Shalian

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Shalian
Shálıoos cámasıownth
Pronunciation /ˈʃælʲu:s ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθ/
Created by User:IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region East Txapoalli
Language family
Writing system Idosian abugida
ISO 639-3

Shalian (SHALL-ee-ən, natively Shalıoos cámasıownth /ˈʃælʲu:s ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθ/ lit. 'speaking like a Shalian'; Eevo: brits Xan) is a language of Verse:Tricin/Txapoalli. It is a Dodellic language related to Dodellian, and is in a sprachbund with the Tsimulh language Idosian. Shalian is a head-final, ergative, agglutinative language. It descends from a dialect of Proto-Dodellic which was influenced by Tsimulh languages and the Naquic languages, acquiring Grimm's Law, non-rhoticity, and a small basic vowel inventory as a result.

It is the main language of Shalia.

  • saiah = we
  • ajreeb = sky
  • 'imáini = land
  • shaanf [ʃɑːnf] = woman
  • xérkhu [ˈħɐːxʊ] = any, all
  • riwháin [ɾɪˈʍɛɪn] = to sleep
  • jow = law, justice
  • jów'tıow [ˈdʒʷəʊʔtʲəʊ] = to govern
  • ya Yaa! [jɑː] = battle cry
  • ma maar [mɑː] = new
  • thaax [θɑ:ħ] = to say
  • lıífi [ˈlʲɪfɪ] = day
  • káihi [ˈkɛɪhɪ] = light
  • háathba [ˈhɑːðbə(ɹ)] = honor
  • -unk = honorific
    • Manayunk [ˈmænəjoŋk] = a god of rivers
    • ifnunk [ˈɪvnoŋk] = god
  • da'ra [ˈdæʔɹə(ɹ)] = man
  • 'ibá' [ʔɪ'bæʔ] = eye
  • chowlí'na = warrior
  • cáması- = to speak
    • cámasıownth [ˈʕaməɕəʊnθ] = language
  • 'aans [ʔɑːns] = dear, beloved
    • 'áansal [ˈʔɑːnsəɫ] = dear (term of affection)
  • 'áanwhai- [ˈʔɑːnʍɛɪ] = to cherish < *h₁onǵʰ 'dear' + *-kʷei
  • chaasti [ˈtʃɑːstɪ] = companion, comrade
  • Sálih-eech numa-dıéer-am-ad, Jun Asnówaa = You know nothing, Jon Snow
  • catéer [ʕɐˈteː(ɹ)] = to show, to prove
  • wa'óor [wəʔoː(ɹ)] = name
    • wa'oorawéen [wəʔoːɹəˈwiːn] = famous
  • ajérth [əˈdʒɜːθ~əˈdʒɐːθ] = spirit
  • yasái'kh [jəˈsɛɪʔx] = brother
  • abra [ˈæbɾə(ɹ)] = heart
  • abrowéen [æbɾəˈwiːn] = courageous; Abrowéen is a name
  • Jibréel [dʒʷɪˈbɾiːɫ] = a name
  • di'sáaf [diʔˈsɑːf] = animal
  • Bów'ti Ma'kbów'tfais = John Doe, random stranger
  • Ma'k-, -fais = name elements
  • báisha = sun
  • wáifu- = favorite
  • achíwht = slave
  • wairdıan = kantele
  • amár = mother, mom

Phrasebook

  • Núntikh! = Hello!
  • Cámasıal shalıoos. = I speak Shalian.
  • Cámasıal iskícoos. = I speak Eevo.
  • ...ínkloos, cárraboos, ...

Numbers

1. laath 2. wees 3. sıuul 4. á'bin 5. bathée'm 6. xalbún 7. whaisí'th 8. kówcas 9. yái'takh 10. súluth

Cháastiyafaa, táwhalı da'roo abrowéen ajérth catéereel kábikhurinı yasáilafar wa'oorí thaaxamá'tha. Faish háathbarer lıifa'tha! = Today, O comrades, men are commemorating their brothers who died showing courageous spirit. What days of honor they had!
  • šo.o.tə.pɛ.yə ma.žəσ ay.məʔ.σɛ Shurrútafaia maarjírth caima'léer = Our spears shall again triumph

Jalowkha uxsaqti n-aydajcoor carftal nalgtoo; mackus wair barrahaysa shurrarfi chowlica

External history

I've been kicking around the idea of an Arabo-RP language in my head for a while – Standard Arabic and RP are two of my favorite aesthetics. I was also looking to justify a Tsimulh language (Idosian) gaining a rhotic consonant by invoking an RP-like substrate. Thus I replaced "Crockarit" (essentially a minimalistic Caucaso-RP) with this language.

In one sense Shalian could be viewed as an Anglo-Arabic counterpart to Windermere's Anglo-Hebrew. However, the English part in Shalian is modeled more after medium-to-long words in English rather than shorter, Germanic-sounding words.

Diachronics

Tones

Consonants

Shalian m n nı b d dı j t tı ch k ' f th s sı sh kh wh x h l lı w y c r ~ Dodellian m n n b/gʷ d d ǵ t t ḱ k h₁ p/bʰ dʰ s dʰ ǵʰ h₃ h₂ gʰ kʷ/gʷʰ l l w y/ś h₂ r

Old Shalian still had f th sh kh wh = /pʰ tʰ tʃʰ kʰ kʷʰ/.

Vowels

e o ee oo > i u ii uu

ä a ää aa > a a aa aa

aa > ai

TRAP-BATH split may occur before /f s θ/ in closed syllables; and before /nt ntʲ nt͡ʃ nʃ nF/, F = fricative

Some words with the TRAP-BATH split:

  • háathba [ˈhɑːðbə(ɹ)] = honor
  • 'aans [ʔɑːns] = dear, beloved
    • 'áansal [ˈʔɑːnsəɫ] = dear (term of affection)
  • 'áanwhai- [ˈʔɑːnʍɛɪ] = to cherish < *ʔons 'dear' + *-kʷei
  • chaasti [ˈtʃɑːstɪ] = companion, comrade
  • di'sáaf [diʔˈsɑːf] = animal

History

Phonology

Todo:

  • vowel reduction
  • hamzas galore
    • hamza can occur before any consonant except '/h/3/H
  • some V:CC syllables
  • Vowels /a i u/ before intervocallic r are preserved

Vowels

Shalian has 13 vowel nuclei and 7 basic vowel qualities, an above-average sized vowel inventory.

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /ɪ~e/ "KIT" ee /iː/ "FLEECE" u /ʊ~ɒ/ oo /uː/ "GOOSE"
Mid eer, iya, eeya /eː/ "NEAR" a, er /ə/ "lettER/commA" oor, owr, ur, oowa, uwa /oː/ "POOR/FORCE"
Open-mid air, aia /ɛː/ "SQUARE" er /ɜː~ɐː/ "NURSE"
Open a /æ/ "TRAP" aa, ar /ɑː/ "BATH/START"
Diphthong ai /ɛɪ/ "FACE" ow /əʊ/ "GOAT"
Notes
  • /ə/ occurred only in unstressed syllables.
  • Linking R /ɹ~ɾ/ is used between /ɑː eː ɛː oː ɜː ə/ and a following vowel.
  • /æ/ is front [a] or [æ], or sometimes higher [ɛ]. However it reduced to /ə/ in certain unstressed syllables.
  • /ɛɪ əʊ/ are normally [ɛɪ ə̟ʊ]. They are realized as [aɪ aʊ] after /ħ ʕ/.
  • Shalian does not have vowel mergers before intervocalic R such as the Mary-marry merger and the mirror-nearer merger. For example, tıárrad /'tʲæɹəd/ 'moon; month' and tıáarad /'tʲɑːɹəd/ 'your (sg.) armor' are distinct.

Consonants

Shalian's consonant inventory is fairly large, with 28 consonants. Unlike Arabic, Shalian has no geminate consonants.

Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Radical Glottal
plain palatalized plain palatalized plain labialized
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ /nʲ/ [ŋ]
Plosive voiceless t /t/ /tʲ/ ch /tʃ/ k /k/ ' /ʔ/
voiced b /b/ d /d/ /dʲ/ j /dʒ/
Fricative f /f/ th /θ/ thı /θʲ/ s /s/ /sʲ/ sh /ʃ/ kh /x~χ/ wh /ʍ/ x /ħ/ h /h/
Approximant l /l~ɫ/ /lʲ/ r /ɹ~ɾ/ y /j/ w /w/ c /ʕ/
Notes
  • /ʔ/ is a phoneme unlike in RP. Hence glottal reinforcement is not used before voiceless stops.
  • /l/ is velarized [ɫ] when not before a vowel and clear [l] otherwise. The rule applies whether or not the following vowel comes in the next word.
  • /n/ assimilates to [ŋ] before /k/ but not before /x ʍ/.
  • /tʲ dʲ nʲ/ can be realized as laminal alveolar [t̻ʲ, d̻ʲ, n̻ʲ].
  • /s, sʲ/ are dentalized [s̪, s̪ʲ].
  • /tʃ dʒ ʃ/ are labialized [tʃʷ dʒʷ ʃʷ], as in English. This helps distinguish postalveolars from the palatalized alveolars /tʲ dʲ sʲ/.
  • /ɹ/ may be labialized [ɹʷ] or a tap [ɾ].
  • /ʍ/ is a fricative [xʷ].
  • /ʕ/ can be realized as an epiglottal stop.

Intonation

Arabic intonation before stress, Conservative RP intonation at and after stress

Shalian has a characteristic intonation:

  • Before the stressed syllable: something like Arabic
  • Declarative: start with high pitch on stressed syllable, steady fall to end
  • Interrogative: dip and steady rise
  • Dependent: high-falling with a dip-rise at the end.

Stress

Stress was phonemic. Primary stress is transcribed with an acute accent.

Vowel reduction

  • Both /a/ and /ɜː/ reduce to [ə] when immediately before or immediately after a stressed syllable.

Phonotactics

Like in Arabic, initial clusters are not allowed and many non-English clusters are present. Clusters can get pretty bad. Geminates and rC clusters were not allowed within stems, which will be assumed below.

Some clusters:

  • /ʔ ʕ/ + any consonant except for glottals and pharyngeals
  • any C except glottals and pharyngeals + /ʕ/
  • /h ħ/ + any consonant except for glottals and /x ʍ w/
  • any consonant except for glottals and /x ʍ/ + /h ħ/
  • any C except palatalized alveolars and /n l/ + /r/
  • any C except palatalized alveolars + /l/
  • any C except non-palzed alveolars + /lj/
  • twofold repetition of a given C, where C = b t tı d dı k ch j
    • Example: 'att /ʔætt/ 'father' < PD *h1ætətə. The /t/ is pronounced twice, not geminated.

Accents

Shalian is accentually uniform across regional and class lines. The youngest generation have a slightly different accent than middle-aged and older people:

  • tı dı sı = Polish ć dź ś
  • lı = like Catalan ll
  • thı merges with th
  • Creaky voice instead of glottal reinforcement
  • dark L > [w]
  • Epenthesis between double plosives
  • /uː əʊ/ front to [üː əʊ̈] except before /l/
  • /ɛː/ lowers to [æː]

Shalian accented English

o:l hu:mən bi:jens ɑ: bo:n əfri: ən i:ʍəl en deknete ən rɛɪts. dɛɪ ɑ:r endəʊd weθ ri:sən ən konʃəns ən ʃod ækt to:d wæn ənæθər en ə əzberet əf əbræθəhod

"All hooman beins are born afree and eewhal in dikniteh and rates. Dey are endoh'd with reecin and conscience and should act toward wan anather in a azbirit of abratherhood."

Orthography

Shalian is written in an abugida, similar to that used for Idosian.

  • diacritic for hamza
  • the letter for R should be derived from the Idosian letter for null initial

Grammar

Head-marking grammar

Nouns

Shalian has 8 cases:

  • absolutive (ABS): for subjects of intransitive verbs and objects of transitive verbs
  • ergative (ERG): for subjects of transitive verbs
  • genitive (GEN): inalienable possession
  • lative (LAT): "to; for; alienable possession"
  • locative (LOC): "at; in; with"
  • ablative (ABL): "from"
  • semblative (SEM): "like"
  • vocative (VOC)
násakht 'tree'
Absolutive násakht
Ergative násakhtoo
Genitive násakhter
Illative nasakhtí'a
Inessive nasakhtáac
Ablative násakhtisı
Semblative násakhtoos
Vocative násakhtaa

Nouns were pluralized with -af.

fa- = this, that

Verbs

  • kan [kæn] = that he eat (subjunctive)
    • kánal, kánad, kan, kánai(a), kánaxaar, kan [ˈkænəɫ, ˈkænəd, kæn, ˈkænɛɪ(ə), ˈkænəħɑː, kəˈn] = 1sg, 2sg, 3sg, 1pl, 2pl, 3pl
  • kánam [ˈkænəm] = eats (present)
    • kanamal, kanamad, etc.
  • kánaks [ˈkænəks] = does he eat?
  • kankéer [kəŋˈkeː] = is not eating
  • kankéeram [kəŋˈkeːɹəm] = does not eat
  • kánakhur [ˈkænəxoː] = ate
  • kandıéerkhur [kənʲˈdʲeːxoː] = did not eat
  • kaníj [kəˈnɪdʒ] = will eat
  • kankeeríj [kæŋkeːˈɹɪdʒ] = will not eat
  • kana'léer [kænəʔˈleː] = will certainly eat
  • kanáa' [kəˈnɑːʔ] = eat!
  • kana'ái [kænəˈʔɛɪ] = do not eat!
  • kanéel [kəniːɫ] = eats, and...
  • kánajerth [kænəˈdʒɜːθ] = "eatingly", in order to eat; áanwhaijerth [ɑːnʍɛɪˈdʒɜːθ] = lovingly

Personal affixes

Possession and subject affixes:

  • -al: 1sg
  • -ad: 2sg
  • : 3sg
  • -ai(a): 1pl
  • -axaar: 2pl
  • -á'tha: 3pl
  • -sa': impersonal
  • cámasıownthal [ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθəɫ] = my language
  • cámasıownthad [ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθəd] = your language
  • càmasıownthí [ˌʕæməsʲəʊnˈθɪ] = his/her/its language
  • cámasıownthai [ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθɛɪ] = our language
  • cámasıownthaxaar [ˈʕæməsʲəʊnθəħɑː] = youse's language
  • càmasıownthá'tha [ˌʕæməsʲəʊnˈθæʔθə] = their language

The possessive suffix came after the case suffix: càmasıownth-áac-ad = 'in your language'.

čəw.leʔ.nuw yə.sɛy.ʔe ʔan.xʷɛ.yəm
Chowlí'noo yasài'í 'áanwhaiam.
/tʃəʊˈlɪʔnuː jəˌsɛɪˈʔɪ ˈʔɑːnʍɛɪəm/
chowlíʔn-ow yasai'-í ʔáanwhai-am
warrior-ERG brother.ABS-3SG cherish-PRES
A warrior cherishes his brothers.

Syntax

Something like Finnish; pivots must be ergative

Derivation

  • -ownth = abstract noun from verb
  • -éed = abstract noun from "adjective"
  • -fan = adjective from noun
  • -ikh = action noun suffix from verb
  • -í'na = agentive from verb
  • -whai- = verb from noun
  • -owéen = adjective/stative verb from noun; -ish, -ful
    • maybe ~ -ownth
  • -éer = causative, change of state from verb of state
  • -dıan = instrument suffix from verb

Poetry

Shalian poetry uses quantitative meters like the dactylic hexameter.

Sample texts

A tongue-twister

Farláafalfar lár fal, faláafal fal árfal.
farl-áafal-f-ar lár fal, fa-láafal fal árf-al.
flying-monster-PL-GEN meeting on, this-porch on spin-1SG
[fəˈlɑːfəɫfə ˈlɑː fəɫ fəˈlɑːfəɫ fəl ˈɑːfəɫ]
For the flying monsters' meeting, I'm spinning on this porch.
Faláar fal, faláafal fal láafal faláafal.
Fa-láar fal, fa-láafal fal láafal faláaf-al
this-ship on, this-post-1SG on space lack-1SG
[fəˈlɑː fəɫ fəˈlɑːfəɫ fəl ˈɑːfəɫ fəˈlɑːfəɫ]
It can't be helped, I don't have enough space on this wooden post of mine.

Xurnese dzusuis

Thaaxái' dub da'rarí'a kanáish whíneel, wa'khi'arí yú'al.
thaax-ái' dub da'ra-í'a kanáish whín-eel, wa'kh-í'a-í yú'al
say-IMP COMP man-DAT food exist-CONJ neighbor-DAT-3SG not_exist
Suppose that a man has food and his neighbor has none.
... bá'chilkha, jowfanjérth cóoraks?
order-CONJ just-ADV do-INTERR
If, in order for him to give his neighbor food, he requires [his neighbor] to ceaselessly beg and abase himself, does he act justly?

UDHR

Xérkhu dá'araf hín'cheel foorákham; dow'ameedá'tha wakerafá'tharaith nabláiam. Finafí'a cówjkhuram raxóo'bineel macháidıikh, idóor' owjáib whinam ahóowhaika wa'khi'arí wa'khi'arí érbu-tıushínjerth.

Xérkhu dá'araf hín'cheel foorákham; dow'ameedá'tha wakerafá'tharaith nabláiam.

[ˈħɜːxʊ ˈdæʔəɹəf ˈhɪnʔtʃiːɫ foːˈɹæxəm, ˈθɛː nəbˈlɛɪəm dəʊʔəˈmiːdɪsʲ wəˈkɜːɹəfɪsʲɛɪθ]

xérkhu dá'r-af-0 jahín'ch-eel foorákham, dow'améed-á'tha wakéraf-á'tharaith nablaiam

all human-PL-ABS be_born-after free-DECL; dignity-3PL right-PL-3PL-and same-DECL.

Finafí'a cówbijkhuram raxóo'bineel macháidıikh, idóor' owjáib whinam ahóowhaika wa'khi'arí wa'khi'arí érbu-tıushínjerth.

[fɪnʲəˈfɪʔə ˈʕaʊdʒxoːɹəm ɹəˈħuːʔbɪniːɫ məˈtʃɛɪdʲɪx, ɪˈdoːʔ əʊˈdʒɛɪb ˈxʷɪnəm əˈʕuːxʷɛɪ məʊɪʔɪ jəɫˈmɪ jəɫˈmɪ ˈɜːbʊ-tʲʊˈʃɪnʔdʒɜːθ]

Finı-af-í'a cówj-khur-am raxóo'b-in-eel macháidıikh, idóor' owjáib whín-am acóo'whai-0 yalm-0-í yalm-0-í érbu-tıushín'-jerth

DEM-PL-LAT give-PAST-DECL think-NOMZ-CONJ direct-NOMZ, thus duty exist-DECL treat-SBJV fellow-ABS-3SG fellow-ABS-3SG older_brother-younger_brother-ADV.

Lord's Prayer

Átt-aar-aia dub múhan-ad ajreeb-áac, wa'óor-unk-ad haatheer-kái'lish.

father-VOC-1PL REL live-2SG sky-LOC, name-HON-2SG to_become_honored-OPT.