Difference between revisions of "Verse:Lõis/Hebrew"

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m (Sample (Dror Yikra))
m (Sample (Dror Yikra))
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[vəjintsoɾˈχem kʰəmu voˈvas]
 
[vəjintsoɾˈχem kʰəmu voˈvas]
 
[nəˈʔim ʃimˈχem wəˈlu juʃˈbas]
 
[nəˈʔim ʃimˈχem wəˈlu juʃˈbas]
[ʃəvɨ nɨˈχɨ p⁼əˈjum ʃaˈbos]
+
[ʃəvɨ nɨˈχɨ bəˈjum ʃaˈbos]
  
 
[dəɾuʃ noˈvi vəʔɨloˈmi]
 
[dəɾuʃ noˈvi vəʔɨloˈmi]
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[həˈdœχ koˈmaj χaj ʔɛw kaˈno]
 
[həˈdœχ koˈmaj χaj ʔɛw kaˈno]
[bəˈmøg lɛˈvov uvimɣiˈno]
+
[bəˈmøg lɛˈvov uvimgiˈno]
 
[wənɑɹˈχiv pɛ unmaˈlɛno]
 
[wənɑɹˈχiv pɛ unmaˈlɛno]
 
[ləʃøˈnɛnu ləˈχo ɹiˈno]
 
[ləʃøˈnɛnu ləˈχo ɹiˈno]
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*/r/ is an alveolar flap
 
*/r/ is an alveolar flap
  
Revived Galician Hebrew (revived by some secular L-Galician Jews) prefers Celtic syntax, such as VSO word order and expressions for feelings and modals. It also prefers some coincidentally Gaelic-sounding words (e.g. אַךְ ''ach'' 'but' and שָׂשׂ ''sos'' 'happy' instead of the synonyms אֲבָל ''avol'' and שָׂמֵחַ ''someach''). For these reasons other Hebrew speakers may perceive Revived Galician Hebrew as higher-register.
+
Revived Galician Hebrew (revived by some secular L-Galician Jews) prefers Celtic syntax, such as VSO word order and expressions for feelings and modals. It also prefers some coincidentally Gaelic-sounding words (e.g. אַךְ ''ach'' 'but' and שָׂשׂ ''sos'' 'happy' instead of the synonyms אֲבָל ''avol'' and שָׂמֵחַ ''someach''). For these reasons other Hebrew speakers may perceive Revived Galician Hebrew as higher-register. Religious Jews prefer to speak Judeo-Gaelic and refuse to speak any form of Revived Hebrew, because they view Hebrew as a sacred language.
  
 
==Revived Holy Land Hebrew==
 
==Revived Holy Land Hebrew==

Revision as of 02:20, 13 February 2020

The history of Hebrew and Judaism in Lõis is much like in our own world. Hebrew (and Jewish Aramaic) uses the same Tiberian vowel signs that our Hebrew does; the Hebrew Bible [specifically the Masoretic text], the Talmud and Kabbalah are identical to our timeline. However, unlike in our world the language was revived three times independently, and is not associated with a nation-state.

This page documents the various pronunciations of Hebrew used by the different Jewish communities in Lõis.

Togarmite influence

Old Togarmite played a similar role in the evolution of Hebrew to what Arabic did in our world.

  • It is the source of loans such as קוטב kœtev 'pole'
  • Hebrew and English poetic meters come from Old Togarmite quantitative meters.

Comparison

שָלוֹם, קוֹרְאִים לִי אֵימִי וָקְר, אֲנִי בַּת עֶשְרִים וְחָמֵש, וַאֲנִי מ-[PLACE]. (Hello, my name is Amy Walker. I'm 25 years old and I'm from [PLACE].)

  • L-Tiberian Hebrew: (Tiberias) [ʃɔːˈloːm, kʼoːɹĭˈʔiːm liː ˈʔeːmiː ˈwɔːkʼăɹ, ʔăˈniː baθ ʕɛsˈɾiːm wɔ̆ħɔːˈmeːʃ, waːʔăˈniː mitːʼăvɛːɹĭˈjɔː]
  • L-Holy Land Hebrew: ("Bet ha-Tikva") Sholœm, kœr'im li Emi Vokr, ani baþ esrim vekhomesh, va'ani mi-Beþ haTikvo. [ʃoˈlœm, kœɾˈ(ʔ)im li ˈ(ʔ)ɛmi ˈvoʔkəɾ, (ʔ)aˈni baθ (ʔ)ɛsˈɾim vəχoˈmɛʃ, va(ʔ)aˈni miˈbɛθ haʔtɪʔkˈvo]
  • Hăvohróh Măcubéleth: [ʃoːˈləʊm, kəʊɾəˈʔɪjm lɪj ˈʔɛɪmiː ˈwoːʔkəɾ, ʔaˈnɪj baθ ʕɛsˈɾɪjm wəħoːˈmɛɪʃ, waʔaˈnɪj mɪʔˈkɛɾɛθ ħaðoːˈʃoː]
  • L-Standard English Hebrew: (Newton) [ʃɔˈləʏm, kəʏə(ɹ)ˈ(ʔ)ɪjm lɪj ˈ(ʔ)ɛɪmiː ˈwoː(ʔ)kə(ɹ), (ʔ)aˈnɪj baθ (ʔ)ɛsˈɹɪjm wəχɔˈmɛɪʃ, wa(ʔ)aˈnɪj mɪ(ʔ)ˈkɛɹɛθ ħadɔˈʃoː]
  • Western English Hebrew: [ʃɑˈɫoʊm, koɹˈ(ʔ)iːm ɫiː ˈ(ʔ)eɪmiː wɑːk⁼əɹ, (ʔ)ɑˈniː bɑt̪ (ʔ)ɛsˈɹiːm wəxɑˈmeɪʃ, wɑ(ʔ)ɑˈniː mɪ...]
  • Eastern English Hebrew: [ʃoˈloim, k⁼oɪʀˈ(ʔ)iːm liː ˈ(ʔ)eɪmiː ˈvoːk⁼əʀ, (ʔ)aˈniː bas̠ (ʔ)esˈʀim vəχoˈmeɪʃ, va(ʔ)aˈniː mi...]
  • "Poylish" Hebrew: [ʃuˈla:m, k⁼aʀˈ(ʔ)ejm lej ˈ(ʔ)aɪmej ˈvuːk⁼əʀ, (ʔ)oˈnej bos̠ (ʔ)esˈʀejm vəχuˈmaɪʃ, vo(ʔ)oˈnej mi...]
  • Philadelphian Hebrew:
  • Pre-Grimm English Hebrew: [sʰʌːˈloːm, k⁼oːɾəˈ(ʔ)iːm liː ˈ(ʔ)eːmi ˈwʌːkʼə, (ʔ)aˈniː batʰ (ʔ)esˈɾiːm wəxʌːˈmeːɧ, wa(ʔ)aˈniː mi...]
  • ĐG Hebrew: ("Saigon" as a placeholder) [sɔˈluəm, kuəɹəˈʔim li ˈʔiəmi ˈvɔkəɹ, ʔəˈni ɓatʰ ʔɛʂˈɹim vəhɔˈmiəs, vəʔəˈni miʂajˈɣɔn]
  • Khuamnisht Hebrew:
  • Togarmite Hebrew: (Newton) [ʃoˈløm, køɾˈ(ʔ)im li ˈ(ʔ)emi ˈvokəɾ, (ʔ)aˈni baθ (ʔ)ɛsˈɾim vəxoˈmeʃ, va(ʔ)aˈni mɪˈkɛɾɛθ xadoˈʃo]
  • Corded Ware Hebrew: [ʃaˈlomə, koɾəˈʔim li ˈʔemi ˈwakəɾ, ʔəˈni vaθ ʁesˈɾim wəχaˈmeʃ, wəʔəˈni mi-]
  • Qivattu Hebrew: [ʃaˈlom, koɾaˈʔim li ˈʔemi ˈwakaɾ, ʔəˈni vaθ ʁesˈɾim waχaˈmeʃ, waʔaˈni mi-]
  • Harappan Hebrew:
  • Siészal Hebrew: (Altón-Zýmó) [ʂɑːɫoːm, koːɻəˈʔiːm lʲiː eːmiː wɑːkəɻ, ʔaniː bat ʔesɻɨːm waχameːʂ, waʔaniː meː aɫˈtoːn ˈzɨːmoː]
  • Aussie (hypothetical): [ʃo:ɫəʉm, kəʉəʔi:m ɫi: æɪmi: wo:kə, æ'ni: bæθ esɹi:m wəxo:mæɪʃ, wæʔæni: mɪsɪdni:]
  • Younger Aussie (hypothetical): [ʃo:ɫɔʏm, kɔʏəʔi:m ɫi: æɪmi: wo:kə, a'ni: baθ esɹi:m wəxo:mæɪʃ, waʔani: mɪsɪdni:]
  • NZ (hypothetical): [ʃoɫɵʊm, koɹəi:m ɫi: ɐɪmi wo:kə, ɛ̞'ni: bɛ̞θ e̝sɹi:m wəxo:mɐɪʃ, wɛ̞ʔɛ̞ni: mɐɪ o:kɫənd]
  • Israeli Hebrew: [ʃa'lom, koʀ'(ʔ)im li 'e(j)mi 'wakʀ, (ʔ)a'ni bat (ʔ)es'ʀim veχa'meʃ, va(ʔ)a'ni mitel (ʔ)a'viv]
  • Yemenite Hebrew: [ʃɔːˈløːm, qøːrĭˈʔiːm liː ˈʔeːmiː ˈwɔːqăr. ʔăˈni bæθ ʕæsˈriːm wɔ̆ħɔːˈmeːʃ, wæʔăˈniː miˈsˤːɑnʕæ]

Sample (Genesis 1:1-5)

TODO: Western accent

Verse Masoretic Text L-Philadelphian L-Standard (Havohroh Măcubeleth) Eastern Translation
1:1

בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ׃

[bəɹɪjˈʃiʝt̪ bɔˈɹoə ʔɛɫəʊˈhiʝm | ʔɪjt̪ hæʃɔˈmɑːjɪm wəˈʔɪjt̪ hɔˈʔoəɾɛts] [bəɾɛɪˈʃɪjθ boːˈɾoː ʔɛlə̟ʊˈhɪjm | ʔɛɪθ haʃoːˈmɑːjɪm wəˈʔɛɪθ hoːˈʔoːɾɛʔts] [bəʀeɪˈʃiːs̠ boˈʀoː ʔelɔɪˈhiːm | ʔeɪs̠ haʃoˈmaːjɪm vəˈʔeɪs̠ hoˈʔoːʀets] When God began creating the heaven and the earth,
1:2

וְהָאָ֗רֶץ הָֽיְתָ֥ה תֹ֨הוּ֙ וָבֹ֔הוּ וְחֹ֖שֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י תְה֑וֹם וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים מְרַחֶ֖פֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם

[wəhɔˈʔoəɹɛts hɔjəˈt̪oə ˈt̪ə̟ʊhʉw wɔˈvə̟ʊhʉw wəˈxə̟ʊʃɛx ʔæɫ pənɛɪ t̪əˈhə̟ʊm | wəˈɾʉwæx ʔɛɫəʊˈhiʝm məɹæˈxɛfɛθ ʔæw pənɛɪ hæˈmojɪm] [wəhoːˈʔoːɾɛʔts hoːjəˈθoː ˈθə̟ʊhʉː woːˈvə̟ʊhʉː wəˈħə̟ʊʃɛx ʕaɫ pənɛɪ θəˈhə̟ʊm | wəˈɾʉːwaħ ʔɛlə̟ʊˈhiːm məɾaˈħɛfɛθ ʕaɫ pəˈnɛɪ haˈmoːjɪm] [vəhoˈʔoːʀets hojəˈs̠oː ˈs̠ɔɪhu voˈvɔɪhu vəˈχɔɪʃeχ ʔal pəneɪ s̠əˈhɔɪm | wəˈʀuaχ ʔelɔɪˈhiːm məʀaˈχefes̠ ʔal pəneɪ haˈmoːjɪm] The earth was unformed and empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep; and the spirit of God was hovering above the surface of the water.
1:3

וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֖ים יְהִ֣י א֑וֹר וַֽיְהִי־אֽוֹר׃

[waˈjə̟ʊmɛɾ ʔɛɫəʊˈhiʝm jəhi ʔə̟ʊɾ | wajəˈhi ʔə̟ʊɾ] [waˈjə̟ʊmɛɾ ʔɛlə̟ʊˈhɪjm jəhɪj ʔə̟ʊɾ | wajəˈhiː ʔə̟ʊɾ] [vaˈjɔɪmeʀ ʔelɔɪˈhiːm jəˈhiː ʔɔɪʀ | vajəˈhiː ʔɔɪʀ] Now God said, "Let there be light!" And there was light.
1:4

וַיַּ֧רְא אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָא֖וֹר כִּי־ט֑וֹב וַיַּבְדֵּ֣ל אֱלֹהִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָא֖וֹר וּבֵ֥ין הַחֹֽשֶׁךְ׃

[waˈjɑːɾ ʔɛɫəʊˈhiʝm ʔɛθ hɔˈʔə̟ʊɾ kɪˈtə̟ʊv | wajævˈdeːɫ ʔɛɫəʊˈhiʝm bɪjn hɔˈʔəʊɾ ʔʉˈvɪjn hæˈxə̟ʊʃɛx] [waˈjɑːɾ ʔɛlə̟ʊˈhiːm ʔɛθ hoːˈʔə̟ʊɾ kɪʔˈtə̟ʊv | wajavˈdɛɪɫ ʔɛlə̟ʊˈhiːm bɛɪn hoːˈʔə̟ʊɾ ʔʉːˈvɛɪn haˈħə̟ʊʃɛx] [vaˈjaːʀ ʔelɔɪˈhiːm ʔes̠ hɔˈʔɔɪʀ kiˈtɔɪv | vajavˈdeɪl ʔelɔɪˈhiːm beɪn hoˈʔɔɪʀ ʔʉˈveɪn haˈχɔɪʃeχ] God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness.
1:5

וַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים לָאוֹר֙ י֔וֹם וְלַחֹ֖שֶׁךְ קָ֣רָא לָ֑יְלָה וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד׃

[wajɪˈkɹoə ʔɛɫəʊˈhiʝm ɫɔˈʔə̟ʊɾ ˈjəʊm wəɫaˈxə̟ʊʃɛx ˈkoəɾoə ˈɫojəɫoə | wajˈhi ˈʔɛɹɛv wajˈhi ˈvəʊkɛɾ jəʊm ʔɛˈxoəd̪] [wajɪʔˈkɾoː ʔɛlə̟ʊˈhiːm loːˈʔə̟ʊəɾ ˈjəʊm wəlaˈħə̟ʊʃɛx ˈkoːɾoː ˈloɪloː | wajəˈhiː ˈʕɛɾɛv wajəˈhiː ˈvə̟ʊʔkɛəɾ jə̟ʊm ʔɛˈħoːð] [vajɪˈkʀoː ʔelɔɪˈhiːm loˈʔɔɪʀ ˈjɔɪm vəlaˈχɔɪʃeχ ˈkoːʀo ˈlojlo | vajəˈhiː ˈʔeʀev vajəˈhiː ˈvɔɪkeʀ jɔɪm ʔeˈχoːd] God called the light "day", and the darkness he called "night". Then there was evening, then there was morning, one day.

Sample (Dror Yikra)

In Lõis, Dror Yikra was written by a Corded Ware Jew (named Dunash ben Lavrat דונש בן לברט, CW Hebrew: /ðunaʃ ven lavɾat/ as in our world). Hence the rhymes work in accents such as Corded Ware, Indian, and Siészal accents but not in accents such as L-Galician (L-Yiddish), Havohróh Măcubéleth, Đâu-Gequơxex, and Holy Land accents.

Hebrew Corded Ware L-Galician Đâu-Gequơxex Revived Holy Land

דְּרוֹר יִקְרָא לְבֵן עִם בַּת
וְיִנְצָרְכֶם כְּמוֹ בָבַת
נְעִים שִׁמְכֶם וְלֹא יֻשְׁבַּת
שְׁבוּ נוּחוּ בְּיוֹם שַׁבָּת

דְּרוֹשׁ נָוִי וְאוּלָמִי
וְאוֹת יֶשַׁע עֲשֵׂה עִמִּי
נְטַע שׂוֹרֵק בְּתוֹךְ כַּרְמִי
שְׁעֵה שַׁוְעַת בְּנֵי עַמִּי

דְּרוֹךְ פּוּרָה בְּתוֹךְ בָּצְרָה
וְגַם בָּבֶל אֲשֶׁר גָּבְרָה
נְתוֹץ צָרַי בְּאַף וְעֶבְרָה
שְׁמַע קוֹלִי בְּיוֹם אֶקְרָא

אֱלֹקים תֵּן בַּמִּדְבָּר הַר
הֲדַס שִׁטָּה בְּרוֹשׁ תִּדְהָר
וְלַמַּזְהִיר וְלַנִּזְהָר
שְׁלוֹמִים תֵּן כְּמֵי נָהָר

הֲדוֹךְ קָמַי חַי אֵל קַנָּא
בְּמוֹג לֵבָב וּבִמְגִנָּה
וְנַרְחִיב פֶּה וּנְמַלֶּאנָּה
לְשׁוֹנֵנוּ לְךָ רִנָּה

דְּעֵה חָכְמָה לְנַפְשֶׁךָ
וְהִיא כֶתֶר לְרֹאשֶׁךָ
נְצוֹר מִצְוַת קְדֹשֶׁךָ
שְׁמוֹר שַׁבָּת קָדְשֶׁךָ

[ðəˈɾoɾ jɪˈkɾa ləˈven ʁim vaθ]
[wəjɪntsoɾˈxem kəˈmo vaˈvaθ]
[nəˈʁim ʃimˈxem wəˈlo juʃˈvaθ]
[ʃəˈvu nuˈχu vəˈjom ʃavˈvaθ]

[ðəˈɾoʃ naˈwi wəʔulaˈmi]
[wəˈʔoθ ˈjeʃaʁ ʁəˈse ʁimˈmi]
[nəˈtaʁ soˈɾek vəˈθox kaɾˈmi]
[ʃəˈʁe ʃawˈʁaθ vəˈne ʁamˈmi]

[ðəˈɾox puˈɾa vəˈθox votsˈɾa]
[wəɣam vaˈvel ʔəˈʃeɾ ɣavˈɾa]
[nəˈθots tsaˈɾaj vəˈʔaf ʁevˈɾa]
[ʃəˈmaʁ koˈli vəˈjom ʔekˈɾa]

[ʔəloˈkim ten vammiðˈvaɾ haɾ]
[həˈðas ʃitˈta vəˈɾoʃ tiðˈhaɾ]
[wəlammazˈhiɾ wəlannizˈhaɾ]
[ʃəloˈmim ten kəˈme naˈhaɾ]

[həˈðox kaˈmaj χaj ʔel kanˈna]
[vəˈmoɣ leˈvav uvimɣinˈna]
[wənaɾˈχiv pe unmalˈlenna]
[ləʃoˈnenu ləˈxa ɾinˈna]

[dəˈʁe χoxˈma lənafˈʃexa]
[wəˈhi ˈxeθeɾ ləɾoˈʃexa]
[nəˈtsoɾ mitsˈwaθ kəðoˈʃexa]
[ʃəˈmoɾ ʃavˈvaθ koðˈʃexa]

[dəˈɾuɾ jiˈkʰɹo ləˈveən ʔim bas]
[vəjintsoɾˈχem kʰəmu voˈvas]
[nəˈʔim ʃimˈχem wəˈlu juʃˈbas]
[ʃəvɨ nɨˈχɨ bəˈjum ʃaˈbos]

[dəɾuʃ noˈvi vəʔɨloˈmi]
[vəˈʔus ˈjeʃa ʔaˈseə ʔiˈmi]
[nəˈtʰa suˈɾeək bəˈsuχ kʰaɾˈmi]
[ʃəˈʔeə ʃavˈʔas bəneə ʔaˈmi]

[dəɾuχ pɨˈɾo bəˈsuχ botsˈɾo]
[vəˈɣam boˈveəl ʔaˈʃeɾ govˈɾo]
[nəˈsuts tsoˈɾaj bəˈʔaf ʔevˈɾo]
[ʃəma kuˈli bəˈjum ʔekˈɾo]

[ʔeluˈkim teən bamidˈboɾ haɾ]
[haˈdas ʃiˈto bəɾuʃ tidˈɦoɾ]
[vəlamazˈhiɾ vəlanizˈɦoɾ]
[ʃəluˈmim teən kʰəˈmeə noˈhoɾ]

[həˈduχ koˈmaj χaj ʔeəl kaˈno]
[bəˈmuɣ leəˈvov ɨvimɣiˈno]
[vənaɾˈχiv peə ɨnmaˈleno]
[ləʃuˈneənɨ ləˈχo ɾiˈno]

[dəˈʔeə χoχˈmo lənafˈʃeχo]
[vəˈhi ˈχeseɾ ləɾuˈʃeχo]
[nəˈtsuɾ mitsˈvas kəduˈʃexo]
[ʃəmuɾ ʃaˈbas kodˈʃexo]

[ɗəˈɹuəɹ jiʔk⁼ˈɹɔ ləˈviən ʔim ɓatʰ]
[vəjintɕuəɹˈxɛm kʰəˈmuə vovatʰ]
[nəˈʔim ʃimˈxɛm vəˈluə juʃɓatʰ]
[ʃəˈvu nuˈxu ɓəˈjuəm ʃaɓɔtʰ]

[ɗəˈɹuəʃ nɔˈvi vəʔulɔˈmi]
[vəˈʔuətʰ ˈjɛʃa ʔaˈsiə ʔiˈmi]
[nəˈɗa suəˈɹiək ɓəˈtʰuəx kʰaɹˈmi]
[ʃəˈʔiə ʃavˈʔatʰ ɓəˈniə ʔaˈmi]

[ɗəˈɹuəx pʰuˈɹɔ ɓəˈtʰuəx ɓɔtɕˈɹɔ]
[vəˈɣam ɓɔˈvɛl ʔaˈʃɛɹ ɣɔvˈɹɔ]
[nəˈtʰuətɕ tɕɔˈɹaj ɓəˈʔaf ʔɛvˈɹɔ]
[ʃəˈma kuəˈli ɓəˈjuəm ʔɛkˈɹɔ]

[ʔɛluəˈkim tʰiən ɓamizˈɓɔɹ haɹ]
[haˈzas ʃiˈtɔ ɓəˈɹuəʃ tʰizˈhɔɹ]
[vəlamazˈhiɹ vəlanizˈhɔɹ]
[ʃəluəˈmim tʰiən kʰəˈmiə nɔˈhɔɹ]

[haˈzuəx kɔˈmaj xaj ʔiəl kaˈnɔ]
[bəˈmuəg liəˈvɔv ʔuvimɣiˈnɔ]
[vənaɹˈxiv pʰɛ ʔunmaˈlɛnɔ]
[ləʃuəˈniənu ləˈxɔ ɹiˈnɔ]

[ɗəˈʔiə xɔxˈmɔ lənafˈʃɛxɔ]
[vəhi ˈxɛtʰɛɹ ləɹuəʃɛxɔ]
[nətɕuəɹ mitɕvatʰ kəzuəˈʃɛxɔ]
[ʃəˈmuəɹ ʃaɓɔtʰ kɔzˈʃɛxɔ]

[dɹœɹ jiʔˈkɹo ləˈvɛn (ʔ)im baθ]
[vəjinʔtsoɹˈχɛm kmø voˈvaθ]
[nəˈ(ʔ)im ʃimˈχɛm vəˈlø juʃˈbaθ]
[ʃvu nuˈχu bəˈjøm ʃaˈboθ]

[dɹøʃ noˈvi və(ʔ)uloˈmi]
[vəˈ(ʔ)øθ ˈjɛʃa (ʔ)aˈsɛ (ʔ)imˈmi]
[nəʔˈta søˈɹɛʔk bəˈθœχ kɑɹˈmi]
[ʃəˈ(ʔ)e ʃavˈ(ʔ)aθ bnɛ (ʔ)aˈmi]

[dɹœχ pʊəˈɹo bəˈθox boʔtsˈɹo]
[vəˈgam boˈvɛw (ʔ)aˈʃɛɹ govˈɹo]
[nəˈθøʔts tsoˈɹaj bəˈ(ʔ)af (ʔ)ɛvˈɹo]
[ʃma køˈli bəˈjøm (ʔ)ɛʔkˈɹo]

[ʔɛløʔˈkim tɛn bamidˈboɹ hɑɹ]
[haˈdas ʃiʔˈto bəˈɹøʃ tidˈɦoɹ]
[vəlamazˈhiɹ vəlanizˈɦoɹ]
[ʃløˈmim tɛn kəˈmɛ noˈhoɹ]

[həˈdœχ koˈmaj χaj ʔɛw kaˈno]
[bəˈmøg lɛˈvov uvimgiˈno]
[wənɑɹˈχiv pɛ unmaˈlɛno]
[ləʃøˈnɛnu ləˈχo ɹiˈno]

[dəˈ(ʔ)ɛ χoχˈmo lənafˈʃɛχo]
[vəˈhi ˈχɛθɛɹ ləɹøˈʃɛχo]
[nəʔˈtsœɹ miʔtsˈvaθ kdøˈʃɛχo]
[ʃmœɹ ʃaˈboθ kodˈʃɛχo]

L-Tiberian Hebrew

L-Tiberian Hebrew was pronounced the same as our Tiberian Hebrew, unless stated otherwise. It was influenced by Old Togarmite instead of Arabic. The main differences were:

  • Resh was usually an alveolar or retroflex approximant. Near coronals (so called peculiar resh, with the same conditions as in our TibH) it was a trill [r] or a flap, as in our TibH.
  • The emphatic consonants qoph, teth, and tsadhe were ejectives, as in Old Togarmite. In coda, emphatic consonants had glottal reinforcement, preserved in Havohroh Măcubeleth and in Revived Holy Land Hebrew.

L-Galician Hebrew

Similar to our Ashkenazi Hebrew, except

  • /e ɔ o u/ are pronounced like Judeo-Gaelic ea o u î
  • undageshed gimel is pronounced like Judeo-Gaelic gh
  • /r/ is an alveolar flap

Revived Galician Hebrew (revived by some secular L-Galician Jews) prefers Celtic syntax, such as VSO word order and expressions for feelings and modals. It also prefers some coincidentally Gaelic-sounding words (e.g. אַךְ ach 'but' and שָׂשׂ sos 'happy' instead of the synonyms אֲבָל avol and שָׂמֵחַ someach). For these reasons other Hebrew speakers may perceive Revived Galician Hebrew as higher-register. Religious Jews prefer to speak Judeo-Gaelic and refuse to speak any form of Revived Hebrew, because they view Hebrew as a sacred language.

Revived Holy Land Hebrew

Hebrew in Lõis was first revived by English-speaking Jewish immigrants in the Holy Land. In addition to new native coinages, there are some Togarmite loans and cognatizations, such as סיף ['sajif] from Togarmite seif and ענבר [in'bor] 'amber' from Togarmite 3ynbar (corresponding to Arabic loans in our Modern Hebrew).

Most speakers in the Holy Land today use a loosely Togarmite accent, but with an English touch. In contrast, North American Hebrew speakers mainly use a Corded Ware accent.

  • Stressed vowels are slightly longer than unstressed syllables.
  • TibH /p t k/ are aspirated except after fricatives; voicing assimilation works like in English
  • "overuse" of glottal reinforcement relative to Havohroh Măcubeleth: the Revived Hebrew phonemes /p t k ts/ are realized as [ʔp ʔt ʔk ʔts] after a vowel or /m n l/.
  • beth, kaf, pe, tav without dagesh are [v, x, f, θ].
  • vav is [v], like in Israeli Hebrew
  • lamed not before a vowel is dark [ɫ] and is often vocalized to [w].
  • A six-vowel system: /i e ɛ a ɔ o u/ = [i ɛ ɛ a o ø u~ü]. /ø/ is lowered to [œ] before [χ].
    • Diphthongal realizations of /i e o/ as [ɪj~eɪ ɛɪ~aɪ ɑːʏ̯̈~aː] are often used in mockery of pretentious or Ultra-Orthodox people.
  • resh is [ɹ]; in basilectal speech, non-prevocalic [ɹ] is dropped with compensatory lengthening. It causes the following phonetic changes to vowels.
    • patakh + resh: קר TibH /kʼar/ 'cold' becomes [kʰɑɹ]
    • kamatz + resh: דבר TibH /dɔˈvɔr/ 'thing' becomes [dovoɹ]
    • segol + resh: כתר TibH /ˈkɛθɛr/ 'crown' becomes [ˈkʰɛθeəɹ]
    • tzere + resh: חצר TibH /ħɔˈtsʼer/ 'yard' becomes [xoˈtseəɹ]
    • khiriq + resh: עיר TibH /ʕir/ 'city, town' becomes [iəɹ]
    • kholam + resh: חור TibH /ħor/ 'hole' becomes [xœɹ~xɞɹ~xɜɹ]
    • shuruq + resh: סגור TibH /sɔˈɣur/ 'closed (state)' becomes [soˈguəɹ]
  • Shva is dropped using similar rules to Israeli Hebrew. If shva is pronounced as a vowel, it is pronounced as [ə].
  • Obstruent + /θ/ clusters are allowed, e.g. סתיו /sθov/ 'autumn', שתה /ʃθɛ/ 'drink! (m. sg.)'
  • Ayin not before a vowel (whether shva, chataf or final) behaves much like in Israeli Hebrew: /aʕ eʕ ɔʕ oʕ iʕ uʕ/ = [ɑ: ea oa~o øa ia ua]. Nasal realizations [ɑ̃ː ɛ̃ː ɔ̃ː œ̃ː iɑ̃~ẽː uɑ̃~õː] or pharyngeal realizations (pronouncing a pharyngeal ayin) may be present in proper and formal speech.
  • /h/-dropping does not occur word-initially or on the onset of a stressed syllable, except possibly in function words. The /h/ in the definite article /ha/ is not dropped phrase-initially.

The original normative standard for the accent was the Hăvohróh Măcubéleth accent. However, Hăvohróh Măcubéleth today is usually regarded as antiquated, pretentious or overly religious. HM is standard in some styles of singing, such as classical music, religious music, or more rarely in more elevated popular music.

The grammar is nearly identical to our Israeli Hebrew (using suffix conjugation = past, participle = present, prefix conjugation = future/imperative, l- + infinitive construct = infinitive), but different phonological simplifications are made than in Israeli Hebrew and there are calques from English not used in Israeli Hebrew, such as מה מעלה /ma ˈmaːlo/ = "what's up?"

  • The compensatory lengthening rule /a/ (patakh) to /o/ (kholam), /i/ (khiriq) to /e/ (tzere) is usually observed before an underlying geminate /ʔ/ (aleph or ayin) and /r/.
    • In particular, the definite article is usually ha, but always ho before Revived phonemes /ʔ r/.
  • The /ʔu-/ allomorph for ו 'and' may be used hypercorrectly. In normative Hebrew this allomorph is only found before labials and C + shva where C != yud.
  • Instead of vusvusím (from Yiddish which doesn't exist in the Lõis timeline) the derogatory term wotwotím (from English 'what, what') is used for Ultra-Orthodox Jews.

L-Ashkenazi Hebrew

L-Ashkenazi Hebrew (in-universe simply "Ashkenazi"), or TT-English Hebrew, is one of the most conservative modern Lõisian reading traditions (i.e. closest to Tiberian Hebrew). It is really a mapping from Tiberian Hebrew phonemes to English or quasi-English phonemes, so the exact accent would depend on the speaker's native English accent. There is a gap between:

  1. Normative, careful pronunciation, used by older cantors, and in hymns, song and poetry. This pronunciation is often called Ha-Hăvohróh ha-Măcubéleth ההברה המקובלת [hahavoːˈɾoː haməʔkʊˈbɛlɛθ], literally 'received pronunciation' or 'accepted pronunciation' (meaning that it was the Hebrew pronunciation passed down by tradition in the Northern Levant at the time it was codified), named after Newton native Rabbi Yitskhóc ben Mănakhấm's (יצחק בן מנחם /jɪʔtsˈħoʔk bɛn mənaˈħɛɪm/) 16th century guide Ha-Havohróh ha-Măcubéleth which described this pronunciation with a mapping to English sounds. Ben Mănakhấm attempted to create a "mid-Atlantic" Hebrew, a compromise standard bridging the dizzying variety of Hebrew pronunciations he was familiar with. The pronunciation described by ben Mănakhấm is thought to reflect 16th century English pronunciation in the city of Newton which since then developed alongside L-Standard English, but with slightly different changes.
  2. Natural pronunciation which uses the speaker's native accent, used in other contexts, such as when an average Jew or a rabbi reads Hebrew texts or quotes Hebrew texts in a conversation. Cantors today are usually encouraged to follow their communities' local accents.
  3. There is yet another register of pronunciation: Hebrew loans in Jewish English usually have a stress shift to penultimate stress and strong vowel reduction, much like Hebrew vocabulary in Yiddish.

Vowels

L-Ashkenazi Hebrew distinguishes between all of the 7 major Tiberian Hebrew vowels: /i e ɛ a ɔ o u/ (chiriq, tzere, segol, patach, qamatz, cholam and qubbutz/shuruq) are all distinct.

Like in Tiberian Hebrew, Standard L-Ashkenazi Hebrew has long-short or tense-lax alternation, depending on whether the syllable is stressed OR open or not. However, loss of gemination has messed this up somewhat, and now unstressed patach and pretonic unstressed hiriq are always short or lax. Speakers of some English accents that do not make any tense-lax distinctions carry this over to their Hebrew pronunciations, thus all stressed syllables become long and all unstressed syllables become short.

The following mapping from Tiberian Hebrew vowels to English vowel phonemes given in Ha-Havohróh ha-Măcubéleth is still in use among English-speaking Jews:

  • patach = chataf patach = tense PALM /ɑː/ in stressed syllables before /f s θ r/ / lax TRAP /a~æ/ otherwise. Usually transcribed a. Most English speakers today use [a] in all positions except before /r/, where they use a vowel closer to [ɑː].
  • segol = chataf segol = DRESS /ɛ/. Usually transcribed e.
  • tzere = FACE /ɛɪ/. Usually transcribed â.
  • qamatz = in Hăvohróh Măcubéleth, "qamatz gadol" (in stressed or post-tonic open syllables) is tense THOUGHT /oː/, and "qamatz qatan" (otherwise) is lax LOT /ɔ/. However, often reduced to [ɔ] in pretonic unstressed syllables. Usually transcribed o, oh or au.
  • cholam = GOAT /əʊ~əʏ/; the Hăvohróh Măcubéleth realization is [ə̟ʊ~ɛʊ]. Backed to [ɔʊ~ɒʊ] before dark L, and may be backed to [oʊ] before /r/. Usually transcribed uo.
  • chiriq = tense FLEECE /i:~ɪj/ in tonic, or posttonic open syllables / lax KIT /ɪ/ otherwise. Usually transcribed i or ê. Some people use -ih (suggesting the happY vowel) to represent final unstressed /i/: אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי בְחָפְזִי /ʔaˈniː ʔɔːˈmaɾtiː bəχɔfˈziː/ anê ohmarrtih bkhofzê 'I said in my haste'.
  • qubbutz / shuruq = GOOSE /ʉ:/ in stressed or open syllables / reduced /ɵ~ʊ̈~ʉ/ in unstressed closed syllables. The allophones are backed to [u:] and [ʊ] respectively before dark L and /r/. Usually transcribed u or ô.
  • shva: In careful reading shva na (an ultrashort vowel /ă/ in Tiberian Hebrew) is always pronounced. However, it is colloquially not pronounced except, possibly, to resolve initial consonant clusters disallowed in English. When pronounced, it is pronounced [ə]. It may be transcribed ă or e, or not be transcribed. It may be pronounced [ɪ~ɨ] before /j/ (e.g. תְדַמְּיוּנִי [θəˌdamɪˈjʉːnɪj~ˌθdamɪˈjʉːnɪj] thăđamăyônih 'you (pl) liken me').

Consonants

/ʔ b v g ɣ d ð h w z ħ tʼ j k x l m n s ʕ p f ts kʼ r ʃ t θ/ = /ʔ~∅ b v g g d d h w z ħ~χ t~ʔt j k x~χ l m n s ʕ~ʡ~ʔ~∅ p f ts~ʔts k~ʔk ɾ~ɹ~ʋ ʃ t θ/

As in Received Pronunciation, /l/ is clear [l] when before a vowel and dark [ɫ] otherwise. People often vocalize dark L to [w] but this doesn't happen in careful pronunciation. The clear L-dark L distinction is marginally phonemic in poetry where shva may or may not be pronounced according to poetic license: the shva in מילאו (Hăvohróh Măcubéleth /mɪləˈʔʉː/) 'they filled' vs. מלאו(Hăvohróh Măcubéleth /mɪɫˈʔʉː/) 'fill! (2pl imperative)' may both be [ə] or both silent, hence [mɪl(ə)ˈʔʉː] and [mɪɫ(ə)ˈʔʉː] respectively.

Hăvohróh Măcubéleth prescribes [r~ɾ] for /r/ but in practice people variously realize /r/ as [r], [ɾ], [ɹ], [ʀ], or [ʋ] depending on accent and personal preference. A schwa [ə] may be added before non-prevocalic /r/. Non-prevocalic R may even be vocalized to [ə] in non-rhotic accents but this is frowned upon.

Hăvohróh Măcubéleth prescribes [ð] for daleth without dagesh, but it's pronounced [d] in almost all other accents.

Voiceless plosives are usually aspirated.

Hăvohróh Măcubéleth prescribes pronouncing /ħ ʕ/ as [ħ ʕ~ʡ]. Most people casually merge /ħ/ and /x/ into [χ], and prevocalic /ʕ/ and /ʔ/ into [ʔ~Ø]. Non-prevocalic /ʕ/ may be realized as nasalization of the preceding vowel: patach + ayin is pronounced as [ɑ̃:], and qamatz + ayin as [ɔ̃:]. Tsere + patach + ayin may become [ɛ̃:].

Most people use glottal reinforcement for /tʼ kʼ ts/ after a vowel or /m n l/: e.g. צַדִּיק /tsadˈdikʼ/ [tsaˈdɪjʔk] 'righteous; pious, saintly'. (This is also used in Xnánið Hebrew.)

Gemination is not pronounced.

Voicing assimilation does NOT occur as in Israeli Hebrew, but follows English patterns.

/n/ often assimilates to a following velar stop, though this is non-normative.

Togarmite Hebrew

Vowels

Similar to English Hebrew without the tense-lax distinction:

  • patach = chataf patach = [a]
  • qamatz = chataf qamatz = [o]
  • segol = chataf segol = [ɛ]
  • tzere = [e]
  • cholam = [ø]
  • hiriq = [i]
  • shuruq/qubbutz = [u]
  • shva = [ə/Ø]

Consonants

/ʔ b v g ɣ d ð h w z ħ t' j k x l m n s ʕ p f k' r ʃ t θ/ = [ʔ b v g ɣ d d h v z x~ħ t j k x l m n s ʕ p f k r ʃ t θ]

Đâu-Gequơxex Hebrew

Inspired by a hypothetical Vietnamese Hebrew

/ʔ b v g ɣ d ð h w z ħ tʼ j k x l m n s ʕ p f ts kʼ r ʃ t θ/ = [ʔ ɓ v ɣ ɣ ɗ z h v z h ɗ j x x l m n s ʔ p f tɕ⁼ k⁼ ɹ~ʐ ʃ t tʰ] (some Ashkenazim have ð > z)

/i u e o ɛ ɔ a ă ɔ̆ ɛ̆/ = [i u iə uə ɛ ɔ a ə ɔ ɛ]

/ɓɔˈɹux ʔaˈtʰɔ ʔəzuəˈnɔi, ʔɛluəˈhiənu mɛlɛx hɔʔuəˈlɔm, sɛhɛhɛˈjɔnu vək⁼ijəˈmɔnu vəhiɣiˈʔɔnu lazəˈman haˈzɛ/

Corded Ware Hebrew

North American Hebrew was revived independently by Corded Ware-speaking Jews. Revived Hebrew in North America uses more Corded Ware-like grammar, like preferring object affixes to using pronominal forms of the object marker את .

Holy Land speakers, especially the younger generation, receive Corded Ware Hebrew positively and judge its speakers as trustworthy. It is one of the two most popular accents for stylized music, the other being the Hăvohróh Măcubéleth accent.

Vowels as in Sephardi Hebrew (except shva na = all chatafs = [ə]), consonants are more varied depending on the individual Jewish community. Readings similar to this are used all over Western Europe.

The enunciative vowel -ə is used when a word (1) in pausa (2) has ultimate stress and (3) has final C. The past 2fs suffix /-t/ is pronounced /-tə/ when following a consonant: כתבת [kaˈθavtə] 'you (2fs) wrote'.

ברוך אתה ה', א-לוהינו מלך העולם, אשר בחר בנו מכל העמים ונתן לנו את תורתו. ברוך אתה ה', נותן התורה.

/vaˈrux ʔatˈta ʔəðoˈnaj, ʔəlo'henu ˈmelex haʁoˈlamə, ʔəˈʃer vaˈχar ˈvanu mikˈkol haʁaˈmimə, wənaˈθan ˈlanu ʔeθ toraˈθo. vaˈrux ʔaˈta ʔaðoˈnaj, noˈθen hatoˈra./

שהחינו וקיימנו והגיענו לזמן הזה

/ʃeheχəˈjanu wəkijəˈmanu wəhigiˈʁanu lazəˈman haˈze/

Sample (Genesis 1:1-5)

Typical Western or Central CW reading

בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ׃

[vəreˈʃiθ vaˈra ʔəloˈhimə | ʔeθ haʃaˈmajim wəˈʔeθ haˈʔarets]

וְהָאָ֗רֶץ הָֽיְתָ֥ה תֹ֨הוּ֙ וָבֹ֔הוּ וְחֹ֖שֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י תְה֑וֹם וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים מְרַחֶ֖פֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם׃

[wəhaˈʔarets hajəˈθa ˈθohu waˈvohu wəˈχoʃex ʁal pəne θəˈhomə | wəˈɾuax ʔəloˈhim məraˈχefeθ ʁal pəne haˈmajim]

וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֖ים יְהִ֣י א֑וֹר וַֽיְהִי־אֽוֹר׃

[waˈjomeɾ ʔəloˈhim jəhi ˈʔorə | wajəˈhi ˈʔorə]

וַיַּ֧רְא אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָא֖וֹר כִּי־ט֑וֹב וַיַּבְדֵּ֣ל אֱלֹהִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָא֖וֹר וּבֵ֥ין הַחֹֽשֶׁךְ׃

[waˈjar ʔəloˈhim ʔeθ haˈʔoɾ kiˈtovə | wajavˈðel ʔəloˈhim ven haˈʔoɾ ʔuˈven haˈχoʃex]

וַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים ׀ לָאוֹר֙ י֔וֹם וְלַחֹ֖שֶׁךְ קָ֣רָא לָ֑יְלָה וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד׃

[wajiˈkra ʔəloˈhim laˈʔor ˈjom wəlaˈχoʃex ˈkara ˈlajla | wajəˈhi ˈʁerev wajəˈhi ˈvoker jom ʔeˈχaðə]

Qivattu Hebrew is similar to Corded Ware Hebrew except no enunciative vowels

Harappan Hebrew

Essentially Babylonian Hebrew

Hodi Hebrew

  • /k x g ɣ/ = [k kʰ g gʰ]
  • /ts z/ [tʃ dʒʰ]
  • /t θ d ð n/ = [t tʰ d dʰ n]
  • /p f b v m/ = [p pʰ b bʰ m]
  • /j r l w/ = [j r l w]
  • /s ʃ h ħ ʔ ʕ/ [s ʃ h h~ħ ʔ ʔ~ʕ]

Plosives without dagesh are aspirated.

  • /i e ɛ a ɔ o u ă ɛ̯ ɔ̯/ = [i e ə ə a o u ə ə o]

Siészal Hebrew

Basically like Sephardi with vowel length (patach = a, QG = á, segol = ia, tsere = é, QQ = u, cholam = ó, hiriq: i or í, shuruq: ú)

allophonic palatalization before /i(:)/

/r/ is [ʐ~ɻ]

Tibetan Hebrew

/ʔ b v g ɣ d ð h w z ħ tʼ j k x l m n s ʕ p f tsʼ kʼ r ʃ t θ/ = [ʔ p⁼ v k⁼ g t⁼ d h w z h tʰ j kʰ x l m n s ʔ pʰ f ts⁼ kʰ ɹ ɕ tʰ h]

/i e ɛ a ɔ o u ə ă ɛ̯ ɔ̯/ = [i e ə a o y u ə a ə ø]