Difference between revisions of "Verse:Lõis/Azalic"
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*oi > uə
*oi > uə
*iH > i:
*iH > i:
*ei > , sometimes iə
*ē > e:
*ē > e:
*e, i > e, i
*e, i > e, i
Revision as of 04:36, 13 February 2020
Azalic (Togarmite: lysėni Azali; Proto-Azalic: Əngoilin woiq̇) is an imagined Indo-European branch, intended to serve as an alternate possible diachronics of the English language. It's inspired by Armenian.
The name Azalic is derived from Azal, a Persian cognate of Əngoil /ˈəngojl/, the legendary mother of the Azalic people (cognate of Ahalyā in Hindu mythology).
The Proto-Azalic Urheimat is believed to be Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Inspirations: Vietnamese, Armenian, literally read Irish
m n bh dh gh ᵹh p t c q ph th ch qh ṗ ṫ ċ q̇ s ṡ h l r y w
/m n bʰ dʰ gʰ gʷʰ p t k kʷ pʰ tʰ kʰ kʷʰ f θ x xw sʰ z h l r j w/
Nota Bene: The stops and vowels had a wide variety of dialectal realizations, as in Modern Armenian. Some Proto-Azalic dialects had realizations of the stops that are much closer to Sanskrit; this is reflected in loans from those dialects in English, like dream <- *troimə (pronounced /drəɨmə/ in the dialect).
Vowels: e i o u ə é í ó ú oe əɨ eo ou ieu ia ua /e i o u ə~ʌ e: i: o: u: oe əɨ eo əu iəu iə uə/ + offglides in -i; allophonic Open Syllable Lengthening
- oi > uə
- iH > i:
- ei > oe, sometimes iə
- ē > e:
- e, i > e, i
- uH > eo (u: in some words)
- u > u (needs umlaut)
- ou > əɨ
- eu > əɨ (iəu in some words)
- o > o (needs umlaut)
- oH, ô, eh2, eh3 > əu
- enC > oeC
- onC > əuC
- nC > eoC
h1oinos, dwoh1, treyes, kwetwores, penkwe, sweks, septm, oktōw, h₁néwn̥, deḱm -> xuən, təu, tʰriə~tʰre:, pʰoþur, pʰoəxw, seks, sefn, oxʰtəu, nəɨn, texn~te:n
huon, tou, thré, phoṫur, phoeq̇, secs, seṗn, ohtou, nəɨn, teċn/tén
h₃nómṇ > *nomə > L-MidE name > name
Proto-Azalic had a highly eroded case system. The notation (i) denotes "i-umlaut" or a j-offglide on the nucleus.
- dir. -0, (i)
- voc. (i), (i)
- obl. (i)~(i)-ə~ə, -su~-ṡu
- gen. -is, (i)-is~-ə
- lat. -ther, (no pl)
|qenə 'lady; wife'|
Adjectives were uninflected, because they were split off from adjective-noun compounds.
The conjunctive pronouns were used as pronominal subjects in unmarked sentences. The disjunctive pronouns were used as direct, indirect or prepositional objects and in sentences such as:
- It est mé "It's me".
- ne jú 'not you'
- Mé, iċ oil chuamə. 'Me, I'm going home.'
|1sg.||2 (number neutral)||3sg. proximal animate||3sg. proximal inanimate||1pl.||3sg. distal animate; 3pl||interr.|
-eh2ti > -ə; -yeti, -eyeti > (i)-ə
The original PIE personal affixes were lost. When the subject was nominal singular, "he", "she" or "it", the suffix -se (from PIE *swe) was required for verbal agreement. The 2sg and 3sg distal pronouns were number neutral so they didn't take -se.
The different forms were:
- Imperative (source of English imperative): non-past without any endings
- Nonpast (the source of the English present): e-grade or otherwise the unmarked form of the verb
- Past: PIE reduplicated perfect or root aorist
- Irrealis (source of the English subjunctive, including were): sigmatic future.
- Stative (the source of the English past): a tenseless form like the Akkadian stative. Originally a deverbal noun; formed with the o-grade (deriving nouns in PIE) for strongs, -dh from -tús (with random voicing) for weaks, (i)-ə from -ih2 for semistrongs. It was not a true finite verb form so it didn't take -se.
- Some modal verbs in English, such as can, will, shall, may, must, ought, come from statives and thus are called stative-present verbs.
- Active participle: -ənt
- -ənt-qhe became the present progressive -ing in English.
- Passive participle (source of English past participle): zero-grade with -n from -nós, or -dh from -tós
Proto-Azalic had at least three distinct verb paradigms:
- The weak verbs became the English weaks
- The strong verbs became the non-class 7 strongs in English (e.g. bind)
- The semistrong verbs became the class 7 strongs such as fall, hold, grow, know
|Weak: luṗə 'love'||Strong: bhendh 'bind'||Semistrong: choldh 'grasp'|
|Irrealis||luṗəṡə(-se), luṗəh(-se)||bhendhəṡə(-se), bhendhəh(-se)||choldhəṡə(-se), choldhəh(-se)|
- SVO, VSO in questions or for emphasis
- Prepositions over postpositions
- Adjectives and genitives before nouns; relative clauses after nouns.
- No accusative-infinitive
The English accusative and infinitive construction doesn't come from PAzal; it is a result of substrate influence from Mixolydian.
Modern adaptations of Proto-Azalic and Ancient Cubrite are used in certain New Age spiritual communities in Lõis, with ad hoc and often divergent pronunciation systems, as modern Levantine sprachbund languages do not have the phonation distinctions of the ancient languages.