Azalic/English/Non-Azalic etyma

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A list of English words not inherited from Proto-Azalic. (with etymologies different from Earth etymologies)

Most Arabic loans in English instead come from an unrelated Camalic language.


  • dint as in by dint of from Togarmite dint 'judgment, sentence', from the root √d-(j)-n 'to opine, to judge'
  • main meaning 'high seas' from Togarmite mein 'water' (cognate to Hebrew מים máyim)
  • siren from Togarmite seiran 'alarm, smoke signal' from the root √s-(j)-r 'to call, to warn' (hypothetical cognate to Hebrew שר shar 'to sing').
  • weird from Togarmic wierd 'conspicuous' < OTog wėrēd, active participle of warād 'to appear, to descend'
  • fellow from OTog φallāh
  • sure, ensure, assure, insure from Togarmite yšur (related to Hebrew אישר ʔiššér 'to confirm' and אשר ʔăšer a relativizer originally meaning 'place')
  • ennui from Togarmite anúj 'angst', originally 'suffering' in Early Modern Togarmite but it fell out of use and was revived as a philosophical term meaning 'existential angst'; in turn borrowed from Cubrite ąnúy, ~ Hebrew עינוי (hā-)ʕinnuy 'torment, torture' (root ʕ-n-y "poor, affliction", doublet of native Togarmite ȝanėþ 'to need')
  • elite from Aramaic עליתא ʕelitå "upper story"
  • keen meaning 'to wail, to lament' from Cubrite kín 'weeping, lament', from Hebrew קינה *kʼīnā 'lament'; a common synonym of 'mourn, lament' in Jewish English, influenced by the Hebrew
  • dude from Cubrite túd 'bro' ~ Hebrew דוד *dōd 'beloved'
  • mesmerize from Togarmite myzmerezi "to play the myzmer"
  • hobby from Togarmite habi
  • cry from Cubrite ᴋrí /kʰɹəj/, from Ancient Cubrite ᴋarīhā 'calling', Semitic root √q-r-ʔ

Indo-Iranian and Mixolydian

  • bad, from Naušahri bad
  • shelter, from Mixolydian šelter <- šeltrą, ultimately from ḱel-dʰrom
  • curry, from Mixolydian kari <- karyą, ultimately from gʷʰor-yom (lit. "warm" or "cooked")
  • vessel, from Mixolydian vesel <- veslą, ultimately from *weǵʰ-slom (cognate with Czech veslo "oar")
  • sauna from Mixolydian snono <- PIE sneh2on-eh2
  • path from Mixolydian paθ, from Old Nomadic Mixolydian paθą "flight", from PIE poth2om
  • karma from Mitanni kármə

Italo-Celtic and Greek

  • land, from Gaulish landā <- *lendʰ
  • island, from Norman isle and Gaulish landā
  • tread, trot; ultimately from Proto-Celtic *tregess "foot"
  • eigenvalue <- Galatian aegen <- h₂eyḱ-iHn-eh₂
  • fiddle <- Latin fidicula <- fidēs <- Greek sphídē
  • pasta <- Latin pasta, via Greek
  • embassy <- Kwenya εμβασεια ëmbasia <- Proto-Celtic ambaxtyā
  • ambassador <- Kwenya εμβασειαδηρ ëmbasiadyar <- Greek -αδης
  • almond <- An Bhlaoighne amhlaindh <- Kwenya αμυνδαλη amwindalya <- Greek amygdalē (gd -> nd is a regular sound change in Kwenya)


  • zillion from zilliun '10,000', via Hellenic


  • dance, from Padmanābha danseo, from the root dan (rhythm; onomatopoetic)
  • wife from Padmanābha wayeoph (lady, Mrs.)
  • canola from L-Arabic
  • saga from L-Arabic sāgā
  • fiasco <- An Bhlaoighne fias có
  • trumpet from Padmanābha
  • pizza from L-Arabic pītsa, diminutive of pīta from Greek?

Padmanábha? L-Arabic? fíl "to feel" twitj "to twitch" wíd "weed" rén "rain" gárlic, líc "garlic, leek" brod "broad" síl "seal" slíp "to sleep" hapí "happy" sjtik "word, utterance" (-> shtick) sjpil "game"


Most words that come from Italian in our timeline come from Balkhan.

  • dolma from Balkhan dôlma-dâkia "grape leaf"
  • sushi from Naušahri suši <- suš "seaweed", from Balkhan sûša "seaweed"
  • pilaf from Naušahri pelav, from Balkhan pilav- "to mix"
  • extravaganza from Balkhan kstravagẫza, from Latin extrāvagantia
  • balcony from Balkhan balkhani
  • stanza from Balkhan stẫza "thesis", semantically drifted from Latin stāntia
  • patio from Balkhan pattia "lawn"
  • mezzanine from Balkhan mazyanîna, from Vulgar Latin *mediānīnus
  • veranda from Balkhan varânda
  • imbroglio and embroil from Balkhan imbrôlya, from imbra "to confuse" (embroil was influenced by the native verb broil <- PAz bhruq̇el-)
  • zucchini from Balkhan zukkîna, from Balkhan zukka "bottle gourd"
  • flu; influenza from Balkhan ĩfluyẽza, from Latin influentia

Ex nihilo

  • glissando, originally a phonetics term