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Ash

18,892 bytes added, 00:50, 12 November 2019
m
Replaced TV- gloss with DIR-
{{Infobox language
|image = Ahba.svg
|imagesize = 100px
|imagecaption = [[Verse:Ash/Onnawasta|Onnawasta]] emblem of [[Verse:Ash/Appa|Appa]]|name = AhgoAsh|nativename = ''ahgoaʼạhgaa''|pronunciation = [ˈʔɑħˌk̠ɔ̯ɑːˈʔɑħˌqɑː]
|creator = [[User:Prinsessa|Ava Skoog]]
|familycolor = ?
==Introduction==
'''AhgoAsh''' (''ahgoaʼạhgaa'', lit. "seaspeak", pronounced IPA [ˈʔɑħˌk̠ɔ̯ɑːˈʔɑħˌqɑː]) is the anglicised name of a language mostly spoken around coastal areas, notably the town of Ahba[[Verse:Ash/Appa|Appa]] (''ʼahba''). Its speakers are familiar with technological advancements such as nautical vessels and steam locomotives.
The language is mildly synthetic to polysynthetic, largely based around agglutination with fusional elements. There is a great focus on verbs, nominals being mostly uninflected, and significant pro-drop tendencies and a general focus around deixis rather than pronominal distinctions. The word order is heavily SOV.
==Phonology==
===Phonemes===
The Due to the small number of underlying sounds in Ash and their high degree of Ahgo are few enough that allophonicity, a simple listing of phonemes according to phonotactic patterning is preferable to more suitable than a traditional consonant table:and vowel trapezium.
{| class="wikitable"
! Vocalic
| {{IPA|/ai~ju~w/}}
|-
! Plosive
| {{IPA|/t͡ɬ~ɬ t͡s~s/}}
|-
! FricativeGlottal| {{IPA|/ʔ~h/}}
|-
! Nasal
|}
The reasoning for this rather unusual classification is down to phonotactic patterning: these five groups all behave somewhat differently and serve as a more useful distinction than point of articulation when describing the phonology of AhgoAsh. The pair or triplet given for each phoneme refers to an important feature of the language which is the alternation between various allophonic realisations despite the relatively low number of underlying sounds, making an important feature of the language that makes the variation richer on the surface. For instance, long vowels (romanised by doubling the vowel) and nasal vowels (romanised using a tilde) are not analysed as phonemic.
===Romanisation===
The romanisation strikes a balance between representing phonemes versus surface realisations and uses the following seventeen letters:as well as an apostrophe to mark a word-initial glottal stop. A dot below a vowel is used to mark stress when ambiguous.
{| class="wikitable"
| a
| ạ
| ã
| ạ̃
| e
| ẹ
| ẽ
| ẹ̃
| y
| o
| ọ
| õ
| ọ̃
| ı
| w
| b
| d
| g
| s
| l
| h
| m
| n
| ŋ
| l
| s
| h
| ’
|}
{| class="wikitable"
| {{IPA| //ˈwat.haʔa.kuwo//}}| → {{IPA|/ˈwahˈwaʔ.taˌkuta.wo/}}| → {{IPA|[ˈʔɔ̯ɑħˈɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐ.t̠ɐˌɣʊ]}}| → ''oahdagooahdawo'' "during the day"
|}
|}
===Prosody and stress=== Prefixes are always unstressed. Following the last stressed syllable an iambic pattern of secondary stress on every other underlyingly light syllable follows unless an underlyingly heavy syllable intervenes, resetting the pattern. In addition, unless at the end of a word, stressed syllables are forced to be heavy either by lengthening of the vowel or reduplication of the next syllable's onset consonant if they are not already underlyingly so. ===Clusters=== Depending on the underlying nature of a cluster, various processes take place either on a phonemic (phoneme alternation) or on a phonetic (surface allophony) level. For example, {{IPA|/t/}} merges with {{IPA|/t͡s/}} on the ''phonemic'' level before {{IPA|/i~j/}} or a plosive or an affricate as well as word-finally, but alternates with {{IPA|[ð]}} on the ''phonetic'' level between vowels. * A nasal or fricative geminates before a glide, assimilating to and eliding it in the process.* All plosives alternate phonemically with fricatives or affricates before another plosive or an affricate.* {{IPA|/h~ʔ/}} is a fricative before vowels/glides and plosives but a glottal stop before nasals (as is the case for plosives) and affricates.* Affricates are deäffricated intervocalically, before other plosives or affricates, word-finally and before nasals (which are prestopped).* Sibilant palatalisation cascades bidirectionally through clusters; sibilants are also palatalised after {{IPA|/i/}} word-finally and cluster-initially. <div style="float: left">{| class="wikitable"!! {{IPA|/-j/}}! {{IPA|/-w/}}|-! {{IPA|//N-//}}| {{IPA|[ɲ.ɲ]}}| {{IPA|[m.m]}}|-! {{IPA|//h-//}}| {{IPA|[ç.ç]}}| {{IPA|[ʍ.ʍ]}}|-! {{IPA|//t͡s-//}}| {{IPA|[ɕ.ɕ]}}| {{IPA|[s̠.s̠]}}|-! {{IPA|//t͡ɬ-//}}| {{IPA|[ʎ.ʎ]}}| {{IPA|[ɫ.ɫ]}}|}</div><div style="float: left">{| class="wikitable"!! {{IPA|//-P//}}|-! {{IPA|//p-//}}|rowspan="2"| {{IPA|/h.P/ [ħ.P]}}|-! {{IPA|//k-//}}|-! {{IPA|//t-//}}| {{IPA|/t͡s.P/ [s̠.P~ɕ.P]}}|}</div><div style="float: left">{| class="wikitable"!! {{IPA|//-P//}}! {{IPA|//-P͡F//}}! {{IPA|//-N//}}|-! {{IPA|//h-//}}| {{IPA|[ħ.P]}}| {{IPA|[ʔ.P͡F]}}| {{IPA|/ʔ.ᴰN/}}|}</div><div style="float: left">{| class="wikitable"!! {{IPA|//-N//}}|-! {{IPA|//p-//}}| {{IPA|[ʔ.ᵇm]}}|-! {{IPA|//t-//}}| {{IPA|[ʔ.ᵈn̠~ʔ.ᶡɲ]}}|-! {{IPA|//k-//}}| {{IPA|[ʔ.ᶢŋ]}}|}</div><div style="clear: both"></div> ===Laterals=== The lateral affricate {{IPA|/t͡ɬ/}} patterns phonotactically just like the sibilant affricate {{IPA|/t͡s/}} but is in many deäffricated contexts no longer produced as a fricative, but as an approximant. In contexts where the affrication remains, regardless of voicing, so does the frication, i.e. {{IPA|[t͡ɬ~d͡ɮ]}}. In leniting contexts the realisation depends on the environment, remaining a fricative {{IPA|[ɬ]}} in a voiceless environment while defaulting to a pure lateral approximant {{IPA|[l]}} in a voiced one, but when geminated by the absorption of a following glide it assimilates to it as either {{IPA|[ʎ]}} or {{IPA|[ɫ]}}. ===Syllabification=== In unstressed prefixes, colourless or epenthetic vowels may drop out in favour of syllabification of an adjacent fricative or nasal. This is represented in the romanisation by the vowel letter '''ı''' placed before the non-vocalic consonant letter. An example is the inalienable possession prefix ''(a)n-'' becoming ''ın-''. Some word stems have inherent consonantal prefixes that get resolved the same way: ''n-doo-'' "(fire) smoke" becomes ''ındoo-'' in the absence of a prefix, and ''ʼadındoo-'' when the direct marker ''ʼah-'' is added.
==Morphology==
Ahgo Ash does not mark words for number, person or case. With regards to syntactic patterning, only three significant word classes can be posited: verbs, nominals and adverbialsconverbs. Nonetheless there is a degree of mobility between the threethem.
=== Verbs ===
The bulk of all inflection goes on verbs, making them morphemic anchors fundamental to almost any utterance in the language. The general verb template looks is as follows:
{| class="wikitable"
| colspan="43" |
! colspan="5" | Stem
| colspan="2" |
|-
| Deixis
| Trans./PossAgency| Incorp.
| Preverb
| Incorp.
| Class.
| '''Root'''
| DerDeriv.
| State
| Mood/Nom.| AdvInvolv.| EncliticsConverb.
|}
 
The nominalisation slot creates a deverbal nominal and the adverbialisation slot creates an adverbial and so these two serve to change the class of the word; the possession slot is only used on deverbal nominals and not on regular verbs.
====Stems====
Each verb has a set of primary stems formed more or less predictably from a combination of affixes. The first stem, the stative (or active, if there is no stative) indicative, is used as the lemma when citing words, such as ''oada'' "to shine", also a good example of the versatile morphophonology:
{| class="wikitable"
! Stative
! Active
! TranslativeInchoative! Causative! PassiveTerminative
|-
! Indicative
| '''''oada'''''
{{IPA|[ˈɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ]}}
| ''oahda''
{{IPA|[ˈɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐ]}}
| ''oadna''
{{IPA| ''oadsa''[ˈɔ̯ɑʔ.ᵈn̠ɐ]}}
| ''oasda''
{{IPA|[ˈɔ̯ɑs̠.t̠ɐ]}}
|-
! Optative
| ''oase''
{{IPA|[ˈɔ̯ɑː.ʑɪ]}}| ''oahdseoadse''{{IPA|[ˈɔ̯ɑʔ.ȶ͡ɕɪ]}}
| ''oadne''
{{IPA| ''oadse''[ˈɔ̯ɑʔ.ᶡɲɪ]}}
| ''oasdse''
{{IPA|[ˈɔ̯ɑɕ.ȶ͡ɕɪ]}}
|}
All of these terms are to an extent ad hoc. For instance Some verbs are inherently stative or active and do not have two distinct stems. The inchoative and terminative are often used in a perfective sense as opposed to the passive stem is only imperfective or habitual active or stative. ====Derived verbs==== Derivational suffixes can be used to form deverbal nominals; there is extend the root and create a new set of stems, such as the causative ''-j-'' or the frequentative ''-(d)s-'', which can themselves, depending on the word, be stative or active (all derived verbs are inherently one or the other or both and do not display the allomorphy of basic verbs), inchoative, terminative and so on. These are some of the words derived from ''oo'' "consume": {| class="wikitable"! ! Stative! Active! Inchoative! Terminative|-! Basic| colspan="2" | <center>'''''oo'''''</center>| ''oona''| ''ohda''|-! Causative| colspan="2" | <center>''oyya''</center>| ''oena''| ''oehda''|-! Frequentative| colspan="2" | <center>''odsa''</center>| ''osdna''| ''osda''|} Sometimes stems appear connected through no true passive construction syntacticallylonger productive processes, such as ''ımmohwa'' "cook", related also to ''oo''.
===Nominals===
Nominals are mostly unmarked and . A handful of inherited inalienably possessed nominals are however obligatorily marked with a prefix or that disappears during incorporation into a verb. This possessive prefix ''(a)n-'' can be preceded by a deictic prefix. Here are the main kind possessed forms of affixation''mõõ'' "head; hair", while resembling case marking, results in adverbialisation, thus changing the an inalienably possessed nominal: {| class of the word. Nominals ="wikitable"! Neutral! Proximal! Distal|-| ''ımmõõ''| ''emmõõ''| ''ommõõ''|} Any phrase can however be nominalised using a classificatory topic marker (see below). When marked for possession or the locative (see also below), these can be incorporated into a verbused to connect possessum to possessor.
===AdverbialsConverbs===
Adverbials Converbs are used to denote a place, time or manner. Their formation sometimes resembles case marking or conjunctions more than traditional or adverbs, but serves that role as well.
Some prominent adverbialising converbialising suffixes:
{| class="wikitable"
!
! colspan="2" | Suffix
! Example
|-
! Locative
| ''-da''
| ''mehda-s''| ''sooda'' "where they live; by the firehouse"
|-
! TemporalDurative| ''-gowo''| ''oadnago-h''| ''oadnawo'' "when it gets bright; in the morning"
|-
! Benefactive
| ''-bawa''| ''eaba-wı''| ''eewa'' "in order to see"|-! Semblative| ''-ya''| ''-yı''| ''ʼayya'' "sea-like; blue; green"
|}
 
The shorter forms are the historically regular outcomes of these suffixes after unstressed vowels; the longer forms have since taken over productively in normal verbs by analogy with the instances where those were always regular, but the shorter forms remain productive in the reduced forms of locative verbs (e.g. ''ʼahba las'' "in Appa"), and are still found in some common fossilised words, such as ''eas'' "here" and ''eah'' "now". Certain proper nouns retain this form for possessive constructions (e.g. ''ʼahbas ımmee'' "Appa('s) town square"). There are also instances of splits, such as the productive ''oadnada'' "where the sun rises" versus the fossilised ''oadnas'', referring specifically to the corresponding cardinal direction.
===Deixis===
The language lacks true pronouns and due to its pro-drop tendencies commonly avoids alternatives as well. What One thing that does get commonly marked is deixis: whether something is close to or far away from the speaker or a previous referent; unspecified deixis is also possible. On nominals deixis is generally spatial while on verbs it is temporal (proximal working roughly as a present tense and distal as a non-present one); adverbial converbial deixis can be either depending on the characteristics of the adverbial converb in question.
The deictic stems are as follows:
|}
Deixis occurs in the form of isolated nominals ''eeea'' and ''oooa'' (reduced from ''eyya'' and ''owwa'' still used for emphasis), generally shortened and tending to blend into the next word, often as well {{IPA|[-ɛ(ː~ˑ)-]~[-e̞(ː)ɪ̯]~[-e̞j-]}} and {{IPA|[-ɔ(ː~ˑ)-]~[-o̞(ː)ʊ̯]~[-o̞w-]}}, but also with the glide assimilating, leading to forms such as verbal {{IPA|[-ɪw-]}} and possessive {{IPA|[-ʊj-]}}. In verbs with some form of TV marker, the prefixes irregularly assimilate to it, retaining the initial glottal stop but displacing the vowel, e.g. ''*e-ʼa-'' and becomes ''oʼe-''. Neutral  ===Conjunct and disjunct verbs=== While Ash lacks a set of first, second and third person pronouns, a system of so called conjunct versus disjunct verb forms can be used in combination with transitivity markers and deixis sometimes surfaces epenthetically in order to more or less unambiguously cover the same ground. This concept is also known in the literature as assertor's involvement marking, which might give the reader a clearer idea of the concept: verbs are marked for whether the one making an assertion is involved in the action (conjunct) or not (disjunct). In simple statements the assertor defaults to the speaker (i.e. first person) but in questions to the addressee (second person). In reported speech the assertor defaults to the source of the quote and may therefore also take on a third person role. First and second person roles are associated with proximal deixis while third person is associated with distal deixis or an explicit nominal. Conjunct is marked by the suffix ''-s''and disjunct is unmarked. ====Simple intransitives==== In simple statements proximal deixis combined with aconjunct verb denotes a first person, while combined with a disjunct verb it denotes a second person, whereas in questions this is flipped. Distal deixis or an explicit nominal denotes a third person in both cases. Note that there is no number distinction and so for example first person can imply both "I" and "we" but for the sake of space only one translation is given for each example. {| class="wikitable"! rowspan="2" |! colspan="2" | Declarative! colspan="2" | Interrogative|-! Proximal! Distal! Proximal! Distal|-! Conjunct| ''(ea go) oada<u>s</u>''<br />"I am pale"| -| ''(ea go) oada<u>s</u> no'' due <br />"are you pale?"| -|-! Disjunct| ''(ea go) oada''<br />"you are pale"| ''(oa go) oada''<br />"they are pale"| ''(ea go) oada no''<br />"am I pale?"| ''(oa go) oada no''<br />"are they pale?"|} ====Simple transitives==== Simple transitive clauses work much the same way but the choice between a direct transitive or inverse transitive marker affects the meaning as well and is the only way to phonotactic constraintsdifferentiate between agent and patient roles when the referents are first and second person. {| class="wikitable"! rowspan="3" |! colspan="4" | Declarative|-! colspan="2" | Proximal! colspan="2" | Distal|-! Direct! Inverse! Direct! Inverse|-! Conjunct| ''(ea go) ʼahhee<u>s</u>''<br />"I look at you"| ''(ea go) ʼassee<u>s</u>''<br />"you look at me"| ''(oa go) ʼahhee<u>s</u>''<br />"I look at them"| ''(oa go) ʼassee<u>s</u>''<br />"they look at me"|-! Disjunct| ''(ea go) ʼahhee''<br />"you look at them"| ''(ea go) ʼassee''<br />"they look at you"| ''(oa go) ʼahhee''<br />"they<sub>1</sub> look at them<sub>2</sub>"| ''(oa go) ʼassee''<br />"they<sub>2</sub> look at them<sub>1</sub>"|} The interrogative patterns the same way except for the first and second person again being flipped. As the last two examples show, the choice of transitivity marker can also serve as a proximate-obviative distinction. ====Reported speech==== In quotations the conjunct versus disjunct distinction instead focuses on the source of the quote, but only in the subclause. Again this may serve as a proximate-obviative distinction. This means that it is possible to mark distal referents as conjunct in such subclauses. {| class="wikitable"! rowspan="2" |! colspan="2" | Proximal|-! Conjunct source! Disjunct source|-! Conjunct target| ''(ea go) oada<u>s</u> (ea go) ogaa<u>s</u>''<br />"I said I am pale"| ''(ea go) oada<u>s</u> (ea go) ogaa''<br />"you said you are pale"|-! Disjunct target| ''(ea go) oada (ea go) ogaa<u>s</u>''<br />"I said you are pale"| ''(ea go) oada (ea go) ogaa''<br />"you said I am pale"|} ====Indirect involvement==== As the conjunct form denotes merely whether the assertor is somehow involved in the action, the assertor need not underlyingly explicitly markednecessarily be the agent. A conjunct form would still be used to denote first person involvement as a patient in some statements. {{gloss|phrase=emmõõ bo ʼao ʼehbadsas|IPA=[ɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞ ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ʔe̞ħˈpɑʔ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]|gloss=PROX-INAL-head=TOP:CRESC ao PROX-DIR-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ|translation=Ao is braiding my hair}} Despite a third person being the agent of the action, the focus is on the first person (the assertor) and the verb is therefore conjunct.
==Syntax==
The word order is fairly strictly SOV, with adverbials converbs generally preceding the nominals followed by the verb.
===Valency===
====Transitivity and inversion====
Transitivity is explicitly marked and through an inversion marker on the verb the roles of agent and patient can be swapped without a change in word order, the purpose of which is topicalisation, leaving the topic in the subject position. The subject requires a topical marker, the details of which will be explained in detail in the section on locative verbs.
{|
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao bao eʼao go bahba ʼe<u>hh</u>eahwaee|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ˈβɑːʊ̯‿je̞çˈçɛ̯ɑʍˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.ʍɐpɐ ʔe̞çˈçi̯eː]|gloss=ao =TOP:ACT dog PROX-<u>TRTV</u>-see.ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is looking at the dog
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao bao eʼao go bahba ʼe<u>ss</u>eahwaee|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ˈβɑːʊ̯‿jɪɕˈɕɛ̯ɑʍˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.ʍɐpɐ ʔɪɕˈɕi̯eː]|gloss=ao =TOP:ACT dog PROX-<u>INV</u>-see.ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is being watched by the dog
}}
|}
Inversion is especially important when the subject is being omitted as person markers do not exist:.
{|
|{{gloss
|phrase=ehheahwaʼehhees|IPA=[ʔe̞çˈçɛ̯ɑʍ.ʍɐʔe̞çˈçi̯eːɕ]|gloss=PROX-TRDIR-see.ACT.IND-CONJ|translation=I am looking at itthem
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=esseahwaʼessees|IPA=[ʔɪɕˈɕɛ̯ɑʍ.ʍɐʔɪɕˈɕi̯eːɕ]|gloss=PROX-INV-see.ACT.IND-CONJ|translation=it is they are looking at me}} |} ====Reflexivity==== A verb can also be made reflexive by using a deictic marker in the transitivity slot, meaning a distinction is made between proximal and distal reflexivity, corresponding to the spatial deixis of nominals rather than the normally temporal deixis of verbs. {| |{{gloss|phrase=oadnawo ʼaesããs|IPA=[ˈʔɔ̯ɑʔ.ᵈn̠ɐ.wʊ ʔɐɪ̯ˈz̠ɑ̃ːs̠]|gloss=shine.INCH.IND-CVB:DUR REFL.PROX-LOC:LIQ.STAT/ACT.IND-CONJ|translation=I wash in the morning}} |{{gloss|phrase=oadnawo ʼao go ʼaosãã ma|IPA=[ˈʔɔ̯ɑʔ.ᵈn̠ɐ.wʊ ʔɑːʊ̯‿ʁo̞ ʔɐʊ̯ˈz̠ɑ̃ː‿mɐ]|gloss=shine.INCH.IND-CVB:DUR ao=TOP:ACT REFL.DIST-LOC:LIQ.STAT/ACT.IND NEG|translation=Ao doesn't wash in the morning}} |} Reflexivity can be used to disambiguate between cases when the first and second person implications of the proximal deixis would otherwise collapse or as a proximate-obviative distinction. {| |{{gloss|phrase=emmõõ bo ea ʼehbadsas|IPA=[ɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ ˈjɛˑ ʔe̞ħˈpɑʔ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]|gloss=PROX-INAL-head=TOP:CRESC PROX PROX-DIR-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ|translation=you are braiding my hair}} |{{gloss|phrase=emmõõ bo ea ʼeebadsas|IPA=[ɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ ˈjɛˑ ʔe̞ɪ̯ˈβɑʔ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]|gloss=PROX-INAL-head=TOP:CRESC PROX PROX-REFL.PROX-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ|translation=I am braiding my hair
}}
{{gloss
|phrase=ao bao ʼao go bahba od<u>sãmmsa</u>oyyawoyya|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ˈβɑːʊ̯‿wo̞ʔˈd̠͡z̠ɑ̃mˌwʊʝˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ wo̞ʔ.t̠͡s̠ɐˈwʊj.ʝɐ]|gloss=ao =TOP:ACT dog DIST-TR&lt;DIR-<u>water</u>&gt;-consume.CAUS.IND|translation=Ao gave was giving the dog water to drink
}}
====AdverbialisationConverbialisation====
The other method is to completely remove the valency of the nominal by turning it into an adverbiala converb, which is why this process sometimes resembles case marking.
{{gloss
|phrase=mehʼao go bahba mee<u>dda</u>՚ ao bao odsãmmoyyaodsawoyya|IPA=[ˈme̞ħ‿ˈt̠ɑːʊ̯ ˈβɑːʊ̯‿wo̞ʔˈd̠͡z̠ɑ̃mˌwʊʝˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ ˈmi̯eː.ðɐ wo̞ʔ.t̠͡s̠ɐˈwʊj.ʝɐ]|gloss=ao=TOP:ACT dog fire-<u>CVB:LOC</u> ao dog DIST-TR&lt;DIR-water&gt;-consume.CAUS.IND|translation=Ao gave was giving the dog water to drink by the fire
}}
===Animacy===
While there is no explicit marking for animacy, an underlying hierarchy ranging roughly from natural forces at the top to people and animals in the middle and inanimates at the bottom governs certain parts of the grammar. The main consequence aspect of this hierarchy is that inanimate referents cannot act as agents which affects how transitive and inverse marking is interpreted in their presence.
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! Animate
| ''bao ahhoobahba go ʼahhee'' <br />"dogs eat watch it"| ''bao assoobahba go ʼassee'' <br />"dogs are eatenwatched"
|-
! Inanimate
| ''sããn ahhoosãã sa ʼahhee'' <br />"water is drunkwatched"| ''*sããn assoosãã sa ʼassee'' <br />(ungrammatical)|} ===Topicalisation=== New non-verbal information is focused by fronting, i.e. introducing the word or phrase earlier in the sentence. This means that the order of subject and object might shift in order to focus on the object. When the object is inanimate inversion is not possible nor necessary, while for an animate object it is. The nominal in focus also receives a topic marker, explained in detail in the section on locative verbs. {| class="wikitable"!! Normal! Fronted|-! Animate| ''ʼao go <u>bahba</u> ʼohhee''<br />"Ao was looking at the dog"| ''<u>bahba go</u> ʼao ʼossee''<br />"it was the dog Ao was looking at"|-! Inanimate| ''ʼao go <u>sãã</u> ʼohhoo''<br />"Ao was drinking water"| ''<u>sãã sa</u> ʼao ʼohhoo''<br />"it was water Ao was drinking"
|}
{{gloss
|phrase=oo oahdago bao ossoyy՚ ee oahdago essea[owahdawo bahba go ʼossoena]<sub>1</sub> [ewahdawo ʼesseenas]<sub>2</sub>|IPA=[ˈʔu̯oː‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħo̞ˈwɑħ.t̠ɐˌɣʊ ˈβɑːʊ̯‿wʊs̠ˈwʊʝ‿ˈʝi̯eː‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħt̠ɐ.t̠ɐˌɣʊ‿jɪɕˈɕɛ̯ɑːwʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ʁo̞ ʔʊs̠ˈs̠ʊːɪ̯.n̠ɐ jɪˈwɑħ.t̠ɐ.wo̞ ʔɪɕˈɕi̯eː.n̠ɐs̠]|gloss=[DIST shine.ACT.IND-TEMP CVB:DUR dog DIST-INV-consume.CAUS.INCH.IND ]<sub>1</sub> [PROX shine.ACT.IND-TEMP CVB:DUR PROX-INV-see.STATINCH.IND-CONJ]<sub>2</sub>|translation=[today I saw ]<sub>2</sub> [the dog that (you ) fed yesterday]<sub>1</sub>}} This is also how stative verbs are used to assign qualities to nominals. {{gloss|phrase=bahba go oada ʼesseenas no|IPA=[ˈbɑħ.pɐ‿ʁo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ ʔɪɕˈɕi̯eː.n̠ɐz̠‿ᵈn̠ʊ]|gloss=dog=TOP:ACT shine.STAT.IND PROX-INV-see.INCH.IND-CONJ Q|translation=have you seen the white dog?
}}
 
===Unstressed words===
 
In addition to unstressed locative verbs used as topicalising classifiers (see below) there are a few other words that can be unstressed to serve various purposes, mostly after verbs.
 
====Modality====
 
Perhaps the most grammatically significant are ''ma'' for negation and ''no'' for interrogation. There is also ''yo'' for emphasis.
 
{| class="wikitable"
! Declarative
! Negative
! Interrogative
! Emphatic
|-
| ''ebadsa''<br />"weaving"
| ''ebadsa ma''<br />"not weaving"
| ''ebadsa no''<br />"weaving?"
| ''ebadsa yo''<br />"(really) weaving!"
|}
 
====Evidentiality====
 
Reduced forms of some verbs can function as evidential markers, such as ''e'' for observation and ''ga'' for hearsay.
 
{| class="wikitable"
! Declarative
! Observational
! Quotative
|-
| ''ebadsa''<br />"weaving"
| ''ebadsa e''<br />"(evidently) weaving"
| ''ebadsa ga''<br />"(allegedly) weaving"
|}
==Locative verbs==
An important part of Ahgo Ash grammar is an extensive set of so called locative verbs which are used almost like a noun classification system and cover location, motion and related concepts while providing specific information about the referent at hand, such as specifying whether liquid is involved. These also have reduced clitic forms used as topic markers. Some locative verbs also retain non-locative meanings, such as the aerial ''see'', which in conjunction with the oral classifier, as ''osee'', means to "blow".
These are some of those verbs:
{| class="wikitable"
! LemmaLocative! Topic! Gloss
! Semantic range
|-
| ''laa''
| general ''la''| :STAT| General stative (indefinite or permanent)
|-
| ''goo''
| general ''go''| :ACT| General active (temporary or dynamic)
|-
| ''sããnsãã''| water ''sa''| :LIQ| Water and other liquids|-| ''see''| ''se''| :AER| Air and weather|-| ''boo''| ''bo''| :CRESC| Growth (hair, plants et c.)|-| ''doo''| ''do''| :PART| Particles (powder, sand, dust, smoke, spores et c.)|-| ''mee''| ''me''| :PYR| Fire (by extension core or centre)|-| ''baa''| ''ba''| :MAN| Hand and instrumental (things held; implements and tools)
|}
===DisambiguationClassificatory topicalisation===
One function of An unstressed locative verbs verb is required as a topical marker following a fronted nominal, resembling a particle. The choice of verb functions much like a noun class classifier and can be used to resolve potential ambiguitiesdifferentiate between various meanings of a single nominal lexeme.
{|
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao sããnımmõõ bo|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ˈz̠ɑ̃ːm̩ˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ]|gloss=ocean LIQ.STAT.INDPOSS-head=TOP:CRESC|translation=it is hair (on the oceanhead)
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao gooımmõõ la|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ˈɣu̯oːm̩ˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ⁿd͡ɮɐ]|gloss=ocean TEMP.POSS-head=TOP:STAT.IND|translation=it is head (on the person namedbody) Ao
}}
|}
 
Used this way they nonetheless remain verbs with the accompanying syntactic implications. Since they create subclauses, a nominal specified for category with a locative verb cannot be used in object position and so will always precede any agent. However, since this is in line with the normal rule of topicalisation by fronting, it has no actual implications for the syntax.
 
{{gloss
|phrase=emmõõ bo ʼao ʼehbadsas
|IPA=[ɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞ ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ʔe̞ħˈpɑʔ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=PROX-INAL-head=TOP:CRESC ao PROX-DIR-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ
|translation=Ao is braiding my hair
}}
 
===Conjunction===
 
In addition to serving as a topical marker, an unstressed locative verb can also be used as a nominal conjunction. As subject and object are never both topically marked, a series of topicalised nominals serves as a single noun phrase in the fronted subject position.
 
{{gloss
|phrase=ʼao go bahba go oas egoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ʁo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑːɕ‿ɕɪˈɣu̯oː]
|gloss=ao=TOP:ACT dog=TOP:ACT DIST-CVB:LOC PROX-CVB:LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao and the dog are over there
}}
===Specification===
To denote Prefixes such as ''n-'' "up; forth" and ''l-'' "down; away" can be used to specify location, with the inchoative stem of the locative verb providing a sense of motiontoward a destination, a motive prefix is placed into and the verbal classifier slotterminative away from it.
{{gloss
|phrase=ao algooʼahba las ʼao go elgoo|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿wɬ̠̩ˈku̯oːˈʔɑħ.pɐ‿lɐs̠‿ˈs̠ɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ jɪɬˈku̯oː]|gloss=ocean MOTappa=TOP:STAT-CVB:LOC ao=TOP:ACT PROX-SUB-TEMPLOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND|translation=Ao movesis down in Appa
}}
The preverb slot {{gloss|phrase=ʼahba las ʼao go elgoona|IPA=[ˈʔɑħ.pɐ‿lɐs̠‿ˈs̠ɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ jɪɬˈku̯oː.n̠ɐ]|gloss=appa=TOP:STAT-CVB:LOC ao=TOP:ACT PROX-SUB-LOC:ACT.INCH.IND|translation=Ao went down to Appa}} {{gloss|phrase=ʼahba las ʼao go elgohda|IPA=[ˈʔɑħ.pɐ‿lɐs̠‿ˈs̠ɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ jɪɬˈkʷo̞ħ.t̠ɐ]|gloss=appa=TOP:STAT-CVB:LOC ao=TOP:ACT PROX-SUB-LOC:ACT.TERM.IND|translation=Ao went away from Appa}} ===Use with converbs=== Converbial location is generic and locative verbs can be used to specify a manner, location or a directionthe meaning.
{|
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao negooʼao sas sãã|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɲɪˈɣu̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿z̠ɐz̠ ˈd̠͡z̠ɑ̃ː]|gloss=ocean SUBsea=TOP:LIQ-TEMPCVB:LOC LOC:LIQ.STAT/ACT.IND|translation=Ao is below(be) in the ocean; at sea
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao nelgooʼao sas laa|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɲɪɬˈku̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿z̠ɐz̠ ˈd͡ɮɑː]|gloss=ocean SUBsea=TOP:LIQ-MOT-TEMPCVB:LOC LOC:STAT.STAT/ACT.IND|translation=Ao moves down(be) by the sea
}}
|}
===Use Possession=== Unstressed locative verbs marked with adverbialsthe locative converbialiser ''-s'' serve to mark the possessor of a possessum. {{gloss|phrase=ʼao gos ımmõõ la|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ‿z̠m̩ˈmũ̯õː‿ⁿd͡ɮɐ]|gloss=ao=TOP:ACT-CVB:LOC INAL-head=TOP:STAT|translation=Ao's head (lit. "head at Ao")}} ==Pragmatics and conventions==
Adverbial location is generic ===Modality=== Wants, needs, desires and locative verbs can be used to specify the meaningpossibilities are often just expressed through morphological means in Ash, such as optatives, potentials and interrogatives.
{|
|{{gloss
|phrase=ahda sããnewoes|IPA=[ˈʔɑħ.t̠ɐ ˈz̠ɑ̃ːɪˈwʊːɪ̯ɕ]|gloss=oceanPROX-LOC LIQconsume.STATACT.INDOPT-CONJ|translation=in the oceanI want/need to eat; at seaI am hungry
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ahda laaewoe no|IPA=[ˈʔɑħɪˈwʊːɪ̯‿n̠ʊ]|gloss=PROX-consume.ACT.OPT Q|translation=perhaps I should eat something}} |{{gloss|phrase=bahba go ewoe no|IPA=[ˈbɑħ.t̠ɐ ˈɮɑːpɐ‿ɣʊ jɪˈwʊːɪ̯‿n̠ʊ]|gloss=oceandog=TOP:ACT PROX-LOC LOCconsume.STATACT.INDOPT Q|translation=by maybe the oceandog is hungry
}}
|}
 
===Domestic vocabulary===
 
The verb ''soo'' carries many meanings related to the home. An important part of its usage is the focus on the host rather than the guest when describing a visit.
 
{{gloss
|phrase=ʼahba las ʼao go ʼesdsoes
|IPA=[ˈʔɑħ.pɐ‿lɐs̠‿ˈs̠ɑːʊ̯‿ʁo̞ ʔɪɕˈȶ͡ɕʊːɪ̯ɕ]
|gloss=appa=TOP:STAT-CVB:LOC ao=TOP:ACT PROX-INV-LOC:DOM.STAT/ACT.OPT-CONJ
|translation=I'm on my way to visit Ao in Appa
}}
 
Nonetheless it refers to the referent's own home when used intransitively.
 
{{gloss
|phrase=ʼahba las esoonas
|IPA=[ˈʔɑħ.pɐ‿lɐɕ‿ɕɪˈz̠u̯oː.n̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=appa=TOP:STAT-CVB:LOC PROX-LOC:DOM.INCH.IND-CONJ
|translation=I've moved to Appa
}}
 
===Colour terms===
 
Colours are mainly expressed through semblative converbs, likening the appearance of the referent to something else, such as ''mee'' "fire" → ''meyya'' "red; yellow; orange; brown" or ''ao'' "sea" → ''ʼayya'' "blue; green".
 
{{gloss
|phrase=meyya bahba go
|IPA=[ˈme̞j.jɐ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʊ]
|gloss=fire-CVB:SEMB dog=TOP:ACT
|translation=a brown dog
}}
 
Some are expressed through regular stative verbs like ''oada''.
 
{{gloss
|phrase=oada bahba go
|IPA=[ˈɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʊ]
|gloss=shine.STAT.IND dog=TOP:ACT
|translation=a white dog
}}
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