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Cubrite/Swadesh list

דף זה בעברית

Pronunciation /xnaːnið/
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:AETHER
Language family
Writing system Hebrew (Jewish square script)
ISO 639-3

Cubrite (Cubrite: כﬞנאַאנידﬞ Xnánið /xnɛːnið/ or נומא כﬞנאַאן núm Xnán /niːm xnɛːn/) is a Canaanite language in Verse:AETHER, spoken by the Cubrites in Sicily. Genetic studies have shown that the Cubrites are descendants of Celtic speakers who adopted a Canaanite language. The language preserves quite a few quasi-Biblical words and phrases, but its grammar was completely restructured to use auxiliaries instead of the older Hebrew tense conjugations.

It's inspired grammatically by Welsh, and aesthetically by Cockney English, Icelandic and Khmer.

Numbers: 0-10: efes, óð (inanimate)/áð (animate), šnay, šluš, arvą, homiš, šeš, šebą, šmun, þešą, ngašr

11-20: óðąš/áðąš, šnayąš, šlušąš, arvąš, homišąš, šešąš, šebąš, šmunąš, þešąš, ngašri

40: štay ngašri

60: šluš ngašri


100: míø

10000: rúø

before: kkorm



  • Icelandify/Samify?
  • Swadesh list
  • bel-, ble- is a common prefix (conflation of ben- and ba3al-)
  • biuth or šą še... = when...
  • Many adverbs are froma infinitive absolute
  • likkori = to die (lit. be called [by God])
  • šovuą = week
  • mødbár = conference
  • נא becomes a focus marker =nø
    • question marker a ... [FOCUS]=nø
  • Philippi should be weaker: i > e, instead of the TibH i > a (*bint > bett 'daughter'; TibH baṫ)
  • Makhin yo ngalekh likkori? = Why did you have to die?

Some sound changes

  • non-rhoticity, H-dropping
  • ħ > h; *gt, kt, ᴋt, ħt > kht
  • ś > usually f
  • dt, tt > st
  • -ø (mainly from ACub ) becomes silent and lengthens the vowel before it
  • ACub ā ō ū > OCub ó ú í
  • OCub ó ú í > Modern Cub. aɤ i: əi



  • /m n ŋ h l w j ɹ~ʋ/ m n η h l w y r
  • /p b f v t⁼ d ʔtʰ θ ð k⁼ g ʔkʰ x/ p b f v t d tt þ ð k g kk x
  • /s z ts ʃ/ s z ts š

(capital η is И)

Ancient Cubrite /l/ became /w/ in some places, especially before C.


Words can undergo initial voicing mutation.


Cubrite has the largest vowel inventory of any Semitic language in its timeline:

/a e ɪ ɔ ʊ ɛ̃ː iə əɪ äɤ iː ɑ̃ː ɛ̃ː ɪɤ̃ ɔ̃ː æː aw ɛw ɪw ɔw ʊw ɑː(ɹ) ɛː(ɹ) eː(ɹ) oʊ~oː(ɹ) ɜː(ɹ) ə(ɹ)/ = a e i o u á é í ó ú ą ę į ų aw ew iw ow uw ar er ir or ur ø/r

Word-final /ə/ is pronounced [ɐ(ɹ)] and is transcribed as a syllabic r, or ør after r.

The following is the traditional classification of vowels:

  • Shva: ø
  • Short vowels: a e i o u
  • Long vowels: á é í ó ú
  • Nasal vowels: ą ę į ų
  • L-colored vowels: aw ew iw ow uw
  • R-colored vowels: ar er ir or ur r



Stress tends penultimate or final.





Modern Cubrite is written in the Jewish Hebrew square script, in a spelling based on Tiberian Hebrew. (The resulting spelling is not etymological, since Cubrite reflects the original Hebrew consonants differently.) This is because most earlier works in Modern Cubrite were written by Jews, mainly educational materials in Judaism.


  • /m n ŋ h l w j ɹ~ʋ Ø/ מ נ ׆ ה ל ו י ר א
  • /p b f v t⁼ d tʰ θ ð k⁼ g kʰ x/ פ ב פﬞ בﬞ ט ד ת ת◌ﬞ דﬞ ק ג כ כﬞ
  • /s z ts ʃ (sj-sound)/ ס ז צ ש שׂ

Consonant correspondences (by default):

  • Hebrew ד ~ Cubrite ט/ד
  • Hebrew ת ~ Cubrite ת◌ﬞ/דﬞ
  • Hebrew ט ~ Cubrite ת


  • Word final /ə/ is always written ר, regardless of etymology.
  • The five basic vowel symbols, written after the initial consonant:
    • אַ = a
    • יֶ = e
    • י = i
    • אָ = o
    • ו = u
  • The lengthened vowels are written with an alef. If possible the alef is written after the coda; if there is no coda or if there is a post-coda suffix, it is written right after the vowel symbol. For example: núm 'language' = נומא; númr 'languages' = נואמר.
  • The L- and R-colored vowels are written with lamed or resh after the vowel symbol.
  • The nasalized vowels are written with ayin after the vowel symbol, but ą is usually written just with ayin.


Cubrite has lost the verbal inflections and triconsonantal morphology of Ancient Cubrite.

Nouns and adjectives

Nouns inflect for number and definiteness. Adjectives agree with nouns in number.

Cubrite has regularized all plurals to ־ר -r (from a merger of Ancient Cubrite -īm and -ōδ). It also lost grammatical gender, although animates still have natural gender.

Words ending in a nasal vowel or an R-colored vowel add an intrusive R between the final vowel and the plural suffix: פדע pdą 'tree', פדערר pdąrør 'trees'.

Some irregular plurals: בנוס, בלנוס benus, blenus = human

Canaanite has lost the construct state.

Degree markers:

  • Equative: de- = as X as; equally X (~ BH די day 'enough')
  • Emphatic: ro- = too (inherited from Ancient Cubrite, which borrowed it from Celtic)
  • Comparative/Superlative: -ðr = more X or most X; comparandum takes פרידﬞ prið 'than' (from Ancient Cubrite בראותי את pirʔūðī jūð 'when I see ACC')

Example: קרוא kkrú 'big', דגרוא degrú 'as big as'; ראָגרוא rogrú 'very big indeed', קרואדﬞר kkrúðør 'bigger/biggest'


Almost all verbs use only one form, usually the inherited Biblical infinitive construct, which is also used as an imperative. The infinitive form may or may not have a prefixed l-, depending on the verb; however, even verbs without l- display a voicing mutation in the infinitive construct. Even for imperatives: ðett lomi hi! = 'Give it to her!' Some verbs instead are derived from other nouns derived from the triconsonantal root rather than the infinitive of a particular verb.

Inflected lexical verbs

There are only five inflected lexical verbs (i.e. verbs with inflected past and future forms):

  • fuð 'to do'
  • ðuð 'to come' (with suppletion of √ʔty and √bʔ)
  • laxt 'to go'
  • kaxt 'to take'
  • ðett 'to give'

The finite forms have become more similar to each other due to analogy.

Inflected verbs in Cubrite
→ Person I thou (m) thou (f) you (polite) he/it she we you (plural) they Non-pronominal
fuð future ąf i þąf ta þąf te þąf Hi yąf u þąf hi nąf nu þąfu tem yąfu'm yąf/þąf
past fið i fis ta fis te fto Hi fo u fto hi fin nu fis tem fu'm fo/fto
ðuð future éð i þés ta þés te þéð Hi yéð u þéð hi néð nu þéðu tem yéðu'm yéð/þéð
past powð i pows ta pows te pól Hi pow u pól hi pown nu pows tem polu'm pow/pól
laxt future ley ni tley ta tley te tlen Hi len u tlen hi ley nu tlew tem lew'm ley/tley
past laxt i laxt ta laxt te lál Hi law u lál hi layn nu laxt tem lalu'm law/lál
kaxt future key ni tkey ta tkey te tken Hi ken u tken hi key nu tkew tem kew'm key/tkey
past kaxt i kaxt ta kaxt te kál Hi kaw u kál hi kayn nu kaxt tem kalu'm kaw/kál
ðett future ney ni tney ta tney te tnen Hi nen u tnen hi ney nu tnew tem new'm nen
past naxt i naxt ta naxt te nál Hi naw u nál hi nayn nu naxt tem nalu'm naw/nál

Non-pronominal forms agree in gender only with a singular subject; the feminine is only used with women and females. With plural nominal subjects and the masculine singular form is used.

Regular pa3al verbs

The regular pattern is *liCCuC.

-t verbs

Many of these verbs got the glottally reinforced -tt from -ʔt. The -tt then analogically spread to other verbs.

  • lakht /ˈlaxt/ = to go
  • kakht /ˈkaxt/ = to take
  • sakht /saxt/ = to go back
  • šaft /ʃaft/ = to sit
  • ðett /ðeʔt/ = to give
  • lost /ˈlost/ = to be born
  • sett /seʔt/ = to carry
  • tsett /tseʔt/ = to go out
  • sątt /sãːʔt/ = to travel
  • gątt /gãːʔt/ = to hit
  • dątt /dãːʔt/ = to know
  • tątt /tãːʔt/ = to plant

Regular nif3al

The regular pattern is *liCoCiC where the first C is not lenited.

Regular pi3el

The regular pattern is *løCaCiC or *løCiCuC where the middle C is not lenited.

Regular hif3il

The regular pattern is *laCCiC, *leCCeC, or *laCCoCø.

Regular hithpa3el

The regular pattern is *lithCaCiC where the middle C is not lenited.

Other verbs

Other verbs come from noun derivation patterns, or from earlier verb + noun collocations.

Any noun can also be verbed by prefixing lø-.


Cubrite has an auxiliary verb system similar to Colloquial Welsh. In addition, there is a T-V distinction: the 2nd person plural tem is also used as a polite pronoun.

  • Re Dovíð ngaw šun. = David is about to sleep.
  • Biuth Dovíð ngaw šun = When David is about to sleep
Various auxiliaries in Cubrite
→ Person I thou (m) thou (f) he/it she we blotp they Non-pronominal
Present (re, r' is from רְאֵה *rVʔē 'look!') i, ni ta te u hi nu tem em re, r' before V
Present emphatic (inflected forms of עוֹד) ngud i ngud ta ngud te nguden u nguden hi ngud nu ngud tem ngud em ngud
Interrogative (from הַאִם, -nø must be added to the focused word) am ni, am i am ta am te am u am hi am nu am tem am em am
Passive present (from imperfect of עָבַר 'to pass') ur ni, ur i tur ta tri te yur u tur hi nur nu tru tem ru'm yur/tur
Passive past (from perfect of עָבַר 'to pass') var ni, var i, vart i vart ta vart te var u vro hi varn nu vart tem vru'm var/vro
"May" (from imperfect of לָקַח 'to take') kekh i tkekh ta tkekh te kekh u tkekh hi kekh nu tkekhu tem kekhu'm kekh/tkekh/kekhu
"Do X more" - present (from imperfect of הוֹסִיף 'to add') usif i tusif ta tusif te yusif u tusif hi nusif nu tusif tem yusifu'm usift/tusif/yusifu
"Do X more" - past (from perfect of הוֹסִיף 'to add') seft i seft ta seft te sif u sifø hi sef nu seft tem sifu'm sif/sifu
Cautionary (from imperfect of זָמַם 'to scheme') zum i tøzum ta tøzum te zum u tøzum hi nøzum nu tøzmu tem zmu'm zum/tøzum/zmu
"X well" - present (from imperfect of הֵיטִיב 'to do well') attev i tattev ta tattvi te yattev u tattev hi nattev nu tattev tem yattevu'm yattev/tattev/yattevu
"X well" - past (from perfect of הֵיטִיב 'to do well') ettevt i ettevt ta ettevt te ettev u ettivø hi ettev nu ettevt tem ettevu'm ettev
Cautionary future

The auxiliary for the cautionary future comes from the Ancient Cubrite verb *zāmam 'to scheme'. It's used to:

  • warn the listener of a future event or contingency:
    • Zum sąraz tha lovu fu kol ngeth. = 'The storm might come here any moment.'
    • Zum tafkestaz mul lith kovuą hettev! = 'The map might not be well-defined! [in a hypothetical math lecture, cautioning against a tacit assumption the audience might make]'
  • often used in a threatening manner, for example: Lakh to mul yedhą ma zum i ląsuth lakh to! = 'You have no idea what I'm gonna do to you!'

Object pronouns

Object pronouns are not different from subject pronouns, except kho/khe/khem may be found instead of to/te/tem in some dialects.


Prepositions inflect like in Welsh: for pronominal prepositional objects, usually the preposition is inflected and is followed by the independent pronoun.

example of a Cubrite inflected preposition: lø "for"; bø 'in, at', min 'from' are inflected similarly

  • 1sg: li, li ni
  • 2sg.m: lakh to
  • 2sg.f: lakh te
  • 3sg.m: lomu hu
  • 3sg.f: lomi hi
  • 1pl. lonu nu
  • 2pl. lakhøm tem
  • 3pl. lomu'm

Other prepositions:

  • túb lø = for
  • yán = because of
  • ngøli = on, above
  • yax = with (both inst. and com.)
  • pøngé = inside, within
    • sim. løngé, møngé 'into, out of'
  • pølip = amidst
  • wén = without
  • møné = before, in front of
  • hár = after
  • møngál = above
  • møþál = below
  • þaxt = instead of
  • til = like, as
  • hakr = until
  • gu = up to


Constituent order

The order is tense-subject-verb-object.

R'išaz p'él avlaz.
The man is eating the apple.
Re béð u pø de-rul xmó liyoðøn.
His house is as big as a crocodile.
Sto hi ða ląsuth halkkbetho hi pø ro-múhr.
She did her homework too late.

The negative particle mul (from mə'umâ lo 'not anything') comes after the subject pronoun and before the verb.

Faulty accusative

Cubrite has the faulty accusative particle ða or ð' (from Ancient Cubrite ʔet ha-). It is not used for all direct objects, but only for constituents that are separated from their heads. Đa must also be used before the verbal noun when using an auxiliary: היֶטבר הי דﬞאַ ליתפﬞוס טאָגר Hettvø hi ða litfus togø. = She was good at catching fish.

Noun phrase

Both nouns and adjectives inflect for definiteness, as follows:

  • Singular: -as (after C) or -su (after V)
  • Plural: -il (replacing the plural suffix -r if any)


  • hadr = a room
  • hadras = the room
  • hadrør = rooms
  • hadril = the rooms
  • hadr grú = a big room
  • hadras grulas = the big room
  • botr grulr = big houses
  • botil grulil = the big houses

There is no construct state, unlike in Biblical Hebrew. Genitives are expressed with concatenation: šem-mawkaz = the king's name.

To say "this X" or "that X", X-az fu and X-az šom (lit. "the X here" and "the X there") are used. To say "this" and "that", you say ze fu and ze šom (where the ze becomes ilø in the plural).

The abstract demonstrative is zuth.

Words for yes and no

  • ent (from אמת "truth") = present 'yes'
  • ay (from איה "where?") = present 'no'
  • ríð (from ראיתי "I saw") = past 'yes'
  • lu ðo (from לא עשה, inflected) = past 'no'
  • yąð (from יעשה, inflected) = future 'yes'
  • lu yąð (inflected) = future 'no'
  • aw (from אל "don't!") = imperative 'no'

Verb phrase

VN constructions

  • re Parm laxt = Parm is going, goes
  • re Parm þax laxt = Parm is about to go
  • re Parm hár laxt = Parm has gone
  • re Parm hár yið pø laxt = Parm has been going
  • re Parm døs laxt = Parm just went
  • re Parm wén laxt = Parm hasn't went
  • sto Parm ða laxt = Parm went
  • þąs Parm ða laxt = Parm will go
  • Laxt! = Go! (number neutral)
  • Tenu laxt! = Let's go!

Sentence phrase


There is a complementizer mur /mɐ/ (from לאמר lēmōr) or yuð /əð/ (from conflation of hajōδ 'to be' and hiyyōδ accusative marker) depending on dialect.


Relative clauses use the relativizer ar (from a merger of אשר *ʔašir and ה- ha-). Re is not used in relative clauses in present tense.

  • Ni p'él avlaz ar pø hadr i = I am eating the apple which is in my room.


Canaanite has the following vocabulary layers:

  1. Most of the common words are inherited from Ancient Cubrite, however they often show drastic semantic drift or compounding. Example: sngúd 'a lot' comes from סעודה 'feast'.
  2. Celtic substrates
  3. Ancient Greek, Old Togarmite and Aramaic loans
  4. L-Arabic loans
  5. Modern loans from other Levantine sprachbund languages, such as Togarmite, and Modern Greek

Although it is attested in Biblical Hebrew, the *CăCiCâ verbal noun pattern is not as productive as in Mishnaic Hebrew.

Many words are formed form earlier construct state combinations, and are sometimes unrecognizable as such:

  • ambin 'brick' from אבני בניין *ʔabanē binyan 'building stones'
  • søvgom '(slang) debacle, fiasco; a mess' from שפך דם *šapk dam 'spilling of blood'
  • ngénøm 'source' from עין מים ʕēn mayim 'spring of water'
  • løseppin 'to like' from נשא פני lit. 'lift the face of' meaning 'to favor'
  • klalib 'conscience' from קול הלב lit. 'voice of the heart'

Some productive affixes are:

  • ben-/ble- = agentive
    • פנאַר pnar 'wolf' comes from pre-Cubrite *בן הר 'son-of mountain'
  • beδ- = place noun
  • bəd-/pd- = singulative of a collective noun
    • פדע pdą = tree, from *batt ya3r 'daughter of forest'
  • -əl = transitivizer or causative of verbs (from a -w ~ -l alternation in some intransitive-transitive verb pairs)

Example texts

UDHR, Article 1

Xol plenušil bru'm lost til hofsr; em sowr ηa xobdas xø tsrókkil. Vru'm lifkuð pø ðbín xe gulalib, xe re ηal em liðaléx yaxøm šuðiv bø nøšóm ahwr.
all human/PL-DEF.PL.M PASS.PRES-3PL be_born as free-M.PL; 3PL equal-PL on dignity-DEF.SG and right-DEF.F.PL. PASS.PRES-3PL entrust with understanding and conscience, and PRES on-3PL behave with one_another with spirit brotherhood.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Tower of Babel

Cubrite Masoretic Hebrew (translit.)
  1. Bar þó law þebwas fo súðu fóv ða lødapir xe súðu núm ða lúηgil.
  2. Wini pið em pø šątt me mikkarm, fu'm ða liþakiw pø mišuras Šinηor xe liðyašib šom.
  3. Xe fu'm lø šúðiv yið: "Púlé, puþonu fuð ambínr xe latteb lévuð em." Xe fu ambínil ða šamiš lomu'm til avónil, ke hemras til mawtt.
  4. Xe fu'm yið: "Púlé, puþonu bnuð krír xe mídøw bomi hi, yéð ruš u ląluð lø šmémas, xe nąð nu ða ląsuð lø nawš nu duąšim! Oz nąs nu mul liðvasir ηøli þó law þebwas."
  5. Wini Hašém fo u ða rest bu, xá yąf u ða lábitt pø kríras ke mídøwas a yu plenusil pø bnuð.
  6. Ke Hašém fo u yið: "Šą a fu'm ða háþolø fuð kø hóð ηom ar bø dapir hóð núm, yiye mum mikhšul mul lø mádovr a yąfu løzumim fuð!
  7. "Púlé, puþonu rest laxt xe bawbiw núm em, oz yąðu'm mul lábin šuðiv."
  8. Xu Hašém fo u ða vasir em ηøli þó law þebwas, xe fu'm ða ládul bnuð kríras.
  9. Xe me yánas fu ar kríras bø kaxt šemas "Bovél" -- šom fo Hašém ða bawbiw núm þó law þebwas. Me šom fo Hašém ða vasir em ηøli þó law þebwas.
  1. Vayehi khol-ha'arets safa ekhat udvarim akhadim.
  2. Vayehi bnos'am mikedem vayyimtse'u vik'a b'erets Shin'ar vayyeshvu sham.
  3. Vayyomru ish el-re'ehu hava nilbena lvenim venisrefa lisrefa vatehi lahem hallvena l'aven vehakhemor haya lahem lakhomer.
  4. Vayyomru hava nivne-lanu ir umigdal verosho vashamayim vena'ase-lanu shem pen-nafuts al-pnei khol-ha'arets.
  5. Vayyered Adonai lir'ot et-ha'ir ve'et-hammigdal asher banu bnei ha'adam.
  6. Vayyomer Adonai hen am ekhad vesafa akhat lekhullam veze hakhillam la'asot ve'ata lo-yibatser mehem kol asher yazmu la'asot.
  7. Hava nerda vnovla sham sfatam asher lo yishme'u ish sefat re'ehu.
  8. Vayyafets Adonai otam misham al-pnei khol-ha'arets vayyakhdelu livnot ha'ir.
  9. Al-ken kara shmah bavel ki-sham balal Adonai shefat kol-ha'arets umisham hefitsam Adonai al-pnei kol-ha'arets.

Schleicher's Fable


When three forms are given, the forms are respectively for addressing one male informally, one female informally, and multiple people or formal language.

  • Soløm! [ˈsɔləm] = Hello! / Goodbye!
  • Hakr gorv! = See you!
  • Ebí Hi! = Welcome! (etym. [God] has brought you)
  • Parg lo Hi! = Thank you!
  • imtsøhém Hi = Please (etym. if it finds favor in your eyes)
    • also plíz [pləɪz] (from English)
  • ngeth tuv [ŋɛθ tuv] = have fun