Hivatish

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Siqa tuqsuq Qivattut (This page in Hivatish)
Hivatish
Qivattutannguaq
Pronunciation /hivatːutaŋːuaχ/
Created by IlL
Setting Lõis
Language family
Indo-European
  • Hivatish
Writing system Latin, Hivatish script
ISO 639-3

Hivatish (Qivattutannguaq /hivatːutaŋːuaχ/ or Qivattuq tannguaq /hivatːuχ taŋːuaχ/) is an Indo-European language inspired by Greenlandic, Old Persian and Proto-Celtic.

Qivattutannguaq is a result of Indo-European being influenced by Inuit languages. It was spoken in Qivattulunnun, which is located in our Great Britain.

It was divided into two registers, the high register Qunngartutannguaq ("perfected language") and the Estonian-like vernacular Prisinitutannguaq ("natural language"). Qunngartutannguaq is still used as a source of loans in modern British Isle languages such as Pestonian.

  • qaqartuq = narrow
  • wiquq = virus (cognatization of Latin virus)
  • siiman = seed (related to German Keim)
  • tiutaa = tribe; the people
  • Tiuppateer = Qivattu counterpart of Zeus/Jupiter
  • teewaq = god
  • siuqit < *ǵews-eti = he tries
  • suqtuq (< *ǵews-tus) = attempt
  • imaq (m) = sea
  • iqalugaq (m) = trout
  • anuri (n) = storm
  • iqariuq = red <- h₁ésh₂ṛ-yos
  • talguq = long
  • tuattuq (m) = trail <- duh₂-ntos
  • arsattuq (m) = silver
  • taiseet = he pinpoints, he locates
  • ziimaa = winter
  • wivuneet (wi-wonh1-eyeti) = he aspires

Todo

Include some sound change laws conditioned by PIE glottalization? Some Uralic gradation-like thing?

Names

Phonology

Qivattutannguaq has a rather small phonology.

Vowels: i u a ii uu ee aa ai au iu ui

Consonants: p v t d s z k g q m n ng l r j w wh /p v t ð~d s z k ɣ~g χ m n ŋ l r j w ʍ/

Voiceless stops are unaspirated.

i u are pronounced [e o] before q.

Diachronics

o > u

RC > aRC

l before voiceless consonants = /ɬ/

nt > tt; nd, ndʰ > nn

Pronouns

jaa 'I'
Singular Plural
Nominative jaa ammii
Genitive mini ammaqun
Dative mai ammavuq
Accusative mi ammi
Ablative minit, miit ammavuq
Locative minit, miit ammavi


tuu 'thou'
Singular Plural
Nominative tuu juu
Genitive tivi junngaqun
Dative tai junngavuq
Accusative ti junngi
Ablative tivit, tiit junngavuq
Locative tivit, tiit junngavi


Reflexive pronoun
(Number-neutral)
Nominative -
Genitive qivi
Dative qai
Accusative qi
Ablative qivit, qiit
Locative qivit, qiit


  • siqu, siqaa, situt = this
  • qu, qaa, tut = that
  • ju, jaa, jut = which (relative pronoun)
  • kiq? kia? kit? = who? what?

Nouns

Functions of the cases

Qivattutannguaq has 6 or 7 cases depending on register.

  • The nominative is used for subjects and predicate objects. In Prisinitutannguaq, it is also used for direct objects.
  • Dative objects and benefactives use the dative. It is also used for "have", as in Latin.
  • The genitive is used for attributive possession and "belongs to" possession. Genitives come befire nouns.
  • In Qunngartutannguaq, the direct object of an affirmative verb takes the accusative, and the direct object of a negated verb takes the genitive:
    • Suwaa iwiti walkun. = The dog saw a wolf.
    • Suwaa neen iwiti walkaa. = The dog did not see a wolf.
  • Static locations take the locative. A preposition such as in or at can be used but is not necessary.
  • Destinations for prepositions indicating destination like in 'into', at 'at' or ipi 'onto' take the accusative.
  • "from a location" generally just takes the ablative, but some contexts require the preposition ut. (such as from a place that is city-sized or larger: ut vukaat 'from the city', but taamiat 'from the house')
  • For 'with' (instrumental) su + ablative is used. 'With' (comitative) requires the preposition san + ablative.
  • Agents of passive verbs use the ablative.

Thematic

o-stems

valkuq 'wolf' (< *wĺ̥kʷos; underwent taboo deformation)
Singular Plural
Nominative valkuq valkaaq
Genitive valkaa valkuun
Dative valkai valkavuq
Accusative valkun valkuuq
Ablative valkiat valkavuq
Locative valkiat valkavi
Vocative valki! valkaaq!


wirdun 'word' (< *werdʰh₁om)
Singular Plural
Nominative wirdun wirdaa
Genitive wirdaa wirduun
Dative wirdai wirdavuq
Accusative wirdun wirdaa
Ablative wirdiat wirdavuq
Locative wirdiat wirdavi
Vocative wirdi! wirdaa!

eh2-stems

vukaa 'city' (< *bʰug-éh₂)
Singular Plural
Nominative vukaa vukaaq
Genitive vukaaq vukuun
Dative vukai vukaavuq
Accusative vukaan vukaaq
Ablative vukaat vukaavuq
Locative vukaat vukaavi
Vocative vukaa! vukaaq!

u-stems

Masculine and feminine u-stems decline as follows:

quunuq 'son'
Singular Plural
Nominative quunuq quunuwiq
Genitive quuniuq quunuun
Dative quuniwi quunuvuq
Accusative quunun quunuuq
Ablative quunut quunuvuq
Locative quunut quunuvi
Vocative quunu! quunuwiq!

naawuq (f.) 'boat, ship' is a little irregular:

naawuq 'boat, ship'
Singular Plural
Nominative naawuq naawiq
Genitive naajuq naawuun
Dative naawi naawuvuq
Accusative naawun naawuuq
Ablative naawut naawuvuq
Locative naawut naawuvi
Vocative naawu! naawiq!


Neuter u-stems decline as follows:

iglu 'tent'
Singular Plural
Nominative iglu iglua
Genitive igliuq igluun
Dative igliwi igluvuq
Accusative iglu iglua
Ablative iglut igluvuq
Locative iglut igluvi
Vocative iglu! iglua!

i-stems

Masculine and feminine i-stems:

ingniq 'fire'
Singular Plural
Nominative ingniq ingniiq
Genitive ingniiq ingnuun
Dative ingnii ingnivuq
Accusative ingnin ingniiq
Ablative ingnit ingnivuq
Locative ingnit ingnivi
Vocative ingni! ingniiq!

Also: teepputiq 'master'.

Neuter i-stems:

anuri 'storm' (< Proto-Inuit ạnųʁǝ̈ 'wind')
Singular Plural
Nominative anuri anuria
Genitive anuriiq anurijuun
Dative anurii anurivuq
Accusative anuri anuria
Ablative anurit anurivuq
Locative anurit anurivi
Vocative anuri! anuria!

h2-stems

imaq 'sea'
Singular Plural
Nominative imaq imaaq
Genitive imiaq imuun
Dative imai imavuq
Accusative iman imaaq
Ablative imat imavuq
Locative imat imavi
Vocative ima! imaat!

Nouns with a vowel before the aq decline as follows:

tannguaq 'tongue; language (f.)'
Singular Plural
Nominative tannguaq tannguaaq
Genitive tanngujaq tannguwuun
Dative tannguai tannguavuq
Accusative tannguan tannguaaq
Ablative tannguat tannguavuq
Locative tannguat tannguavi
Vocative tanngua! tannguaaq!

n-stems

zamaa 'human'
Singular Plural
Nominative zamaa zamuniq
Genitive zamuuq zamunuun
Dative zamunii zamunavuq
Accusative zamunan zamunaaq
Ablative zamunit zamunavuq
Locative zamunit zamunavi
Vocative zamuni! zamuniq!

-mn-nouns

numan 'name'
Singular Plural
Nominative numan numanaa
Genitive numaaq numanuun
Dative numanii numanavuq
Accusative numan numanaa
Ablative numanit numanavuq
Locative numanit numanavi
Vocative numan! numanaa!

Also: wirman 'time', wingman 'clothes'

Athematic

Example nouns: qaullaq = sun; apalaq = apple

reezaq 'king'
Singular Plural
Nominative reezaq reeziq
Genitive reeziaq reezuun
Dative reezii reezavuq
Accusative reezan reezaaq
Ablative reezit reezavuq
Locative reezit reezavi
Vocative rees! reeziq!
iqalugaq 'trout' (< Proto-Inuit ǝqaluɣ)
Singular Plural
Nominative iqalugaq iqalugiq
Genitive iqalugiaq iqaluguun
Dative iqalugii iqalugavuq
Accusative iqalugan iqalugaaq
Ablative iqalugit iqalugavuq
Locative iqalugit iqalugavi
Vocative iqaluk! iqalugiq!
wutar 'water'
Singular Plural
Nominative wutar wutaraa
Genitive wutariaq wutaruun
Dative wutarii wutaravuq
Accusative wutaran wutaraa
Ablative wutarit wutaravuq
Locative wutarit wutaravi
Vocative wutar! wutaraa!

pateer-class

pateer 'father'
Singular Plural
Nominative pateer patiriq
Genitive patriaq patiruun
Dative patrii patiravuq
Accusative patran patiraaq
Ablative patrit patiravuq
Locative patrit patiravi
Vocative patir! patiriq!


Declined similarly: maateer, vraateer, whiqeer, dukateer, Tippateer = father, mother, brother, sister, daughter, (Hivatish sky god)

Adjectives

Adjectives fall into three main declensions: -uq adjectives (~ Latin 1st declension adjectives), -iq adjectives (~ Latin 3rd declension adjectives), and -aq adjectives (containing verb participles).

-uq adjectives

  • nom: -uq, -aa, -un, pl. -aaq, -aaq, -aa

-iq adjectives

  • nom. -iq, -iq, -i; pl. -iiq, -iiq, -ia

-aq adjectives

nom. -aq, -aq, -an; pl. -aaq, -aaq, -aa

Prepositions

  • su = w/ abl.: with (instrumental)
  • san = w/ abl.: with (comitative)
  • viz = w/ gen.: without
  • in
    • w/ acc.: into
    • w/ loc.: inside
  • at = at
    • w/ acc.: towards; at
  • attir =
    • w/ loc.: between,
    • w/ acc.: against
  • ut = w/ abl.: out of
  • ipi
    • w/ acc.: onto
    • w/ loc.: on
  • tira
    • w/ acc: (moving) through, beyond
    • w/ loc: beyond

Verbs

Qivattutannguaq verbs have only three tenses: present, past, and optative.

Athematic

tituat 'he gives', pres. ind.
Singular Plural
1 tituan titumaq
2 tituaq tituti
3 tituat tituut

e/o-thematic

These verbs often take the past form from PIE root aorists.

Some verbs in this class:

  • vilsit, ivalsi = shines
  • vinnit, ivanni = binds
  • siuqit, isuqi = tries


Present
Person Active Passive
1SG vinnaa vinnaar
2SG vinniq vinnitar
3SG vinnit vinnitur
1PL vinnumaq vinnumaqti
2PL vinniti vinnitau
3PL vinnuut vinnuttur
Past
Person Active Passive
1SG ivanna ivannar
2SG ivanta ivantar
3SG ivanni ivannur
1PL ivannami ivannamaqti
2PL ivannati ivannatau
3PL ivanneer ivanneerur
Optative
Person Active Passive
1SG vinnain vinnajaar
2SG vinnaiq vinnaitar
3SG vinnait vinnaitur
1PL vinnaimaq vinnaimaqti
2PL vinnaiti vinnaitau
3PL vinnajuut vinnajuttur
Imperative
Person Active Passive
2SG vinni! vinniqi!
3SG vinnitaa! vinnitaar!
2PL vinniti! vinnitau!
3PL vinnuttaa! vinnuttaar!
Participles
Tense Active Passive
Present vinnattaq vinnumuq
Past vannawuq vannuq

Nasal infix present verbs

-eh2- verbs

teepputijaat = he rules

  • present: teepputijaa, tepputijaaq, teepputijaat, teepputijaamaq, teepputijaati, teepputijaat
  • past: iteepputijaaqa, iteepputijaaqta, iteepputijaaqi, iteepputijaangmi, iteepputijaaqti, iteepputijaaqeer

-éye- verbs

taiseet (*doyḱ-éye-ti) = he locates, he pinpoints

  • present: taisijaa, taiseeq, taiseet, taiseemaq, taiseeti, taisijuut
  • past: itaiseeqa, itaiseeqta, itaiseeqi, itaiseengmi, itaiseeqti, itaiseeqeer

Copula

  • present: ingmi, iq, eet, ingmaq, iqti, quut
  • past: iqqa, iqta, iqqi, iqami, iqati, iqqeer

Numerals

  • zero: nuilluq (m.), nuillaa (f.), nuillun (n.)
  • I: ainuq (m.), ainaa (f.), ainun (n.); ordinal parmuq
  • II: tuwai (animate), tuwaa (inanimate); ordinal antiruq
  • III: triiq (animate), tria (inanimate); ordinal trituq
  • IIII: kituariq (animate), kituara (inanimate); ordinal kituartuq
  • Λ. pikkiq; ordinal piktuq
  • ΛΙ: whiiq; ordinal whiqtuq
  • ΛΙΙ: qiptan; ordinal qiptammuq
  • ΛΙΙΙ: ustaa; ordinal ustammuq
  • ΛIIII: niwan; ordinal niwammuq
  • Χ: tisan; ordinal tisammuq
  • XI: ainuqupirtisan, ainuppirsan
  • XII: tuuqupirtisan, tuuppirsan
  • XIII: triiqupirtisan, triippirsan
  • XIIII: kituarqupirtisan, kituarpirsan
  • XΛ: pikkiqupirtisan, pikkippirsan
  • XΛI: whiiqupirtisan, whiippirsan
  • XΛII: qiptaqupirtisan, qiptappirsan
  • XΛIII: ustaqupirtisan, ustappirsan
  • XΛIIII: niwaqupirtisan, niwappirsan
  • XX: tuiqtisan
  • XXX: tirtisan
  • XXXX: kituartisan
  • D: pikkitisan
  • DX: whiiqtisan
  • DXX: qiptattisan
  • DXXX: ustattisan
  • DXXXX: niwattisan
  • O: sattun
  • Q: pikkisattun
  • M: tuqsattun
  • Ī (10000): zilliun
  • Ī̄ (1,0000,0000): tussilliun

Numerals percede nouns. Numbers above 1 take the genitive (partitive) singular.

Declension

ainuq declines as a singular -uq adjective. pikkiq and whiiq decline like -iq adjectives, and qiptun, astaa, nivun and tisun decline like neuter nouns.

tuwaa

  • nom./acc./voc. tuwaa (inanimate), tuwai (animate)
  • gen. tuwuun, tuun
  • dat./abl. tuwaavuq (inanimate), tuwaivuq (animate)
  • loc. tuwaavi (inanimate), tuwaivi (animate)

tria

  • nom./acc./voc. triiq (animate), tria (inanimate)
  • gen. trijuun
  • dat./abl. triivuq
  • loc. triivi

kituara

  • nom./acc./voc. kituariq (animate), kituara (inanimate)
  • gen. kituaruun
  • dat./abl. kituaravuq
  • loc. kituaravi

Derivation

  • -isuq = forms adjectives (< -ik'os)
  • Verb prefixes: in-, at-, attir-, pi-, su-, san-, ik(s)-, pir-, qupir-, quu-, ...
    • Ex. from wiitit 'he sees': ikwiitit 'he identifies, he susses out', atwiitit 'he sees to it that', piwiitit 'he sees fit'; attirpiwiitit 'he agrees'; suwiitit 'he witnesses'
  • -inuq = agent
  • -inia (from *-nih2) = feminine agent
    • reezinia = queen, from reezaq king
  • -allun (from *-tlóm) = instrument

Syntax

Qunngartutannguaq word order is SOV by default but can be changed due to emphasis. On the other hand, Prisinitutannguaq is consistently SVO.

Kiiwuq piksuq wutarit naaksit.
The living fish swims in the water.

Adjectives and genitives precede nouns, and relative clauses follow nouns.

Sample texts

Schleicher's Fable

Awiq iswaaq-ki

Awiq, jungmai walinaa neen iqqi, iwiti iswuuq, ainun karun waznun tinngattan, ainun-ki mizalun kraaman, ainun-ki zamunan asu virattan. Awiq nuu iswavuq iwaki: "Sartaq anngitur mai, witattii zamunan iswuuq asattan." Iswaaq nuu awii iwakeer: "Asauqee, awi, sartaq anngitur ammai witattavuq situt: Zamaa, teepputiq, ut awijuun walinaat karnit qai girmun wingman. Awii nuu walinaa neen eet." Awiq nuu situt slauqaawuq in plaanun ivuki.

Hypothetical Roman transcription

AVEH·ISVACCI

AVEH·IVGMÆ·VALINA·NEN·EHHI·IVITI·ISVVH·ÆNVN·CARVN·VAZNVN·TINGATTAN·ÆNVNCI·MIZALVN·CRAMAN·ÆNVNCI·ZAMVNAN·ASV·FIRATTAN