Hivatish/Modern

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Modern Hivatish (native name: angwermanes hivatu tangu "our-time-ic Hivatu tongue" or juõs hivatu tangu "young Hivatu tongue") is an Estonian-inspired descendant of Hivatish.

Numbers: õin, tua, tria, kidur, pik, huu, heht, õst, neu, tis

Tepader! = an oath, like "Jesus" or "Christ" in our English

kuruunaawiha pandeemia = coronavirus pandemic, kõuvid = COVID

udra = water

Phonology

Consonants: p b v t d δ k g s z h m n ng w r l j /p b v t d ð k g s z h~χ m n ŋ w ʀ l j/

Vowels: a e i u õ /a e i u ɤ/ + long vowels and diphthongs

Nouns

no gender

Consonant declension

valg 'wolf' (< valkuq)
Singular Plural
Nominative valg valgar
Genitive valga valgu
Dative valge valgav
Ablative-Locative valged valgav


wirδ 'word' (< wirdun)
Singular Plural
Nominative wirδ werδar
Genitive werδa wirδu
Dative wirδe wirδav
Ablative-Locative wirδed wirδav

a-declension

võga 'city' (< vukáa)
Singular Plural
Nominative võga võgar
Genitive võgar võgu
Dative võge võgav
Ablative-Locative võgad võgav

i-declension

inn 'fire' (< ingniq)
Singular Plural
Nominative inn innir
Genitive innir innu
Dative inne inniv
Ablative-Locative innid inniv

u-declension

suht 'attempt'
Singular Plural
Nominative suht suhtur
Genitive suhter suhtu
Dative suhte suhtuv
Ablative-Locative suhtud suhtuv

Athematic declension

Athematic nouns are the most irregular:

ree 'king'
Singular Plural
Nominative ree reejer
Genitive reeja reeju
Dative rei reejav
Ablative-Locative reejed reejav


eralu 'trout'
Singular Plural
Nominative eralu eralur
Genitive eraluja eralu
Dative erale eralav
Ablative-Locative eralud eralav


anur 'storm'
Singular Plural
Nominative anur anurir
Genitive anure anuri
Dative anure anuriv
Ablative-Locative anurid anuriv


em 'sea'
Singular Plural
Nominative em emar
Genitive imer imu
Dative eme emav
Ablative-Locative emad emav

n-stem declension

nõma 'name'
Singular Plural
Nominative nõma nõmanar
Genitive nõmar nõmanu
Dative nõmane nõmanav
Ablative-Locative nõmaned nõmanav

Reborrowed classical nouns

wihuh 'virus' (reborrowed from wiqúq)
Singular Plural
Nominative wihuh wihar
Genitive wiha wihu
Dative wihe wihav
Ablative-Locative wihed wihav

Adjectives

Similar to noun declension classes; adjectives before nouns. The u-declension is the regular one for adjectives, except for ones that end in a vowel or -r.

  • Nominative: tali wirδ 'long word', taljar werδar 'long words'
  • Genitive: talja werδa, talju wirδu
  • Dative: talje wirδe, taljav wirδav
  • Abl-loc: taljad wirδed, taljav wirδav

Pronouns

case 1sg. 2sg. (familiar) 3sg. 1pl. 2pl., polite 3pl. reflexive interrogative/relative
"he" "she" "it" "who" "what"
nom. ja tu se sa sud am ju sir - ke kid
acc. mi ti sun san sud ang jung sur hi kun kid
gen. min tiv siv siv ta angar jungar sar hiv kiv kia
dat. mõi tõi sõme, sõm sõre, sõr tõme, tõm angav jungav siv, serav hõi kõme, kõm kiime, kiim
abl.-loc. mined, med tived, ted sõmed sõred tõmed angav jungav siv, serav hived, hed kõmed kiimed

(oblique forms of kid are from Qivattu kit 'what' + appropriate case forms of the neuter sg. relative pronoun jut)

Verbs

TODO: revamp tenses to get split-ergativity, add evidentiality

Unlike Qivattutannguaq, Pestonian is NOT pro-drop.

There is a 2x2 tense structure: {non-past, past} x {imperfective, perfective}.

Ergativity is used in perfect(ive) tenses. The verb agrees with the noun in the absolutive case, and the ergative subject is marked with the ablative-locative case: Sõmed teisedim. 'He will find me.'

As in Hebrew and Russian, some tenses are pro-drop but some tenses are not.

eed "to be":

  • ja im, tu er, se/sa/sud eed, am imme, ju eht, sir huud

teised "to find":

  • Non-past imperfective: ja teisia, tu teiser, se/sa/sud teised, am teisim, ju teisid, sir teisud
  • Past imperfective: ja teisa, tu teist, se/sa/sud teis, am teisam, ju teisad, sir teiser
  • Future perfective: ja teisiar, tu teisedar, se/sa/sud teisedur, am teisemaht, ju teisedaht, si teisudur
  • Past perfective: ja teisedim, tu teiseder, se/sa/sud teiseded, am teisedim, ju teisedeht, si teiserur

vinned "to join":

  • Non-past imperfective: ja vinna, tu vinner, se/sa/sud vinned, am vinnam, ju vinned, sir vinnud
  • Past imperfective: ja vanner, tu vannet, se/sa/sud vanner, am vanneme, ju vannete, sir vanner
  • Past perfective: vandim, vander, vanded, vandime, vandite, vandud
  • Future perfective: vantõim, vantõir, vantõid, vantõime, vantõite, vantõjud

teepudad "to rule":

  • Non-past imperfective: ja teepuda, tu teepudar, se teepudad, am teepudam, ju teepudad, sir teepudud
  • Past imperfective: ja teepudar, tu teepudat, se teepudar, am teepudame, ju teepudate, sir teepudar
  • Past perfective: teepudadim, teepudader, teepudaded, teepudadime, teepudadite, teepudadud
  • Future perfective: teepudatõim, teepudatõir, teepudatõid, teepudatõime, teepudatõite, teepudatõjud