝ 'knowledgeable'
  • -ri = -ry (from English)
    • kdėsri = excessive piousness or asceticism, from kdės 'holy'
    • xyl'anri = double standard or hypocrisy, from the agentive xyl'an 'hypocrite' of √x-l-ʔ 'double'
  • auto- = self-
  • e- = a- (from ʔiC-, an assimilated form of the OTog preposition ʔin 'in'); these adjectives can usually only be predicative
    • e'est 'ablaze'
    • edarxy 'away'
    • eþal 'galore' (lit. a-mound)
    • emein 'drowned, lost forever', lit. awater
  • -byl = -able (from English -able and native abȝel 'to be able to')

Sample texts

Newton's laws of motion

I: Dbar šėbøþ by dymi, o by ȝyþėk enomorfy, lulė ydraȝ prėkes ȝal þež.

I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.

II: Šanujyn in þyȝþikyn lid gaf še myþxøni l' øþisin møþyfacaryn ȝal gafyn; wy šanujyn kėrė darxan kauyn þykinyn žė ži øþisin še møþyfacar ȝal.

II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.

III: Iš ly xøl parkis iþ þyparkis is w' anteþet.

III: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

O how quickly the sculpture of life

O! Xma myhiriþ myklaȝyn lid hein
Šaber in temaša zȝarȝeri!
Mygiluþyn lid malxyn ȝal þrønyn lau
Še xliliþ mygruf edarxy by gali jam.
Aþøm xi jėþ heno mømancabta hen,
Ȝabry hen Elėh aþøm lawani ȝal arþyn.
Xøl lanė mødajan ȝal parkisi lanė;
Þnenė þėþ ly ȝnijyn, wy agaþeržijėþ had ly wdud.

O how quickly the sculpture of life
Shattered into tiny fragments!
The splendor of the king on his throne
Is completely swept away by sea-waves.
Ye who come hither stationed here,
By the grace of God ye are guests on earth.
All of us are judged according to our actions;
Let us give to the needy, and do charity towards one another.

Stairway To Heaven

Maȝlyþ ly Symeiniþyn
Iš gabryþ xi še šur
Xøl xi nėher še žahab
Wy hi še wykna maȝlyþ ly symeiniþyn

UDHR

Xøl ynėsi še mewøladi hyruri w' isi in akšoprepjan wy žyxawil laum. Høm še møþyhanani ȝym ložeki wy synidisi wy høbu ly parkus l' odšni in ruh lid ahwuþ.

all human-PL COP be.born/PASS.PART-PL free-PL and equal-PL in dignity-DEF.SG and right/PL-DEF.PL 3PL.POSS. 3PL COP grant/PASS.PART-PL with reason and conscience and ought-3PL to act.VN to one_another in spirit of brotherhood

/xøl ə'nesi ʃɛ mɛvø'ladi hə'ruri 'visi in akʃo'prepjan v ʒə'xavil løym || høm ʃɛ møθəha'nani ɣəm lo'ʒɛki fsəni'disi və 'høbu lə 'parkus 'lotʃni in ruh lid 'ahvuθ/