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Tsrovesh/Swadesh list

Pronunciation /tsʁoˈveʃ/
Created by IlL, Praimhín
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Talma
Language family
  • Tsrovesh
Writing system Tsrovesh script
ISO 639-3

Tsrovesh (croveš /tsʁoˈveʃ/) is a Lakovic language spoken in Zagvneti in Talma, inspired by Modern Hebrew, Georgian, and Armenian.

It is a mostly agglutinative language.


Unlike Classical Windermere or Tseer, Tsrovesh has many loans from an ancient (unnamed) pre-Lakovic substrate, often called the Kodṛcha-Tzameshut Archeological Complex (KTAC).

It went through some of the strangest sound changes in Lakovic.

Old Tsrovesh grammar is much closer to Classical Windermere, Classical Tseer, or Häskä than to Modern Tsrovesh.


ikcav = "topic"?

be- = agentive?

xamak = Dr.

mic- = adverb prefix? (micloxer = furiously)

PLak with a Philly Cockney accent?

initial t could be added randomly to vowel-initial words in tsrovesh (from an earlier sandhi/liaison-like phenomenon)


Tsrovesh is fairly dialectally uniform. The dialect spoken in the eastern region of Kadzovetia aspirates voiceless stops.



Tsrovesh is most commonly written with the Windermere alphabet.


Labial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
Plosive voiceless p /p/ t /t/ k /k/
voiced b /b/ d /d/ g /g/
Fricative voiceless s /s/ š /ʃ/ x /x/ h /h/
voiced v /v/ z /z/ ž /Z/ r /ʁ/
Affricate c /ts/ č /tʃ/
Approximant l /l/

Syllabic resonants: ṃ ṇ ḷ ṛ ṿ


Tsrovesh vowels
Front Central Back
Close i /i/ u /u/
Mid e /e/ o /o/
Open a /a/

Consecutive vowels are prohibited.





Tsrovesh phonology is slightly less restrictive than Israeli Hebrew but much more so than Georgian. As in both languages, initial consonant clusters appear frequently in Tsrovesh. Initial clusters of the form l/r + consonant are allowed (Are those really syllabic resonants?). For example:

  • croveš (the name of the language)
  • ldag (door)
  • šmer (man)
  • cnaxat (dream)
  • gzin (to shine)
  • vna (to live)
  • lvar (to play)
  • tkešet (regardless)
  • švili (for me)

Medial consonant clusters are also common:

  • ertma (spider)
  • detkvis (limestone)
  • opxram (reed)

All final clusters are prohibited.


Stress is always penultimate.



Plurals by redup: crov 'a language' > crcrov 'languages'

Definite suffix -i or -ti: lakov 'a person' > lakovi 'the person'; ertma 'a spider' > ertmati 'the spider'

Somewhat agglutinating; no grammatical gender

Honorific is marked with -is.


mic- (from PLak *mi-ca-, ca- is related to Wdm sa-)

me- for the present (from PLak mi)

bare verb stem = subjunctive/future

past tense ablaut (like gzin -> gazan; lvar -> laver) - from *-H?

Ablaut patterns:

  • C(a)CiC -> CaCaC
  • C(a)CaC -> CaCeC
  • C(a)CoC -> CaCuC
  • C(a)CeC -> liCCaC
  • C(a)CuC -> liCCeCon

ə may appear as /a/ in some verbs, like žacem -> ližcam

Regular past tense: li-(VERB)-et (an example: masar "to dance" -> limasaret "danced")

li- ~ ni- some past tense morpheme in Proto-Ashanic?

Pronominal suffixes

  • 1sg -ivi
  • 1du.in -er
  • 2sg -eš
  • 3sg -ek
  • 1pl.ex -ivli
  • 1pl.in -erli
  • 2pl -ešli
  • 3pl -ekli

Derivational morphology

  • atse- 'style of, à la'
    • atsegeban '(literary) realism' < geban 'true, real'


Constituent order

Finnish relex

Noun phrase

The adjective comes before the noun in Tsrovesh:

udvanit ertmati = the happy spider

(udvanit = happy, ertma = spider)

But relative clauses are placed after the noun:

ertma, ža-ves šmeri lixavenet = spider who the man killed

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase


et = and

-eb = and (used like Latin -que)

Dependent clauses


adan, avat, šelvi, sṃči, mevci, dači, avci, lucebi, azorbi, kteva?

kteva adaneb, kteva avateb, kteva šelvib, ktela sṃčib, ... (could those be KTAC words?)

Example texts