Ancient Crannish

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Ancient Crannish
Created byIlL
  • Semitic
    • Central Semitic
      • Canaanite
        • Ancient Crannish

Ancient Crannish (natively *hal-lasūn hak-kana3nījō 'the Canaanite language') is the earliest attested stage of Crannish, first attested in the era of Biblical Hebrew. Post-Christianity it underwent drastic changes in mere centuries, thus ushering in the era of modern Crannish. Ancient Crannish was spoken in Iberia.

Ancient Crannish developed in isolation from Hebrew and was influenced by Celtic languages. It is a separate lineage from the dialect of Canaanite that eventually gave rise to Tiberian Hebrew and the modern Jewish Hebrew reading traditions in Lõis.

Ancient Crannish speakers were mostly Celts who adopted a Canaanite language. As such their religion differed markedly from ancient Hebrew polytheism (and seems to have adopted Semitic religious terms for concepts that were very different).

Surviving literature in Ancient Crannish are all attested as transcriptions into Greek or Latin. It includes bardic poetry, a portion of the epic *Tabarē [?] (Tales of [?]) and some incantations.

(Grimm should happen during Old Crannish stage)


  • When should matres lectionis be used?
  • some a-priori roots
  • Vowel reduction:
    • final originally unstressed long > short



Ancient Crannish was written in an abjad descended from the Proto-Hebrew script, and sometimed used a native invented vocalization system. Incantations were completely vocalized, other religious texts less so.

Since Ancient Crannish merged /ʔ/ and /h/ completely, the letters aleph (half) and he () are confused in earlier texts. Eventually the letter he was only used for a few function words and particles such as the definite article haC-.


Out of the 25 consonants of Proto-Canaanite, Ancient Crannish merged:

  • /x/ with /ħ/ into /ħ/
  • /ʕ/ and /ɣ/ into /ɣ̃/
  • /h/ and /ʔ/ into /ʔ~ɦ~h~Ø/ ([h] was an allophone used for emphasis.)
  • /s/ and /š/ into /s/

On the other hand, it gained consonants allophonically (see #Mutations).

/m p b n t d t(phar) ts s(retracted) ts(phar) ɬ (Philly L) ħ k g q l w j r ʔ~ɦ~h~Ø/ m p b n t d ᴛ z s c ś ȝ ħ k g ᴋ l w y r h


Ancient Crannish retained Proto-Canaanite vowel length and developed overlong vowels. It had the chain shift ā > ō > ū, similar to Punic and Judeo-Gaelic Hebrew, and developed a new ā from compensatory lengthening.

a e i u ā ē ī ō ū ê î ô û /a ɛ~e ɪ~ɨ ʊ~o aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɛːː iːː ɔːː uːː/

Minimal pairs and triples for overlong vowels in Ancient Crannish:

  • malkō 'a queen', malkô 'her king'
  • suprī 'count! (', suprî 'literary, written'
  • harbi! 'do something a lot! (' harbī! 'ibid.,' harbî 'numerous'
  • dammim 'bleed!', dammīm 'bloodshed', dammîm 'bloody, of or like blood (masculine plural)'
  • bētū 'his house', bētû 'his houses'
  • rū3ē 'the evils of', rū3ê 'the friends of'

Many instances of long and overlong vowels resulted from dropped aleph and he and instances of lost gemination in grammatical affixes. For example: 'come! (' (from *būʔ < *buʔ, Tiberian Hebrew /bo:/)



There were major stress shifts away from final stress from Pre-Exilic Canaanite to Ancient Crannish, eventually resulting in unconditional initial stress.

  1. Stress shifted to penultimate for feminine singular nouns ending in in adjectives, then nouns, by analogy with the unstressed 3SG.F perfect affix .
  2. By analogy, stress shifted to penultimate for nouns ending in a plural suffix -īm, , or -ūδ.
  3. Stress became uniformly initial, ignoring proclitics such as the definite article haC-, prepositions ka- 'and', li- 'dative', bi- 'locative/instrumental', miC- 'from', and the waw in waw-forms. Vowel reduction in surviving texts (missing matres lectionis, or changes in vowels) suggests that at first this was done deliberately as a stylized way to chant incantations.



Words can undergo initial mutation but the mutations are different from the begadkefat spirantization in Tiberian Hebrew. The following mutations occur after a vowel:

  • beth /p/ → /b/
  • pe /f/ → /v/
  • daleth /t/ → /d/
  • taw /θ/ → /ð/
  • gimel /k/ → /g/
  • kaph /x/ → /ɣ/
  • zayin /ts/ → /dz/
  • samekh /s/ → /z/




  • 1sg: hani, ni
  • 2sg: hatta, ta (m); hatte, te (f)
  • 3sg: (m); (f)
  • 1pl: haħnu
  • 2pl: hattemma, temma (m); hattenna, tenna (f)
  • 3pl: hemma (m), henna (f)



The definite article was ʔaC- (~ Biblical Hebrew *haC-). It caused gemination of the following consonant; if the following consonant was a guttural and thus could not geminate, it was lengthened to ʔō-.

Unstressed corresponds to the Biblical feminine singular ending *-ṓ. Other possible feminine endings are -t, or . Eventually stress shifted away from gender/number suffixes across the board: The regular masculine and feminine plural endings were unstressed -īm and unstressed -ūδ, ~ Biblical Hebrew *-ī́m and *-ṓt.

Often is found where Hebrew has -t.

The construct state was much more predictable than in Tiberian Hebrew.

Example with sȳs 'horse' and sȳsō 'female horse':

Noun declension
number singular plural
gender m. f. m. f.
indef. 𐤎𐤅𐤎 sȳs
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀 sȳsō
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌‎ sȳsīm
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ sȳsūδ
def. 𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎 has-sȳs
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀 has-sȳsō
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌‎ has-sȳsīm
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ has-sȳsūδ
const. 𐤎𐤅𐤎 sȳs
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕 sȳsaδ
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ sȳsē
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ sȳsūδ
"my" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉 sȳsī
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉 sȳsaδī
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ sȳsajj
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉‎‎ sȳsuδajj
"thy" (m) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊 sȳsaγa
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊 sȳsaδaγa
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊‎ sȳsēγa
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊‎‎ sȳsuδēγa
"thy" (f) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊 sȳsaγe
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊 sȳsaδaγe
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊‎ sȳsēγe
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊‎‎ sȳsuδēγe
"his" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅 sȳsū
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤅 sȳsaδū
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤅‎ sȳsû
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤅‎‎ sȳsuδû
"her" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤀 sȳsô
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤀 sȳsaδô
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤀‎ sȳseyô
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤀‎‎ sȳsuδēyô
"our" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤍 sȳsinu
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤍 sȳsaδinu
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤍‎ sȳsēnu
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤍‎‎ sȳsuδēnu
"y'all's" (m) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊𐤌‎‎ sȳsaγem
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊𐤌 sȳsaδaγem
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊𐤌‎ sȳsēγem
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊𐤌‎‎ sȳsuδēγem
"y'all's" (f) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊𐤍 sȳsaγen
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊𐤍 sȳsaδaγen
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊𐤍‎ sȳsēγen
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊𐤍‎‎ sȳsuδēγen
"their" (m) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤌 sȳsōm(u)
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤌 sȳsaδōm(u)
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤌, 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌𐤅 ‎ sȳsêm, sȳsēmu
/ˈsuːseːːm, ˈsuːseːmu/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤌, 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤌𐤅 ‎‎‎ sȳsuδêm, sȳsuδēmu
/ˈsuːsuðeːːm ˈsuːsuðeːmu/
"their" (f) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤍 sȳsōn
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤍 sȳsaδōn
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤍‎ sȳsên
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤍‎‎ sȳsuδên

TODO: Principal parts for segolates and other specific patterns

Other inflections

The directive he reflects as -a.


Adjectives are very similar to pre-exilic Biblical Hebrew. Adjectives can be put in construct state: e.g. ħṓli hṓbō 'lovesick (' (ħṓli is the construct of ħṓlē 'sick').

A common way to express 'very, extreme(ly), great(ly)' was to use the clitic rū- (which caused mutation; borrowed from Proto-Celtic *ɸro-; cognate to Irish ró-, Welsh rhy, both 'too, excessively'). At first only adjectives could take this prefix, but later it was also used on nouns to indicate numerousness or intensity (influenced by רוב *rubb 'multitude' used before a noun).


todo: get rid of 3fp forms

Ancient Crannish used all 7 binyanim of Biblical Hebrew; another stem (the L-stem; TibH פולל pûlêl and pûlal) remained fully productive in Ancient Crannish.

Verbs inherited the following forms from pre-Biblical Hebrew:

  • preterite independent (~ BH waw-consecutive preterite)
  • present independent (~ BH waw-consecutive imperfect)
  • preterite dependent (~ BH perfect)
  • present dependent (~ BH imperfect)
  • imperative
  • cohortative -a
  • infinitive construct
  • participles

The following verb forms lost their productivity:

  • emphatic imperative -a
  • jussive (only survives in hajō 'to be')
  • infinitive absolute

The waw-consecutive came to play a purely syntactic role: The waw-consecutive is used as the default form, and the non-waw forms are used when a pre-verbal particle is attached (such as 'not', him 'if; definitely not', ha- 'question particle', 'when', (wa)hinni 'but; but then'). This is similar to Old Irish verbal allomorphy between independent and dependent forms.

Independent vs. dependent forms: example
independent dependent
preterite waw-preterite: wayyūγal
'he ate'
perfect: lū haγal
'he did not eat'
present waw-stative: wōhaγal
'he eats'
imperfect: lū yūγal
'he does not eat'

Binyan faȝal (paʕal)

samar 'he kept'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wêsmur waθθesmur waθθesmurī wajjesmur waθθesmur wannesmur waθθesmurū waθθesmurna wajjesmurū waθθesmurna
dep. samarθi samarθa samarθe samar samarō samarnu samarθem samarθen samarū
present indep. wassamarθi wassamarθa wassamarθe wassamar wassamarō wassamarnu wassamarθem wassamarθen wassamarū
dep. hesmur θesmur θesmurī jesmur θesmur nesmur θesmurū θesmurna jesmurū θesmurna
imperative - simur! simurī! - - - simurū! simurna! - -
active participle sūmḗr
passive participle samȳ́r
infinitive simṓr

Binyan nivȝal (nifʕal)

nixθab 'it was written'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wêxxaδib waθθixxaδib waθθixxaδibī wajjixxaδib waθθixxaδib wannixxaδib waθθixxaδibū waθθixxaδibna wajjixxaδibū waθθixxaδibna
dep. nixθabθi nixθabθa nixθabθe nixθab nixθabō nixθabnu nixθabθem nixθabθen nixθabū
present indep. wannixθabθi wannixθabθa wannixθabθe wannixθab wannixθabō wannixθabnu wannixθabθem wannixθabθen wannixθabū
dep. hixxaδib θixxaδib θixxaδibī jixxaδib θixxaδib nixxaδib θixxaδibū θixxaδibna jixxaδibū θixxaδibna
imperative - hixxaδib! hixxaδibī! - - - hixxaδibū! hixxaδibna! - -
participle nixθōb
infinitive hixxaδib

Binyan fiȝȝil (piʕʕel)

kittil 'he grew (sth)'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wôgattil waθθagattil waθθagattilī wajjagattil waθθagattil wannagattil waθθagattilū waθθagattelna wajjagattilū waθθagattelna
dep. kittelθi kittelθa kittelθe kittil kittilō kittelnu kittelθem kittelθen kittilū
present indep. wakkittelθi wakkittelθa wakkittelθe wakkittil wakkittilō wakkittelnu wakkittelθem wakkittelθen wakkittilū
dep. hagattil θagattil θagattilī jagattil θagattil nagattil θagattilū θagattelna jagattilū θagattelna
imperative - kattil! kattilī! - - - kattilū! kattelna! - -
participle mugattil
infinitive kattil

Binyan fuȝȝal (puʕal)

Binyan hivȝīl (hifʕil)

hibdīl 'he separated'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wôbdīl waθθabdīl waθθabdīlī wajjabdīl waθθabdīl wannabdīl waθθabdīlū waθθabdelna wajjabdīlū waθθabdelna
preterite dep. hibdelθi hibdelθa hibdelθe hibdīl hibdīlō hibdelnu hibdelθem hibdelθen hibdīlū
present indep. wêbdelθi wêbdelθa wêbdelθe wêbdel wêbdelō wêbdelnu wêbdelθem wêbdelθen wêbdelū
present dep. habdīl θabdīl θabdīlī jabdīl θabdīl nabdīl θabdīlū θabdelna jabdīlū θabdelna
imperative - habdel! habdelī! - - - habdelū! habdelna! - -
participle mabdīl
infinitive habdīl

Binyan huvȝal (hufʕal)

Binyan hiðvaȝȝil (hithpaʕʕel)

hiθnaᴋᴋim 'he resented'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wôθnaᴋᴋim waθθiθnaᴋᴋim waθθiθnaᴋᴋimī wajjiθnaᴋᴋim waθθiθnaᴋᴋim wanniθnaᴋᴋim waθθiθnaᴋᴋimū waθθiθnaᴋᴋemna wajjiθnaᴋᴋimū waθθiθnaᴋᴋemna
preterite dep. hiθnaᴋᴋemθi hiθnaᴋᴋemθa hiθnaᴋᴋemθe hiθnaᴋᴋim hiθnaᴋᴋimō hiθnaᴋᴋemnu hiθnaᴋᴋemθem hiθnaᴋᴋemθen hiθnaᴋᴋimū
present indep. wêθnaᴋᴋemθi wêθnaᴋᴋemθa wêθnaᴋᴋemθe wêθnaᴋᴋim wêθnaᴋᴋimō wêθnaᴋᴋemθnu wêθnaᴋᴋemθem wêθnaᴋᴋemθem wêθnaᴋᴋimū
present dep. haθnaᴋᴋim θiθnaᴋᴋim θiθnaᴋᴋimī jiθnaᴋᴋim θiθnaᴋᴋim niθnaᴋᴋim θiθnaᴋᴋimū θiθnaᴋᴋemna θiθnaᴋᴋimū θiθnaᴋᴋemna
imperative - hiθnaᴋᴋim! hiθnaᴋᴋimī! - - - hiθnaᴋᴋimū! hiθnaᴋᴋemna! - -
participle muθnaᴋᴋim
infinitive hiθnaᴋᴋim

Object suffixes

  • 1sg: -ni
  • 2sg: -γa (m); -γe (f)
  • 3sg: -w (after most V), -vu (after u or ȳ), -ū (after C) (m); -ô, -hô (f)
  • 1pl: -nu
  • 2pl: -γem (m); -γen (f)
  • 3pl: -hem, -m, -im, -mu, -imu (m); -hen, -n, -in (f)


Main article: Ancient Crannish/Gzarot


  • jūδ = direct object marker
  • li- = to, for, of
  • pi- = in, at, by, with (inst.)
  • tum la- = like, as
  • miC- = from
  • ȝim, hiδ = with (comit.)
  • wēn = without
  • jaȝn = because of
  • ȝalē = on


  • xa- = and ('like' > 'and')
  • ja3n = because


Ancient Crannish syntax is similar to Bibical Hebrew, but more systematic and streamlined from an IE perspective. Basic word order was retained as VSO under the influence of Celtic (unlike in spoken Biblical Hebrew).

Tense constructions

Ancient Crannish preserved Biblical Hebrew-like verb conjugation quite well (even retaining the waw-consecutive), but also innovated tense constructions. This came from the fact that Celtic speakers attempting to use the aspect-based grammar of Canaanite wanted to indicate tense unambiguously. The choice of whether to use the non-waw or the waw forms is purely syntactic; it depends on whether there is a preverb or not.

  • Pluperfect: hajō or wajjê + perfect
  • Preterite: perfect or waw-preterite
  • Past imperfect: hajō or wajjê ('was') + imperfect is used to specifically indicate past imperfect
  • Present: imperfect or waw-stative
    • Jussive uses the present dependent
  • Future imperfective: or wājō + imperfect
  • Future perfective: wājō + perfect (~ BH *wahajō, waw-consecutive + suffix conjugation)
  • As in Hebrew, positive imperatives use the imperative but negative imperatives use hal + 2nd person present dependent.

Uses of the infinitive construct

Many of the Biblical or quasi-Biblical uses of the infinitive construct were retained:

  1. la + IC may be used to indicate purpose
  2. there were many verbs after which either la + IC or bare IC were commonly used
  3. ba- or xa- + IC + NOUN = "when possessor VERBs/VERBed..."
  4. more generally clauses with IC serve to point to an action in a tenseless way, like "for NOUN to VERB": lū jūʕīl hiwwasivū laθ-θessuᴋō = 'It is not worth it for him to join the fight'


As in Biblical Hebrew, narratives tend to use the waw-preterite. A narrative is commonly introduced by wayyê 'it was' (often to give background info).

Hypothetical example:

wayyê vaȝm waθθê lōħamō, pūdīγō smô. waθθê ȝazzaδ θessuᴋō, hinni hajōδō rū-ħūljaδ hābō.
Once there was a woman of war named Boudica. She was mighty in the art of battle, but she was greatly lovesick.


Wishes and prayers use a form of ħajj 'alive' + subject + wa + verb in present dependent (from the jussive). This is an evolution of an oath formula ħayy X... 'I swear by X'.

ħajjūδ hō-hasirūδ wa jagallȳ niᴛavūδ ham-mumallihūδ bō-harc xullô wa baθ-θūruκō bô.
May the tree-spirits reveal mystical insights pervading the whole earth and the lush vegetation in it.

A somewhat less common option is to use mī jeθθin wa + present dependent (lit. who will give that...).

One can also simply use the present dependent.


Ancient Crannish vocabulary was mostly Semitic, but with some Celtic loans. The inherited Semitic vocabulary shows some semantic drift relative to Biblical Hebrew, as well as additional coinages.



  • ᴋaᴛōl, ᴋaᴛēl, ᴋaᴛūl = common noun and adjective pattern for basic words
  • ᴋaᴛīl = adjective pattern
  • ᴋaᴛīlō = noun pattern
  • masculine segolates: ᴋaᴛl, ᴋiᴛl, ᴋuᴛl, pl. ᴋVᴛalīm (ᴋuᴛl is often used for nouns of quantity and quality)
  • feminine segolates: ᴋaᴛlō, ᴋiᴛlō, ᴋuᴛlō, pl. ᴋVᴛalūδ
  • ᴋaᴛalō (paraγō 'good fortune, auspiciousness')
  • ᴋaᴛilō
  • ᴋaᴛulō (kadulō 'magnificence', zaruħō 'radiance')
  • ᴋaᴛalᴛal(ō) = diminutive
  • meᴋᴛal(ō) = often place
  • maᴋᴛel(ō) = instrument
  • meᴋᴛūl
  • meᴋᴛul(ō)
  • θaᴋᴛilō, θeᴋᴛulō
  • ᴋaᴛlūn
  • ᴋiᴛᴛalūn
  • ᴋaᴛᴛal(ō) = agentive
  • ᴋaᴛᴛelō = disease
  • ᴋaᴛᴛulō
  • θaᴋᴛelō
  • θeᴋᴛulō = system of, art of, study of


  • (feminine -īyō): adjective-forming affix
  • -ȳδ: abstract noun suffix
  • hī-: un-, non-

Examples of Celtic vocabulary

Sample texts

Ha'azinu (from the Bible)

Ancient Crannish

hāzīnū, has-samēm, pi-dappirī; sumȝī, hā-harc, jūδ millūlē fî.
[ˈhaːz̪iːnuː as̺ˈs̺ameːm pɪˈdapːɪriː, s̺umʁ̃ˁiː aːˈharˀts juːð ˈmɪlluːleː fiːː]
θesᴛuv θūraδī tum lam-maᴛar, θezzal himraδī tum laᴛ-ᴛal,
[ˈθɛs̺tʰʊv θuːraðiː tʊm lamˈmaˀtʰar, ˈθɛs̪s̪al ˈhimraðiː tʊm laˀtˈtʰal]
tum la-naδz ȝalē dās, χa dum la-rū·neᴛīvō ȝalē ȝiśp.
[tʊm laˈnaðz̪ ˈʁ̃ˁaleː daːs̺, xa dʊm laˈruːˈnɛˀtʰiːvɔː ˈʁ̃ˁaleː ʁ̃ˁeɬp]
jaȝn sim jāwē ze hiᴋrō; hūdū jūδ kadulaδ hilūhēnu,
[jɑ̃ʁ̃ˁn s̺ɪm ˈjaːweː z̪ɛ ˈheˀkʰrɔː, ˈhuːduː juːð ˈkadʊlað ˈɪluːheːnuː]
hac-cūr hār muδūmam fuȝlū, jaȝn mesfaᴛ taraχaw χullōn,
[aˀˈtsːuːr aːr ˈmʊðuːmam ˈfõʁ̃ˁluː, jɑ̃ʁ̃ˁn ˈmɛs̺faˀtʰ ˈtaraxaw ˈxʊlːɔːn]
hilû hamin wēn zadō; cattīᴋ χa jasar hū.
[ˈhiluːː ˈhamɪn weːn s̪adɔː, ˈtsattiːˀk xa ˈjas̺ar huː]

Masoretic Text, L-Tiberian Hebrew pronunciation

הַאֲזִינוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם, וַאֲדַבֵּרָה; וְתִשְׁמַע הָאָרֶץ, אִמְרֵי-פִי.
[haːʔaˈziːnuː haʃʃɔːˈmaːjim vaːʔaðabˈbeːɻɔː vaθiʃˈmaːːʕ hɔːˈʔɔːɻɛtsʼ ʔimˈɻeːˈfiː]
יַעֲרֹף כַּמָּטָר לִקְחִי, תִּזַּל כַּטַּל אִמְרָתִי,
[jaːʕaˈɻoːːf kʰammaːˈtʼɑːːɻ ɭikʼˈħiː tʰizˈzaːːl kʰɑtˈtʼɑːːl ʔimɻɔːˈθiː]
כִּשְׂעִירִם עֲלֵי-דֶשֶׁא, וְכִרְבִיבִים עֲלֵי-עֵשֶׂב.
[kʰisʕiːˈɻiːːm ʕaleːˈðɛːʃɛː vaχɪɻviːˈviːːm ʕaleːˈʕeːsɛv]
 כִּי שֵׁם יְהוָה, אֶקְרָא: הָבוּ גֹדֶל, לֵאלֹהֵינוּ.
[kʰiː ʃeːemʔaðoːˈnɔːːj ʔɛkʼˈɹɔː hɔːˈvuː ˈʁoːðɛl leːloːˈheːnuː]
תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ, כִּי כָל-דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט:
[hɑtˈtsʼuːːr tʰɔːˈmiːːm pʰɔːʕɔˈloː kʰiːχɔldɑɹɒːˈχɔːːv miʃˈpʰɒːːtʼ]
אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל, צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא.
[ˈʔeːːl ʔɛmuːˈnɔː veˈʔeːːn ˈʕɔːvɛl tsʼɑdˈdiːːkʼ vijɔːˈʃɔːːɻ ˈhuː]

English (tr. A. Z. Foreman)

Heavens give ear as I speak!  Let Earth hear words from my lips,
And my teachings drop like rain, my sayings run like dew
As a shower over grass, as a downpour over plants
For I herald the name of Yahweh. Hail greatness in our god,
The Rock whose work is perfect, for His every way is justice,
A steadfast god of no wrong, right and upright He is.

An incantation

The following incantation has 4 stressed syllables per line (Prosody in Ancient Crannish poetry is based on the number of stressed syllables per line):


A ritual

An excerpt



  • hōbō = love
  • hilû (pl. hiūhīm) = an animistic spirit, like a Japanese kami
  • hasírō = the spirit of a tree
  • hinni = but


  • pēδ = house





  • zadō = injustice, wrong (זדה is a hapax legomena in the Siloam inscription)
  • zaruħō = radiance


  • ħabab = to love (stative)
  • ħabaK = to hug, to embrace



  • x-p-t
    • xabed 'liver'
    • xabid 'heavy'
    • xabūd 'honor'
    • xippid 'to honor'
    • xabudō 'esteemed position'
      • hax-xabudō 'sir, ma'am'
    • maxped 'scale, balance'
  • xin 'and'




  • n-ᴛ-f
    • níᴛfō = spiritual intuition or inspiration (from a root meaning 'dropping, prophecy' in BH)



  • ȝarábō = willow


  • fárrō = cow



  • rimmūn = pomegranate