|Created by||IlL, Praimhín|
|Writing system||Tsrovesh script|
It is a mostly agglutinative language.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Todo
- 3 Dialects
- 4 Phonology
- 5 Morphology
- 6 Syntax
- 7 Numbers
- 8 Example texts
Unlike Classical Windermere or Tseer, Tsrovesh has many loans from an ancient (unnamed) pre-Lakovic substrate, often called the Kodṛcha-Tzameshut Archeological Complex (KTAC).
It went through some of the strangest sound changes in Lakovic.
Old Tsrovesh grammar is much closer to Classical Windermere, Classical Tseer, or Häskä than to Modern Tsrovesh.
ikcav = "topic"?
be- = agentive?
xamak = Dr.
mic- = adverb prefix? (micloxer = furiously)
PLak with a Philly Cockney accent?
initial t could be added randomly to vowel-initial words in tsrovesh (from an earlier sandhi/liaison-like phenomenon)
Tsrovesh is fairly dialectally uniform. The dialect spoken in the eastern region of Kadzovetia aspirates voiceless stops.
Tsrovesh is most commonly written with the Windermere alphabet.
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/|
|Plosive||voiceless||p /p/||t /t/||k /k/|
|voiced||b /b/||d /d/||g /g/|
|Fricative||voiceless||s /s/||š /ʃ/||x /x/||h /h/|
|voiced||v /v/||z /z/||ž /Z/||r /ʁ/|
|Affricate||c /ts/||č /tʃ/|
Syllabic resonants: ṃ ṇ ḷ ṛ ṿ
|Close||i /i/||u /u/|
|Mid||e /e/||o /o/|
Consecutive vowels are prohibited.
Tsrovesh phonology is slightly less restrictive than Israeli Hebrew but much more so than Georgian. As in both languages, initial consonant clusters appear frequently in Tsrovesh. Initial clusters of the form l/r + consonant are allowed (Are those really syllabic resonants?). For example:
- croveš (the name of the language)
- ldag (door)
- šmer (man)
- cnaxat (dream)
- gzin (to shine)
- vna (to live)
- lvar (to play)
- tkešet (regardless)
- švili (for me)
Medial consonant clusters are also common:
- ertma (spider)
- detkvis (limestone)
- opxram (reed)
All final clusters are prohibited.
Stress is always penultimate.
Plurals by redup: crov 'a language' > crcrov 'languages'
Definite suffix -i or -ti: lakov 'a person' > lakovi 'the person'; ertma 'a spider' > ertmati 'the spider'
Somewhat agglutinating; no grammatical gender
Honorific is marked with -is.
mic- (from PLak *mi-ca-, ca- is related to Wdm sa-)
me- for the present (from PLak mi)
bare verb stem = subjunctive/future
past tense ablaut (like gzin -> gazan; lvar -> laver) - from *-H?
- C(a)CiC -> CaCaC
- C(a)CaC -> CaCeC
- C(a)CoC -> CaCuC
- C(a)CeC -> liCCaC
- C(a)CuC -> liCCeCon
ə may appear as /a/ in some verbs, like žacem -> ližcam
Regular past tense: li-(VERB)-et (an example: masar "to dance" -> limasaret "danced")
li- ~ ni- some past tense morpheme in Proto-Ashanic?
- 1sg -ivi
- 1du.in -er
- 2sg -eš
- 3sg -ek
- 1pl.ex -ivli
- 1pl.in -erli
- 2pl -ešli
- 3pl -ekli
- atse- 'style of, à la'
- atsegeban '(literary) realism' < geban 'true, real'
The adjective comes before the noun in Tsrovesh:
udvanit ertmati = the happy spider
(udvanit = happy, ertma = spider)
But relative clauses are placed after the noun:
ertma, ža-ves šmeri lixavenet = spider who the man killed
et = and
-eb = and (used like Latin -que)
adan, avat, šelvi, sṃči, mevci, dači, avci, lucebi, azorbi, kteva?
kteva adaneb, kteva avateb, kteva šelvib, ktela sṃčib, ... (could those be KTAC words?)