Ancient Cubrite

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Ancient Cubrite
Pronunciation /'kʰubri:ja:/
Created by IlL
Setting Lõis
Region Cyprus
Language family
  • Semitic
    • Central Semitic
      • Togarmo-Canaanite
        • Canaanite
          • Ancient Cubrite
ISO 639-3

Ancient Cubrite (natively 𐤄𐤋𐤔𐤅𐤍 𐤄𐤒𐤁𐤓𐤉𐤀 hal-lasōn haκ-κubrīyā 'the Cubrite language' /ʔal'lasoːn ʔak'kʰubri:ja:/ or hal-lasōn hat-turūdīyā 'the Druidic language') is the stage of Cubrite after the split from Pre-Exilic Biblical Hebrew. It was used as a literary language during this period and was the language of Near-East druidism, a form of Celtic druidism incorporating Semitic pagan elements, before the religion was supplanted by Henosis Ousias. It was then that the drastic changes that had occurred in the spoken language began to be reflected in writing, thus ushering in the era of modern Cubrite.

Ancient Cubrite developed in isolation from Hebrew and was influenced by Celtic languages such as Gaulish and Galatian. It is a separate lineage from the dialect of Canaanite that eventually gave rise to Tiberian Hebrew and the modern Jewish Hebrew reading traditions in Lõis.

Surviving literature in Ancient Cubrite includes bardic poetry; one Beowulf-length heroic epic, Tabarē Harδūr (Tales of Arthur); incantations; and instructions for various rituals.


  • When should matres lectionis be used?
  • some a-priori roots
  • Vowel reduction:
    • final originally unstressed long > short



Ancient Cubrite was written in an abjad descended from the Proto-Hebrew script. Incantations were completely vocalized, other religious texts less so.

Since Ancient Cubrite merged /ʔ/ and /h/ completely, the letters aleph (half) and he () are confused in earlier texts. Eventually the letter he was only used for a few function words and particles such as the definite article haC-.


Out of the 25 consonants of Proto-Canaanite, Ancient Cubrite merged:

  • /x/ with /ħ/ into /ħ/
  • /ʕ/ and /ɣ/ into /ɣ̃/
  • /h/ and /ʔ/ into /ʔ~ɦ~h~Ø/ ([h] was an allophone used for emphasis.)
  • /s/ and /š/ into /s/

On the other hand, it gained consonants allophonically (see #Mutations).

/m p b f v n t d tʰ θ ð ts s tsʰ ɬ ɣ̃ ħ k g kʰ x ɣ l w j r ʔ~ɦ~h~Ø/ m p b f v n t d ᴛ θ δ z s c ś ȝ ħ k g ᴋ x γ l w y r h


Ancient Cubrite retained Proto-Canaanite vowel length and developed overlong vowels.

a e i u ā ē ī ō ū â ê î ô û /a ɛ~e ɪ~ɨ ʊ~o aː ɛː iː ɔː uː aːː ɛːː iːː ɔːː uːː/

Many instances of long and overlong vowels resulted from dropped aleph and he and instances of lost gemination in grammatical affixes. For example: 'come! (' (from *būʔ < *buʔ, Tiberian Hebrew /bo:/)



There were major stress shifts away from final stress from Pre-Exilic Hebrew to Ancient Cubrite, eventually resulting in unconditional initial stress.

  1. Stress shifted to penultimate for feminine singular nouns ending in in adjectives, then nouns, by analogy with the unstressed 3SG.F perfect affix .
  2. By analogy, stress shifted to penultimate for nouns ending in a plural suffix -īm, , or -ōδ.
  3. Stress became uniformly initial, ignoring proclitics such as the definite article haC-, prepositions ka- 'and', li- 'dative', bi- 'locative/instrumental', miC- 'from', and the waw in waw-forms. Vowel reduction in surviving texts (missing matres lectionis, or changes in vowels) suggests that at first this was done deliberately as a stylized way to chant incantations.




Words can undergo initial mutation but the mutations are different from the begadkefat spirantization in Tiberian Hebrew. The following mutations occur after a vowel:

  • beth /p/ → /b/
  • pe /f/ → /v/
  • daleth /t/ → /d/
  • taw /θ/ → /ð/
  • gimel /k/ → /g/
  • kaph /x/ → /ɣ/
  • zayin /ts/ → /dz/
  • samekh /s/ → /z/




  • 1sg: hanī, nī
  • 2sg: haθθa, θa (m); haθθe, θe (f)
  • 3sg: (m); (f)
  • 1pl: haħnu
  • 2pl: haθθemma, θemma (m); haθθenna, θenna (f)
  • 3pl: hemma (m), henna (f)



The definite article was ʔaC- (~ Biblical Hebrew *haC-). It caused gemination of the following consonant; if the following consonant was a guttural and thus could not geminate, it was lengthened to ʔā-.

Unstressed corresponds to the Biblical feminine singular ending *-ā́. Other possible feminine endings are -t, or . Eventually stress shifted away from gender/number suffixes across the board: The regular masculine and feminine plural endings were unstressed -īm and unstressed -ōδ, ~ Biblical Hebrew *-ī́m and *-ṓt.

Often is found where Hebrew has -t.

The construct state was much more predictable than in Tiberian Hebrew.

Example with sūs 'horse' and sūsā 'female horse':

Noun declension
number singular plural
gender m. f. m. f.
indef. 𐤎𐤅𐤎 sūs
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀 sūsā
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌‎ sūsīm
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ sūsōδ
def. 𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎 has-sūs
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀 has-sūsā
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌‎ has-sūsīm
𐤄𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ has-sūsōδ
const. 𐤎𐤅𐤎 sūs
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕 sūsaδ
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ sūsē
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅𐤕‎‎ sūsōδ
"my" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉 sūsī
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉 sūsaδī
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉‎ sūsajj
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉‎‎ sūsuδajj
"thy" (m) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊 sūsaγa
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊 sūsaδaγa
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊‎ sūsēγa
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊‎‎ sūsuδēγa
"thy" (f) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊 sūsaγe
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊 sūsaδaγe
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊‎ sūsēγe
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊‎‎ sūsuδēγe
"his" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤅 sūsō
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤅 sūsaδō
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤅‎ sūsô
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤅‎‎ sūsuδô
"her" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤀 sūsâ
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤀 sūsaδâ
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤀‎ sūseyâ
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤀‎‎ sūsuδēyâ
"our" 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤍 sūsinu
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤍 sūsaδinu
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤍‎ sūsēnu
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤍‎‎ sūsuδēnu
"y'all's" (m) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊𐤌‎‎ sūsaγem
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊𐤌 sūsaδaγem
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊𐤌‎ sūsēγem
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊𐤌‎‎ sūsuδēγem
"y'all's" (f) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤊𐤍 sūsaγen
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤊𐤍 sūsaδaγen
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤊𐤍‎ sūsēγen
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤊𐤍‎‎ sūsuδēγen
"their" (m) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤌 sūsām(u)
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤌 sūsaδām(u)
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤌, 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤌𐤅 ‎ sūsêm, sūsēmu
/ˈsuːseːːm, ˈsuːseːmu/
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤌, 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤌𐤅 ‎‎‎ sūsuδêm, sūsuδēmu
/ˈsuːsuðeːːm ˈsuːsuðeːmu/
"their" (f) 𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤀𐤍 sūsān
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤀𐤍 sūsaδān
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤉𐤀𐤍‎ sūsên
𐤎𐤅𐤎𐤕𐤉𐤀𐤍‎‎ sūsuδên

TODO: Principal parts for segolates and other specific patterns

Other inflections

The directive he reflects as -a.


Adjectives are very similar to pre-exilic Biblical Hebrew. Adjectives can be put in construct state: e.g. ħṓli hā́bā 'lovesick (' (ħṓli is the construct of ħṓlē 'sick').

A common way to express 'very, extreme(ly), great(ly)' was to use the prefix rō- (which caused mutation; borrowed from Proto-Celtic *ɸro-; cognate to Irish ró-, Welsh rhy, both 'too, excessively'). At first only adjectives could take this prefix, but later it was also used on nouns to indicate numerousness or intensity (influenced by רוב *rubb 'multitude' used before a noun).


todo: get rid of 3fp forms

Ancient Cubrite used all 7 binyanim of Biblical Hebrew; another stem (the L-stem; TibH פולל pôlêl and pôlal) remained fully productive in Ancient Cubrite.

Verbs inherited the following forms from pre-Biblical Hebrew:

  • preterite independent (~ BH waw-consecutive preterite)
  • present independent (~ BH waw-consecutive imperfect)
  • preterite dependent (~ BH perfect)
  • present dependent (~ BH imperfect)
  • imperative
  • cohortative -a
  • infinitive construct
  • participles

The following verb forms lost their productivity:

  • emphatic imperative -a
  • jussive (only survives in hayā 'to be')
  • infinitive absolute

The waw-consecutive came to play a purely syntactic role: The waw-consecutive is used as the default form, and the non-waw forms are used when a pre-verbal particle is attached (such as 'not', him 'if; definitely not', ha- 'question particle', 'when', (wa)hinni 'but; but then'). This is similar to Old Irish verbal allomorphy between independent and dependent forms.

Independent vs. dependent forms: example
independent dependent
preterite waw-preterite: wayyōγal
'he ate'
perfect: lō haγal
'he did not eat'
present waw-stative: wāhaγal
'he eats'
imperfect: lō yōγal
'he does not eat'

Binyan faȝal (paʕal)

samar 'he kept'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wêsmur waθθesmur waθθesmurī wayyesmur waθθesmur wannesmur waθθesmurū waθθesmurna wayyesmurū waθθesmurna
dep. samarθi samarθa samarθe samar samarā samarnu samarθem samarθen samarū
present indep. wassamarθi wassamarθa wassamarθe wassamar wassamarā wassamarnu wassamarθem wassamarθen wassamarū
dep. hesmur θesmur θesmurī yesmur θesmur nesmur θesmurū θesmurna yesmurū θesmurna
imperative - simur! simurī! - - - simurū! simurna! - -
active participle sōmḗr
passive participle samū́r
infinitive simṓr

Binyan nivȝal (nifʕal)

nixθab 'it was written'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wêxxaδib waθθixxaδib waθθixxaδibī wayyixxaδib waθθixxaδib wannixxaδib waθθixxaδibū waθθixxaδibna wayyixxaδibū waθθixxaδibna
dep. nixθabθi nixθabθa nixθabθe nixθab nixθabā nixθabnu nixθabθem nixθabθen nixθabū
present indep. wannixθabθi wannixθabθa wannixθabθe wannixθab wannixθabā wannixθabnu wannixθabθem wannixθabθen wannixθabū
dep. hixxaδib θixxaδib θixxaδibī yixxaδib θixxaδib nixxaδib θixxaδibū θixxaδibna yixxaδibū θixxaδibna
imperative - hixxaδib! hixxaδibī! - - - hixxaδibū! hixxaδibna! - -
participle nixθāb
infinitive hixxaδib

Binyan fiȝȝil (piʕʕel)

kittil 'he grew (sth)'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wâgattil waθθagattil waθθagattilī wayyagattil waθθagattil wannagattil waθθagattilū waθθagattelna wayyagattilū waθθagattelna
dep. kittelθi kittelθa kittelθe kittil kittilā kittelnu kittelθem kittelθen kittilū
present indep. wakkittelθi wakkittelθa wakkittelθe wakkittil wakkittilā wakkittelnu wakkittelθem wakkittelθen wakkittilū
dep. hagattil θagattil θagattilī yagattil θagattil nagattil θagattilū θagattelna yagattilū θagattelna
imperative - kattil! kattilī! - - - kattilū! kattelna! - -
participle mugattil
infinitive kattil

Binyan fuȝȝal (puʕal)

Binyan hivȝīl (hifʕil)

hibdīl 'he separated'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wâbdīl waθθabdīl waθθabdīlī wayyabdīl waθθabdīl wannabdīl waθθabdīlū waθθabdelna wayyabdīlū waθθabdelna
preterite dep. hibdelθi hibdelθa hibdelθe hibdīl hibdīlā hibdelnu hibdelθem hibdelθen hibdīlū
present indep. wêbdelθi wêbdelθa wêbdelθe wêbdel wêbdelā wêbdelnu wêbdelθem wêbdelθen wêbdelū
present dep. habdīl θabdīl θabdīlī yabdīl θabdīl nabdīl θabdīlū θabdelna yabdīlū θabdelna
imperative - habdel! habdelī! - - - habdelū! habdelna! - -
participle mabdīl
infinitive habdīl

Binyan huvȝal (hufʕal)

Binyan hiðvaȝȝil (hithpaʕʕel)

hiθnaᴋᴋim 'he resented'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
preterite indep. wâθnaᴋᴋim waθθiθnaᴋᴋim waθθiθnaᴋᴋimī wayyiθnaᴋᴋim waθθiθnaᴋᴋim wanniθnaᴋᴋim waθθiθnaᴋᴋimū waθθiθnaᴋᴋemna wayyiθnaᴋᴋimū waθθiθnaᴋᴋemna
preterite dep. hiθnaᴋᴋemθi hiθnaᴋᴋemθa hiθnaᴋᴋemθe hiθnaᴋᴋim hiθnaᴋᴋimā hiθnaᴋᴋemnu hiθnaᴋᴋemθem hiθnaᴋᴋemθen hiθnaᴋᴋimū
present indep. wêθnaᴋᴋemθi wêθnaᴋᴋemθa wêθnaᴋᴋemθe wêθnaᴋᴋim wêθnaᴋᴋimā wêθnaᴋᴋemθnu wêθnaᴋᴋemθem wêθnaᴋᴋemθem wêθnaᴋᴋimū
present dep. haθnaᴋᴋim θiθnaᴋᴋim θiθnaᴋᴋimī yiθnaᴋᴋim θiθnaᴋᴋim niθnaᴋᴋim θiθnaᴋᴋimū θiθnaᴋᴋemna θiθnaᴋᴋimū θiθnaᴋᴋemna
imperative - hiθnaᴋᴋim! hiθnaᴋᴋimī! - - - hiθnaᴋᴋimū! hiθnaᴋᴋemna! - -
participle muθnaᴋᴋim
infinitive hiθnaᴋᴋim

Object suffixes

  • 1sg: -ni
  • 2sg: -γa (m); -γe (f)
  • 3sg: -w (after most V), -vu (after u or ū), -ō (after C) (m); -â, -hâ (f)
  • 1pl: -nu
  • 2pl: -γem (m); -γen (f)
  • 3pl: -hem, -m, -im, -mu, -imu (m); -hen, -n, -in (f)


Main article: Ancient Cubrite/Gzarot


  • yōδ = direct object marker
  • li- = to, for, of
  • pi- = in, at, by, with (inst.)
  • xamu- = like, as
  • miC- = from
  • ȝim, hiδ = with (comit.)
  • wēn = without
  • ya3n = because of


  • xa- = and ('like' > 'and')
  • ya3n = because


Ancient Cubrite syntax is similar to Bibical Hebrew, but more systematic and streamlined from an IE perspective. Basic word order was retained as VSO under the influence of Celtic (unlike in spoken Biblical Hebrew).

Tense constructions

Ancient Cubrite preserved Biblical Hebrew-like verb conjugation quite well (even retaining the waw-consecutive), but also innovated tense constructions. This came from the fact that Celtic speakers attempting to use the aspect-based grammar of Canaanite wanted to indicate tense unambiguously. The choice of whether to use the non-waw or the waw forms is purely syntactic; it depends on whether there is a preverb or not.

  • Pluperfect: hayā or wayyê + perfect
  • Preterite: perfect or waw-preterite
  • Past imperfect: hayā or wayyê ('was') + imperfect is used to specifically indicate past imperfect
  • Present: imperfect or waw-stative
  • Future imperfective: or wāyā + imperfect
  • Future perfective: wāyā + perfect (~ BH *wahayā, waw-consecutive + suffix conjugation)
  • As in Hebrew, positive imperatives use the imperative but negative imperatives use hal + 2nd person present dependent.

Uses of the infinitive construct

Many of the Biblical or quasi-Biblical uses of the infinitive construct were retained:

  1. la + IC may be used to indicate purpose
  2. there were many verbs after which either la + IC or bare IC were commonly used
  3. ba- or xa- + IC + NOUN = "when possessor VERBs/VERBed..."
  4. more generally clauses with IC serve to point to an action in a tenseless way, like "for NOUN to VERB": lō jōʕīl hiwwasivō laθ-θessuᴋā = 'It is not worth it for him to join the fight'


As in Biblical Hebrew, narratives tend to use the waw-preterite. A narrative is commonly introduced by wayyê 'it was' (often to give background info).

Hypothetical example:

wayyê vaȝm waθθê lāħamā, pōdīγā smâ. waθθê ȝazzaδ θessuᴋā, hinni hajāδā rō-ħōljaδ hābā.
Once there was a woman of war named Boudica. She was mighty in the art of battle, but she was greatly lovesick.


Wishes and prayers use a form of ħajh 'alive' + subject + wa + verb in present dependent (from the jussive). This is an evolution of an oath formula ħayy X... 'I swear by X'.

ħajjōδ hā-hasirōδ wa jagallū niᴛavōδ ham-mumallihōδ bā-harc xullâ wa baθ-θōruκā bâ.
May the tree-spirits reveal mystical insights pervading the whole earth and the lush vegetation in it.

A somewhat less common option is to use mī jeθθin wa + present dependent (lit. who will give that...).


Ancient Cubrite vocabulary was mostly Semitic, but with some Celtic loans. The inherited Semitic vocabulary shows some semantic drift relative to Biblical Hebrew, as well as additional coinages.



  • ᴋaᴛāl, ᴋaᴛēl, ᴋaᴛōl = common noun and adjective pattern for basic words
  • ᴋaᴛīl = adjective pattern
  • ᴋaᴛīlā = noun pattern
  • masculine segolates: ᴋaᴛl, ᴋiᴛl, ᴋuᴛl, pl. ᴋVᴛalīm (ᴋuᴛl is often used for nouns of quantity and quality)
  • feminine segolates: ᴋaᴛlā, ᴋiᴛlā, ᴋuᴛlā, pl. ᴋVᴛalōδ
  • ᴋaᴛalā (paraγā 'good fortune, auspiciousness')
  • ᴋaᴛilā
  • ᴋaᴛulā (kadulā 'magnificence', zaruħā 'radiance')
  • ᴋaᴛalᴛal(ā) = diminutive
  • meᴋᴛal(ā) = often place
  • maᴋᴛel(ā) = instrument
  • meᴋᴛōl
  • meᴋᴛul(ā)
  • θaᴋᴛilā, θeᴋᴛulā
  • ᴋaᴛlōn
  • ᴋiᴛᴛalōn
  • ᴋaᴛᴛal(ā) = agentive
  • ᴋaᴛᴛelā = disease
  • ᴋaᴛᴛulā
  • θaᴋᴛelā
  • θeᴋᴛulā = system of, art of, study of


  • (feminine -īyā): adjective-forming affix
  • -ūδ: abstract noun suffix
  • hī-: un-, non-

Examples of Celtic vocabulary

Sample texts

An incantation

The following incantation has 4 stressed syllables per line (Prosody in Ancient Cubrite poetry is based on the number of stressed syllables per line):


A ritual

An excerpt

Modern uses

Modern adaptations of Proto-Azalic and Ancient Cubrite are used in certain New Age spiritual communities in Lõis, with ad hoc and often divergent pronunciation systems, as modern Levantine sprachbund languages do not have the phonation distinctions of the ancient languages.



  • hā́bā = love
  • hilô (pl. hilṓhīm) = an animistic spirit, like a Japanese kami
  • hasírā = the spirit of a tree
  • hinni = but


  • pēδ = house





  • zadā = defect, crookedness (זדה is a hapax legomena in the Siloam inscription)
  • zīdā = wrongness, injustice
  • zaruħā = radiance


  • ħabab = to love (stative)
  • ħabaK = to hug, to embrace



  • x-p-t
    • xabed 'liver'
    • xabid 'heavy'
    • xabōd 'honor'
    • xippid 'to honor'
    • xabudā 'esteemed position'
      • hax-xabudā 'sir, ma'am'
    • maxped 'scale, balance'
  • xin 'and'




  • n-ᴛ-f
    • níᴛfā = spiritual intuition or inspiration (from a root meaning 'dropping, prophecy' in BH)



  • ȝarábā = willow


  • fárrā = cow



  • rimmṓn = pomegranate