→ This page treats the uses of verbal forms. See [[Chlouvānem/Morphology|Chlouvānem morphology]] for the actual verbal morphology.'' [[Chlouvānem]] grammar has a very important semantic and morphological distinction in its verbs, namely the one between '''exterior verbs''' (''kauyāva'', pl. ''kauyāvai'') and '''interior verbs''' (''nañyāva'', pl. ''nañyāvai''); native Chlouvānem grammarians call this distinction by the name of ''chlærim'', literally "light".
Exterior verbs do resemble mainly English active verbs, but the exterior vs. interior distinction is different and independent from the Chlouvānem voices, that is, the different triggers. Exterior verbs have all seven possible<ref>Agent-trigger is only meaningful for transitive and ditransitive verbs, and dative-trigger only for ditransitive and a few motion ones.</ref> voices (patient-, agent-, benefactive-, antibenefactive-, locative-, dative-, and instrumental-trigger), while interior verbs can have six, with the patient- and agent-trigger voices being merged in a "common voice" instead; this is however only a matter of traditional terminology as the common voice of interior verbs is unmarked, and therefore exactly the same as the patient-trigger one of exterior verbs.
==Meanings of interior verbs==
===Reflexive and reciprocal meanings===
Possibly the most common interior verb meaning, especially for causative interior ones, is the reflexive one; e.g. with ''mutake'' "to wash":
: ''lili demyau saminu mitute '' :: I wash my child. ( exterior) : ''( lili) mitiru'' :: I wash myself.
The exact same form is also used for reciprocal meanings:
: ''hærasmete '' :: We two kiss [someone else]. (exterior) : ''hærirṣme '' :: We two kiss [each other]. (interior)
While for a verb such as ''hærake'' "to kiss" this may not be confusing, with many verbs the meaning itself may be ambiguous:
: ''mutirṣme '' :: We two wash ourselves. <small>OR:</small> :: We two wash each other.
When context does not resolve the ambiguity, it is the reflexive which is usually marked, by adding the reflexive pronoun ''demi'' in the direct case:
: ''demi mutirṣme '' :: We two wash ourselves.
However, the reciprocal may also be marked, by adding ''viṣam'' (the other), this time in the dative case:
: ''viṣamom mutirṣme '' :: We two wash each other.
===Transitive-intransitive and active-middle pairs===
One of the most common distinction is one of an active/middle or transitive/intransitive pair, e.g. with ''jāṃrake'' "to stop, halt":
: ''lili jādū jāṃrute '' :: I stop Jādāh. (exterior verb) : ''lili jāṃriru '' :: I stop , cease to move. (interior verb)
The middle voice may be semantically different in its focus from the corresponding exterior patient-trigger (third example), e.g. with ''ruthake'' "to bake, cook in an oven":
: ''lili švodhaih rithute '' :: I bake the pastries. (exterior, agentive) : ''švodhe ruthirāhe '' :: The pastries are cooking in the oven. (interior) : ''švodhe rithāhai '' :: Someone is baking the pastries. = It is the pastries someone is baking. (exterior, patient-trigger, no explicit agent)
Another prototypical example is ''gṇyauke'', which means "to give birth" in its exterior forms and "to be born, to come to life" in its interior ones.
In many verbs, the interior conjugation is used for actions which lack volition or are caused by uncontrollable third parties. This is, often, an extension of middle voice meanings: : ''geiras valdē '' :: The door is opened [by someone]. (exterior, patient-trigger) : ''lili geiru valdute '' :: I open the door. (exterior, agent-trigger) : ''geiras valdire '' :: The door opens. (interior)
The "uncontrollable third party" causes the verb to be interior; compare also the following sentence:
: ''geiras voldvē pṝsparšvē no ! haleyirte gu dradhvute ša : nusmētte sāmiåh nāliom kula !'' :: The door keeps being opened and closed! I can't have any peace, tell your brother to stop it!
In this example, even if there is no explicit agent at first, when the verbs ''voldveke'' and ''pṝsparšveke'' (the frequentatives of ''valde'' "to open" and ''spṛške'' "to close" respectively) are introduced, they are exterior, because it is not an uncontrollable action, as it becomes clear at the end of the sentence.<br/>
However, even if the agent is an uncontrollable third party, as for example the wind (''prātas'') is, as long as it is explicitly stated the sentence uses an exterior verb nonetheless:
: ''geiras prātei aspṛša '' :: The door has been closed by the wind. (exterior)
: A: ''yannūnajye ? ''<ref>Very colloquial contraction of '' yananū najire?'' "what's going on?".</ref> : B: ''geiras voldvē pṝsparšvē no !' ': : What's up? :: The door keeps being opened and closed [by someone]! ( exterior) : A: ''yannūnajye ? '' : B: ''geiras voldveire pṝsparšveire no!' ': : What's up? :: The door keeps being opened and closed [by something uncontrollable, probably by the wind]! (interior )
Non-volitional actions expressed by interior verbs may however have an explicit agent when that agent is typically human and the action was accidental, e.g. with '' juniake'' "to paint":: '' ṣveya lēyet ūnikan ujunia'' :: I painted the wall red. = It is the wall I painted red. [it was my intention to do so] (exterior ) : ''ṣveya līp ūnikan ujunirā'' :: I accidentally painted the wall red. [i.e. I tripped and dropped a tin of paint on the wall] (interior) In the second sentence, we see the interior verb marking the lack of any intention to paint the wall red, and the semantic agent ( here, the <small>1SG</small> pronoun '' lili' ') is furthermore marked with the instrumental rather than with the ergative case, as interior verbs cannot take any ergative case argument.
Note that this does not apply to all verbs that are semantically characterized by a lack of volition; for example, ''sturake'' (to fall) is usually only used in the exterior, as is ''pudbhe'' (to sleep).
<br/>It is not, however, dependent on parameters such as transitivity, as shown by an intransitive (in Chlouvānem) verb such as ''nilyake'' "to think": : ''tami pa inilyam '' :: I thought about it. : ''tami pa inilyiram '' :: It crossed my mind.
For some verbs, the interior form is static, and the exterior one is used to describe the beginning of that state, e.g. with ''haleike'' "to be calm":
: ''halęru '' :: I am calm. (interior) : ''haleyah '' :: I am getting calm. (exterior)
This meaning is particularly common with adjectival verbs:
: ''yālvire '' :: It is sweet. : ''yālvē '' :: It is becoming sweet.Note that, with [[Chlouvānem/Positional_and_motion_verbs#Positional_verbs_.28jalyadaradhaus.29|positional verbs]], the reverse is true: the exterior form is static and the interior one is dynamic, e.g.: : ''tatimu '' :: I am standing. (exterior) : ''tatiairu'' :: I stand up. (interior)
===Verbs with distinct meanings===
Some verbs' interior forms have a meaning which is, at least in the English translation, very distinct, as with ''lilke'' "to live" or ''mišake'' "to see":
:: I live. (exterior) : ''lilęru'' :: I get healed . (interior): ''mešute'':: I see. ( exterior): '' meširu'' :: I know. ( interior)
Interior forms of transitive verbs usually may have a distinct meaning together with the normal reflexive or reciprocal ones; for example, ''meširu'' may also mean "I see myself" (e.g. in a mirror).
= ==Interior-only verbs
===Some verbs are defective and lack a non-causative exterior conjugation. '' dældake'' "to speak, express oneself" and ''tṛlake'' "to know, understand" are by far the most common ones: : ''chlǣvānęe/ chlǣvānumi dældāp dældiru'' :: I speak Chlouvānem. : ''tatь tarliru '' :: I know/understand it.These verbs mostly have their own rules for cases they govern: as you can see, "to speak" a language requires the word "language" ('' dældā'') to be in the instrumental case - or, more commonly, this is avoided in favour of the use of an adverb made from the noun, in this case "I speak 'Chlouvānemly'". The verb "to know", on the other hand, requires the thing known to be in the exessive case.<br/>Note that "to know a person" is, in Chlouvānem, a totally different verb - ''didake'' - which is transitive and has regular exterior forms (but has some distinct interior meanings, as listed below).
Other interior-only verbs include:
''ñumike'' — "to wait" (+ translative case)''rāške'' — "to trust" (+ dative case)''ukṣṇye'' — "to grow"
==Verbs with exterior/interior pairs with divergent meanings==
This section lists some of the most common verbs whose exterior/interior pairs have meanings that correspond to sometimes very different verbs in English:''didake'' — <small>EXT:</small> to know someone; <small>INT:</small> to be conscious; to know one's own limits''gṇyauke'' — <small>EXT:</small> to give birth; <small>INT:</small> to be born, to come to life''huṃħake'' — <small>EXT:</small> to fight; <small>INT: (individuals) </small> to have an interior conflict; <small>(groups, organizations)</small> to have an internal struggle''jālejilde'' — <small>EXT:</small> to win; to defeat someone; <small>INT:</small> to get better; to win one's own fears (both very colloquial)''primęlike'' — <small>EXT:</small> to give back; <small>INT:</small> to return, come back''valde — <small>EXT:</small> to open; <small>INT: (when used for people)</small> to open oneself, to overcome shyness