Old Roshterian

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Old Roshterian is the reconstructed intermediate stage between Proto-Talmic and Roshterian. It was spoken approximately at the same time Thensarian was spoken.

Some words

  • φlat-nəm "seed" > Old Roshterian *ḽatnə > laaṉ "child (offspring)"
  • tekts "child" > Old Roshterian *tejṱ, tejs- > ṯeit, ṯeis- "child (young human)"
  • bonditejṱiə, bondejṱiə, bnejṱiə "child-bearer, child-rearer, babysitter" > bleit, bleiti- "woman"
  • soliθe > OR höḽiṱe "5" > helit, lite-
  • kabnənts > OR kabrəṋs "woman" > (lost)
  • snuwem "round" > OR nǖ "fat" > ṉii "big"
  • mārom "tree" > OR miəro "tree" > miar
  • dēdī > dēdii "tears" > ḏeeḏ
  • gwaθwā > baṱu "throat" > batu
  • nā > ṋiə "I" > nia
  • som, sam > hum "he"
  • sausmam > haufa "moon" > hoof
  • sk, st > ść, st > OR sṱ, st > st, s̱ṯ
  • Final -s, -m, -r had been deleted in endings



a e i o u ə ö ü ā ē ī ō ū ȫ ǖ iə uə aj ej öj uj iw

ȫ > aa in later Roshterian; aa also emerges from CL


Labial Dental Alveolar Medial Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal *m *ṋ *n
Plosive voiceless *p *ṱ *t *k *q
voiced *b *ḓ *d *g
Fricative voiceless *s *h
Resonant *w *ḽ *l, *r *y

The "medial" consonants were retroflex, sje-like or bunched.


The initial stress in Proto-Talmic had shifted to penultimate by Pre-Roshterian. (becomes ultimate stress in Roshterian after final vowels are deleted)



Case? Maybe just absolute/construct

ḽatnə 'seed'
Construct Singular Plural
ḽatnai ḽatnə hēḽatnə

Nouns also have an incorporated form, used when the noun is used in noun incorporation.


Verbs have absolute and conjunct stems, much like in Old Irish. With a preverb or an incorporandum (incorporated noun stem), the conjunct form is used.

The process of attaching preverbs such as prepositions to verbs was productive in Proto-Talmic, which then was repurposed for applicatives and for noun incorporation in Old Roshterian [unlike in Thensarian which took a path more akin to IE languages].

The forms came from the following stress pattern:

Verb stress patterns in Pre-Roshterian [immediately after stress shift]
preverb first ... penult final
Absolute - secondary unstressed primary unstressed
Conjunct secondary unstressed unstressed primary unstressed

Handwave: This creates a succession of unstressed syllables in the conjunct form which gets smooshed together in Old Roshterian. Or maybe no syncope, but some sort of vowel harmonization


Person ṋoṱiəṋi "I rest" (independent) mī-ṋṱiəṋi "I do not rest" (dependent)
1SG ṋoṱiəṋi mī-ṋṱiəṋi
2SG ṋoṱiəri mī-ṋṱiəri
3SG.M ṋoṱiəmi mī-ṋṱiəmi
3SG.F ṋoṱiəsi mī-ṋṱiəsi
3SG.N ṋoṱiə mī-ṋṱiə
1EX ṋoṱiəmē mī-ṋṱiəmē
1IN ṋoṱiəṋṱi mī-ṋṱiəṋṱi
2PL ṋoṱiəsṱi mī-ṋṱiəsṱi
3PL ṋoṱiəbi mī-ṋṱiəbi

For verbs that already have a preverb, this works a little differently. For example, consider the verb hē-poldəṋi "I praise", an applicative verb formed with hē- 'about' + poldəṋi 'sing':

Person hē-poldəṋi "I praise" (independent) mīs-epoləṋi "I do not praise" (dependent)
1SG hē-poldəṋi mīs-epoləṋi
2SG hē-poldəri mīs-epoləri
3SG.M hē-poldəmi mīs-epoləmi
3SG.F hē-poldəsi mīs-epoləsi
3SG.N hē-poldə mīs-epolə
1EX hē-poldəmē mīs-epoləmē
1IN hē-poldəṋṱi mīs-epoləṋṱi
2PL hē-poldəsṱi mīs-epoləsṱi
3PL hē-poldəbi mīs-epoləbi

In Modern Roshteriann these stems are cited as heepoḻyn, -epryn.


Singular Plural
1 *ṋiə *iəm
1 + 2 ???
2 *wēr ???
3 (masculine) *hum ???
3 (feminine) *hī
3 (inanimate) *he
4 (obviative) *pī