Kwenya

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Kwenya (Κοινη) is a Finnic-influenced Hellenic language.


Introduction

Phonology

Orthography

Consonants

  • μ ν γγ = /m n ŋ/ (γκ γχ = /ŋk ŋkʰ/)
  • π τ κ = /p t k/
  • β δ = /b d/
  • φ θ χ = /pʰ tʰ kʰ/
  • σ γ = /s h/
  • ζ = /z/
  • ϝ ρ λ = /w ɾ l/

Vowels

α ε ι ο υ η ω αι ει ευ ια ιο οι ου = /a ə i o wi ja u e i ju ja jo we ɨ/ a ë i o wi ya u e i yu ya yo we ũ

Prosody

Stress

Stress is always initial.

Intonation

Phonotactics

Morphophonology

Morphology

Nouns

nom/acc/gen/voc + Finnic-style cases. No articles or gender due to Finnic influence.

Principal parts: nominative, accusative, genitive, vocative singular; nominative, accusative, genitive plural.

Direct objects of a negated verb are in the genitive.

γλωσσα 'tongue, language'
Singular Plural
Nominative γλωσσα
hlusa
γλωσσαι
hluse
Vocative γλωσσα!
hlusa!
γλωσσαι!
hluse!
Accusative γλωσσαν
hlusan
γλωσσαρ
hlusar
Genitive γλωσσαρ
hlusar
γλωσσων
hlusun
Illative γλωσσανειρ
hlusanir
γλωσσαρειρ
hlusarir
Inessive γλωσσανδο
hlusando
γλωσσωνενδο
hlusunëndo
Elative γλωσσαξε
hlusaksë
γλωσσωνεξε
hlusunëksë
Adessive γλωσσαρειτ
hlusarit
γλωσσωνειτ
hlusunit
Allative γλωσσαβαι
hlusabe
γλωσσωμβαι
hlusumbe
Ablative γλωσσαμπο
hlusampo
γλωσσαπο
hlusapo
Instrumental γλωσσαδω
hlusadu
γλωσσωνδω
hlusundu
Essive γλωσσαπρε
hlusaprë
γλωσσωμπρε
hlusumprë
Translative γλωσσανειν
hlusanin
γλωσσαρειν
hlusarin
Abessive γλωσσαχω
hlusakhu
γλωσσωγχω
hlusankhu
Comitative γλωσσαμε
hlusamë
γλωσσωμμε
hlusummë

οικορ 'house'
Singular Plural
Nominative οικορ
wekor
οικοι
wekwe
Vocative οικε!
wekë!
οικοι!
wekwe!
Accusative οικον
wekon
οικουρ
wekũr
Genitive οικου
wekũ
οικων
wekun
Illative οικονειρ
wekonir
οικουρειρ
wekũrir
Inessive οικουνδο
wekũndo
οικωνενδο
wekunëndo
Elative οικουξε
wekũksë
οικωνεξε
wekunëksë
Adessive οικουρειτ
wekũrit
οικωνειτ
wekunit
Allative οικουβαι
wekũbe
οικωμβαι
wekumbe
Ablative οικομπο
wekompo
οικουπο
wekũpo
Instrumental οικουδω
wekũdu
οικωνδω
wekundu
Essive οικουπρε
wekũprë
οικωμπρε
wekumprë
Translative οικονειν
wekonin
οικουρειν
wekũrin
Abessive οικουχω
wekũkhu
οικωγχω
wekunkhu
Comitative οικουμε
wekũmë
οικωμμε
wekummë

δωρον 'gift'
Singular Plural
Nominative δωρον
duron
δωρα
dura
Vocative δωρον!
duron!
δωρα!
dura!
Accusative δωρον
duron
δωρα
dura
Genitive δωρου
durũ
δωρων
durun
Illative δωρονειρ
duronir
δωραρειρ
durarir
Inessive δωρουνδο δωρωνενδο
Elative δωρουξε δωρωνεξε
Adessive δωρουειτ δωρωνειτ
Allative δωρουβαι δωρωμβαι
Ablative δωρομπο δωραπο
Instrumental δωρουδω δωρωνδω
Essive δωρουπρε δωρωμπρε
Translative δωρονειν δωραρειν
Abessive δωρουχω δωρωγχω
Comitative δωρουμε δωρωμμε

πολιρ 'city'
Singular Plural
Nominative πολιρ πολερ
Vocative πολι! πολερ!
Accusative πολιν πολερ
Genitive πολιωρ πολιων
Illative πολινειρ πολερειρ
Inessive πολιωνδο πολιωνενδο
Elative πολιωξε πολιωνεξε
Adessive πολιωρειτ πολιωνειτ
Allative πολιωβαι πολιωμβαι
Ablative πολιμπο πολεπο
Instrumental πολιωδω πολιωνδω
Essive πολιωπρε πολιωμπρε
Translative πολινειν πολερειν
Abessive πολιωχω πολιωγχω
Comitative πολιωμε πολιωμμε


Adjectives

Adjectives have an attributive form and predicative form. They also have past tense and imperative forms like verbs. also -wir, -ia, -wi < ύς-εία-ύ‎

καλορ 'good' (1st/2nd decl.); present tense
Singular Plural
male καλορ
kalor
καλοι
kalwe
female καλη
kalya
καλαι
kale
inanimate καλον
kalon
καλα
kala
attributive καλ(ο)-
kal(o)-


καλορ 'good' (1st/2nd decl.); past tense
Singular Plural
male καλορων
kalorun
καλοντερ
kalontër
female καληρα
kalyara
καλαιραι
kalere
inanimate καλονον
kalonon
καλαντα
kalanta
attributive καλομοντ
kalomont


καλορ 'good' (1st decl.); imperative
Singular Plural
active καλοστι!
kalosti!
καλοστε!
kalostë!

ευγενηρ 'gentlemanly' (3nd decl.)
Singular Plural
male ευγενηρ
yuhënyar
ευγενειρ
yuhënir
female ευγενηρ
yuhënyar
ευγενειρ
yuhënir
inanimate ευγενερ
yuhënër
ευγενη
yuhënya
attributive ευγεν(ο)-
yuhën(o)-


ευγενηρ 'gentlemanly' (3nd decl.); past tense
Singular Plural
male ευγενηρων
yuhënyarun
ευγενειντερ
yuhënintër
female ευγενηρα
yuhënyara
ευγενειραι
yuhënire
inanimate ευγενερον
yuhënëron
ευγενηντα
yuhënyanta
attributive ευγενομοντ
yuhënomont


ευγενηρ 'gentlemanly' (3nd decl.); imperative
Singular Plural
active ευγενοστι!
yuhënosti!
ευγενοστε!
yuhënostë!


Verbs

Two voices: active, passive

Principal parts: present stem, past stem

φαγων 'eat' - present active
Singular Plural
male φαγων
phahun
φαγοντερ
phahontër
female φαγουρα
phahũra
φαγουραι
phahũre
inanimate φαγον
phahon
φαγοντα
phahonta
attributive φαγοντ
phahont


φαγων 'eat' - past active
Singular Plural
male φαγαρ
phahar
φαγαντερ
phahantër
female φαγαρα
phahara
φαγαραι
phahare
inanimate φαγαν
phahan
φαγαντα
phahanta
attributive φαγαρ
phahar


φαγων 'eat' - imperative active
Singular Plural
active φαγε!
phahë!
φαγετε!
phahëtë!


φαγων 'eat' - present passive
Singular Plural
male φαγομενορ
phahomënor
φαγομενοι
phahomënwe
female φαγομενη
phahomënya
φαγομεναι
phahomëne
inanimate φαγομενον
phahomënon
φαγομενα
phahomëna
attributive φαγομεν
phahomën


φαγων 'eat' - past passive
Singular Plural
male φαγομενορων
phahamënorun
φαγαμενοντερ
phahamënontër
female φαγομενηρα
phahamënyara
φαγαμεναιραι
phahamënere
inanimate φαγαμενονον
phahamënonon
φαγαμεναντα
phahamënanta
attributive φαγομενομοντ
phahomënomont


φαγων 'eat' - imperative passive
Singular Plural
active φαγομενοστι!
phahomënosti!
φαγομενοστε!
phahomënostë!


Numbers

All numbers are indeclinable:

1-10: ën, dwi, trya, tëttar, pënta, ëksa, ëpta, ohta, ënnya, dëka

11-20: ëndyutrũ, dwidyutru, ..., ikori (< hen deuterou, dyo deuterou, ... "one of the second [ten], two of the second [ten], ..." cf. Estonian üks·teist, kaks·teist, ...)

100: ëkaton

1000: khilya

Syntax

Constituent order

Kwenya is completely head-final like Korean, Tamil and Turkish.

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Other resources