Zarḍenlaṇḍs

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Zarḍenlaṇḍs /ˈzaʀɖəlaɳʈs/ (Thedish: Sardenlandьsk) is a Thedic language spoken in Lõis's Sardinia and Corsica. It is closely related to Thedish.

It is largely based on Dutch and Afrikaans but it has retroflexes, from the following sound changes:

  • Old Thedish þ > d and Old Thedish d > ɖ
  • Old Thedish ft, cht > ṭṭ
    • aṭ "eight" < OTh achta
    • stiṭṭing "foundation" < *stift-ъnga
  • Old Thedish hn-, hl- > ṇ-, ḷ-
    • ṇauw "narrow" < OTh hnawwъ
    • ḷachen "laugh" < OTh hlahhjьnъ
  • wed, wedden = year; weḍḍen = to bet

Zarḍenlaṇḍs is also much more purist than Dutch, and some loans are also slightly different:

  • muizik = music (Dutch muziek)
  • amaḍel = almond (Dutch amandel)

Phonology

As in Standard Dutch, but with the addition of ṭ ḍ ṇ ḷ /ʈ ɖ ɳ ɭ/. /s z/ have allophones [ʂ ʐ] around retroflexes. [ʀ] is preferred for /r/.

Nouns

Like Afrikaans, Zarḍenlaṇḍs uses the invariable definite article die and indefinite article een.

Pluralization normally uses -s or -en, but some plurals use different affixes: die kiṇḍ = the child, die kiṇḍeren 'the children'.

Adjectives

The inflected form in -e is usually used for attributive adjectives regardless of the Dutch or Old Thedish gender:

  • een kleine man, een kleine vrouw, een kleine huis, kleine mannen/vrouwen/huizen
  • die kleine man, die kleine vrouw, die kleine huis, die kleine mannen/vrouwen/huizen

Verbs

dental-retro alternations

Class 1

  • lijden, leeḍ, geleḍen = to suffer (minimal pair with leiḍen = to lead)
  • strijden, streeḍ, gestreḍen = to fight (by analogy)
  • schijnen, scheeṇ, gescheṇen 'shine, seem'

Class 2

  • vriezen, vroor, gevroren = to freeze

Class 4a

  • biṇḍen, boṇḍ, geboṇḍen = to bind, to tie

Sample text

Alle mensen worden vrij en gelijk in waardigheiḍ en reṭṭen geboren. Zij zijn begiftigḍ meṭ verstaṇḍ en geweten, en behoren zich jegens elkander in een geest van broeḍerschap te geḍragen.