Nostratic

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Nostratic is a proposed family conjectured by some Lõisian linguists, including the Indo-European, Uralic, Inuit, Paleosiberian, Siészal, Semitic, Egyptian and Camalic languages.

A comprehensive Proto-Nostratic grammar, including a few fables, was sketched by the linguist and doctor [name]. He also proposed an older macrofamily linking Sumerian and South Indian languages ("Austric"), as well as a macrofamily including Sinitic, Na-Dené, Yeniseian and Balkhan. Though Austric is not taken seriously by contemporary linguists, it influenced [conlanger]'s Elvish languages.

Todo

Reintroduce Nostratic and Uralic?

Phonology

Proto-Noahic had two series of stops. A third, ejective series was created in IE and Semitic from stop clusters; but in Proto-Camalic those clusters resulted in stød.

Grammar

Proto-Noahic didn't have grammatical gender; gender evolved separately in the three branches.

Verbs had prefix conjugations and suffix conjugations like PSem or Lõisian PIE.

Proto-Noahic had a basic ablaut system (possibly based on Schwebeablaut), and ablaut evolved further in IE, Egypto-Semitic, and Camalic.

Proposed roots

  • 1st person *m/n
  • 1st person *ʔ (PIE *h₁eg'Hom ~ PSem *ʔ- 1sg prefix)
  • 2nd person *t
  • demonstrative/reflexive *s ~ sw (PIE só/swe; PSem *šuʔa 'he', √š-w-y 'equal'; Egy swt, -s; PUral *se)
  • adverbial -m (PIE acc. sg. *-m, PSem "adverbial acc." *-am)
  • demonstrative *D (PIE *tód, Semitic *ðū; PUral *to)
  • interrogative/"like" *k ~ kw (PIE *kʷód 'what', *-kʷe 'and'; Semitic *ka- 'like'; PUral *ku)
  • relativizer *y ~ genitive/adjectival *-i (IE: *yos/*-yo-; Semitic: genitive *-i, nisba *-iyy-)
  • causative *-y- (PIE *-éyeti, Semitic root extensions with 3rd root letter *y)
  • ablative/nominalizer *-t (PIE *-tís/-tús, Semitic feminine *-t)
  • ISC *med ~ medʔ -> *PIE *med- 'to measure' ~ PSem *m-d-d 'to measure'
  • ISC *widq -> *PIE *weyd- 'to see' ~ PSem *(y/w)-d-ʕ 'to know'
  • ISC *sek ~ sekw ~ seky -> *PIE *sekʷ- 'to see' ~ PSem *s-k-y 'to foresee'
  • ISC *x̣iw -> *PIE *h₂yew- 'to live' ~ PSem *ħ-y-w 'to live'
  • ISC *wer ~ werʔ -> *PIE *wer- 'to fear' ~ PSem *y/w-r-ʔ 'to fear'
  • ISC *kʔum -> *PIE *gʷem- 'to come' ~ PSem *q-(w)-m 'to rise'
  • ISC *buʔ -> *PIE *bʰuH- 'to be' ~ PSem *b-(w)-ʔ 'to come'
  • ISC *ʔil -> *PIE *h₁el- 'deer, elk' ~ PSem *ʔayyal- 'stag, hart'
  • ISC *θawr -> PIE *táwros 'bull' ~ PSem *θawr-
  • ISC *ɣel -> *PIE *h₂el- 'grow, nourish; beyond, other' ~ PSem *ʕalay 'upon', *ʕ-l-y 'to rise'
  • ISC *sebɣ -> PIE *septṃ '7' ~ PSem *šabʕ- ~ Eg. sfḫw
  • ISC *men -> PIE *men 'to think, to warn, to mind' ~ PSem *m-n-ʕ 'to avoid, to prevent', *m-n-w 'to count'
  • ISC *berg -> PIE *bhergh ~ PSem *b-r-g

Sound correspondences

  • PIE h₁/y ~ PSem y (e.g. PIE *h₁es ~ PSem *yiθ, PIE *h₁oynos originally from a 3sg pronoun ~ PSem *ya- 3sg prefix)
  • PIE h₂ ~ PSem ħ/ʕ
  • PIE h₁ ~ PSem ʔ