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Ash

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|name = Ash
|nativename = ''ahgaa''
|pronunciation = [ˈʔɑ̞ħˌqɑ̞ːˈʔɑħˌqɑː]
|creator = [[User:Prinsessa|Ava Skoog]]
|familycolor = ?
==Introduction==
'''Ash''' (''ahgaa'', lit. "seaspeak", pronounced IPA [ˈʔɑ̞ħˌqɑ̞ːˈʔɑħˌqɑː]) is the anglicised name of a language mostly spoken around coastal areas, notably the town of Appa (''ahba''). Its speakers are familiar with technological advancements such as nautical vessels and steam locomotives.
The language is mildly synthetic to polysynthetic, largely based around agglutination with fusional elements. There is a great focus on verbs, nominals being mostly uninflected, and significant pro-drop tendencies and a general focus around deixis rather than pronominal distinctions. The word order is heavily SOV.
===Phonemes===
The Due to the small number of underlying sounds in Ash and their high degree of Ash are few enough that allophonicity, a simple listing of phonemes according to phonotactic patterning is preferable to more suitable than a traditional consonant table:and vowel trapezium.
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! Glottal
| {{IPA|/ʔ~h/}}
|-
! Nasal
===Romanisation===
The romanisation strikes a balance between representing phonemes versus surface realisations and uses the following seventeen lettersas well as the apostrophe to mark syllabic consonants:
{| class="wikitable"
| n
| ŋ
| ʼ
|}
{| class="wikitable"
| {{IPA|//ˈwat.haʔa.kuka//}}| → {{IPA|/ˈwahˈwaʔ.taˌkuta.ka/}}| → {{IPA|[ˈʔɔ̯ɑ̞ħˈʔɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐ.t̠ɐˌɣʊʁɐ]}}| → ''oahdagooahdaga'' "during the day"
|}
! {{IPA|//h-//}}
| [ħ.P]
| [ʔħ.P͡F]
| /ʔ.ᴰN/
|}
==Morphology==
Ash does not mark words for number, person or case. With regards to syntactic patterning, only three significant word classes can be posited: verbs, nominals and adverbialsconverbs. Nonetheless there is a degree of mobility between them.
=== Verbs ===
The bulk of all inflection goes on verbs, making them morphemic anchors fundamental to almost any utterance in the language. The general verb template looks is as follows:
{| class="wikitable"
|-
| Deixis
| Trans./Poss.TV| PreverbPreverbs
| Incorp.
| Class.
| Der.
| State
| Mood/Nom.| ConjInv.| AdvConverb.| Enclitics
|}
The nominalisation slot creates a deverbal nominal and TV refers to transitive-volitional marking, as the adverbialisation slot creates an adverbial and so these two serve to change the class of the word; the possession slot is only used on deverbal nominals and not on regular verbscategories are entwined.
====Stems====
|}
Sometimes stems appear connected through no longer productive processes, such as ''ohwaʼmmohwa'' "cook", related also to ''oo''.
===Nominals===
Nominals are mostly unmarked; the main kind of affixation, while resembling case marking, results in adverbialisationconverbialisation, thus changing the class of the word. Nominals can however be marked for possession (obligatory on inalienably possessed nominal) or be incorporated into a verb (in which case inalienably possessed nominal do lose their possessive marker).
The possessive prefix ''n-'' can be preceded by a deictic prefix. Here are the possessed forms of ''mõõ'' "head; hair; top", an inalienably possessed nominal:
! Distal
|-
| ''ammõõʼmmõõ''
| ''emmõõ''
| ''ommõõ''
|}
While there are few grammatical processes that modify nouns, derivational ones do exist. For example collective nouns Any phrase can be formed through nominalised using a reduplication process, such as ''ahba'' "the town of Appa" classificatory topic marker (in reference to the many nearby sources of water) from ''ao'' "sea" (but originally water of any kind; replaced in modern Ash by ''sãã''see below).
===AdverbialsConverbs===
Adverbials Converbs are used to denote a place, time or manner. Their formation sometimes resembles case marking or conjunctions more than traditional or adverbs, but serves that role as well.
Some prominent adverbialising converbialising suffixes:
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! Durative
| ''-goga''| ''oadnagooadnaga'' "in the morning"
|-
! Benefactive
| ''-ba''
| ''eabaeeba'' "in order to see"
|}
===Deixis===
The language lacks true pronouns and due to its pro-drop tendencies commonly avoids alternatives as well. One thing that does get marked is deixis: whether something is close to or far away from the speaker or a previous referent; unspecified deixis is also possible. On nominals deixis is generally spatial while on verbs it is temporal (proximal working roughly as a present tense and distal as a non-present one); adverbial converbial deixis can be either depending on the characteristics of the adverbial converb in question.
The deictic stems are as follows:
|}
Deixis occurs in the form of isolated nominals ''ee'' and ''oo'' as well as verbal and possessive prefixes ''e-'' and ''o-''. Neutral deixis sometimes surfaces epenthetically Despite their conventional romanisation ''ee'' and ''oo'' are not pronounced *[-i̯eː-] and *[-u̯oː-]. They are respectively irregularly reduced forms of *''eyye'' and *''owwo'' that tend to blend into the next word, often as [-e̞(ː)ɪ̯]~[-e̞j-] and [-o̞(ː)ʊ̯]~[-o̞w-], but also with the glide assimilating, leading to forms such as [-ɪw-] and [-ʊj-]. This also goes for the proximal-proximal reflexive prefix ''aee-'' due (reduced from *''eye-'') and the distal-distal counterpart ''oo-'' (reduced from *''owo-''). However, in converbs such as the locative ''eeda'' "here" the underlying form is different and so the pronunciation is the expected [-i̯eː.ðɐ] (compare this to phonotactic constraints''ee go'' [-e̞ːɪ̯‿ɣʊ]~[-e̞ːɪ̯‿ɣo̞], but where the clitic is attached to the free-floating nominal and not underlyingly explicitly markedthe root). They can be thought of as *''ey'' and *''ow'' but due to their exceptionality and for consistency with the use of ''e'' and ''o'' for semivowels elsewhere (as in ''ae'' and ''ao'') it has been decided that they be spelled the way they are.
===Conjunct and disjunct verbs===
|-
! Conjunct
| ''(eego) oada<u>s</u>''<br />"I am pale"
| -
| ''(eego) oada<u>s</u> no?''<br />"are you pale?"
| -
|-
! Disjunct
| ''(eego) oada''<br />"you are pale"| ''(oogo) oada''<br />"they are pale"| ''(eego) oada no?''<br />"am I pale?"| ''(oogo) oada no?''<br />"are they pale?"
|}
|-
! Conjunct
| ''(eego) ahheaahhee<u>s</u>''<br />"I look at you"| ''(eego) asseaassee<u>s</u>''<br />"you look at me"| ''(oogo) ahheaahhee<u>s</u>''<br />"I look at them"| ''(oogo) asseaassee<u>s</u>''<br />"they look at me"
|-
! Disjunct
| ''(eego) ahheaahhee''<br />"you look at them"| ''(eego) asseaassee''<br />"they look at you"| ''(oogo) ahheaahhee''<br />"they<sub>1</sub> look at them<sub>2</sub>"| ''(oogo) asseaassee''<br />"they<sub>2</sub> look at them<sub>1</sub>"
|}
|-
! Conjunct target
| ''(eego) oaseoada<u>s</u> (eego) ogaa<u>s</u>''<br />"I said I am pale"| ''(eego) oaseoada<u>s</u> (eego) ogaa''<br />"you said you are pale"| ''(oogo) oaseoada<u>s</u> (oogo) ogaa''<br />"they<sub>1</sub> said they<sub>1</sub> are pale"
|-
! Disjunct target
| ''(eego) oase oada (eego) ogaa<u>s</u>''<br />"I said you are pale"| ''(eego) oase oada (eego) ogaa''<br />"you said I am pale"| ''(oogo) oase oada (oogo) ogaa''<br />"they<sub>1</sub> said they<sub>2</sub> are pale"
|}
{{gloss
|phrase=emmõõ bo ao ehbadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞‿ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯‿je̞ħˈpɑ̞ʔʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞ ˈʔɑːʊ̯ je̞ħˈpɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]|gloss=PROX-POSS-head TOP:CRESC ao PROX-TRTV-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ
|translation=Ao is braiding my hair
}}
==Syntax==
The word order is fairly strictly SOV, with adverbials converbs generally preceding the nominals followed by the verb.
===Valency===
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahbo bahba e<u>hh</u>eaee|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈβɑ̞ħˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pʊ‿je̞çˈçɛ̯ɑːpɐ je̞çˈçi̯eː]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog PROX-<u>TRTV</u>-see.ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is looking at the dog
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahbo bahba e<u>ss</u>eaee|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈβɑ̞ħˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pʊ‿jɪɕˈɕɛ̯ɑːpɐ jɪɕˈɕi̯eː]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog PROX-<u>INV</u>-see.ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is being watched by the dog
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ehheasehhees|IPA=[ʔe̞çˈçɛ̯ɑːs̠ʔe̞çˈçi̯eːɕ]|gloss=PROX-TRTV-see.ACT.IND-CONJ
|translation=I am looking at them
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=esseasessees|IPA=[ʔɪɕˈɕɛ̯ɑːs̠ʔɪɕˈɕi̯eːɕ]|gloss=PROX-INV-see.ACT.IND-CONJ
|translation=they are looking at me
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=oadnago oadnaga aesããs|IPA=[ʔɔ̯ɑ̞ʔˈʔɔ̯ɑʔ.ᵈn̠ɐˌɣo̞‿ʔɐɪ̯ˈz̠ɑ̞̃ːs̠ᵈn̠ɐ.ʁɐ ʔɐɪ̯ˈz̠ɑ̃ːs̠]|gloss=shine.TRANS.IND-CVB:DUR REFL.PROX-LOC:LIQ.STAT/ACT.IND-CONJ
|translation=I wash in the morning
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=oadnago oadnaga ao go aosãã ma|IPA=[ʔɔ̯ɑ̞ʔˈʔɔ̯ɑʔ.ᵈn̠ɐˌɣo̞‿ʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣo̞‿ʔɐʊ̯ˈz̠ɑ̞̃ː mɐᵈn̠ɐ.ʁɐ ʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ʔɐʊ̯ˈz̠ɑ̃ː‿mɐ]|gloss=shine.TRANS.IND-CVB:DUR ao TOP:ACT REFL.DIST-LOC:LIQ.STAT/ACT.IND NEG
|translation=Ao doesn't wash in the morning
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=emmõõ bo ee ehbadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ‿ˈje̞j‿je̞ħˈpɑ̞ʔʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ ˈje̞j‿je̞ħˈpɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]|gloss=PROX-POSS-head TOP:CRESC PROX PROX-TRTV-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ
|translation=you are braiding my hair
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=emmõõ bo ee eebadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ‿ˈje̞j‿je̞ɪ̯ˈβɑ̞ʔʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ ˈje̞j‿je̞ɪ̯ˈβɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=PROX-POSS-head TOP:CRESC PROX PROX-REFL.PROX-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ
|translation=I am braiding my hair
{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahbo bahba od<u>sãmm</u>oyya|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈβɑ̞ħˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pʊ‿wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̞̃mˌmʊjpɐ wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̃mˌmʊj.jɐ]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog DIST-TRTV-<u>water</u>-consume.CAUS.IND
|translation=Ao was giving the dog water to drink
}}
====AdverbialisationConverbialisation====
The other method is to completely remove the valency of the nominal by turning it into an adverbiala converb, which is why this process sometimes resembles case marking.
{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahbo mehbahba mee<u>da</u> odsãmmoyya|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈβɑ̞ħˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pʊ‿ˈme̞ħpɐ ˈmʲi̯eː.t̠ɐ‿wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̞̃mˌmʊjðɐ wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̃mˌmʊj.jɐ]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog fire-<u>CVB:LOC</u> DIST-TRTV-water-consume.CAUS.IND
|translation=Ao was giving the dog water to drink by the fire
}}
|-
! Animate
| ''bahbo bahba go ahhoo''<br />"dogs eat it"| ''bahbo bahba go assoo''<br />"dogs are eaten"
|-
! Inanimate
|-
! Animate
| ''ao go <u>bahbobahba</u> ohheaohhee''<br />"Ao was looking at the dog"| ''<u>bahbo bahba go</u> ao osseaossee''<br />"it was the dog Ao was looking at"
|-
! Inanimate
{{gloss
|phrase=[oo oahdago bahbo oahdaga bahba go ossoena]<sub>1</sub> [ee oahdago esseanasoahdaga esseenas]<sub>2</sub>|IPA=[ˈʔo̞w‿ˈwɔ̯ɑ̞ħˈʔo̞w‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐˌɣʊ ˈβɑ̞ħt̠ɐ.pʊ ɣo̞‿wʊs̠ˈs̠ʊːɪ̯ʁɐ ˈβɑħ.n̠ɐ‿ˈje̞w‿ˈwɔ̯ɑ̞ħpɐ‿ɣo̞ wʊs̠ˈs̠ʊːɪ̯.t̠ɐˌɣʊ‿jɪɕˈɕɛ̯ɑːn̠ɐ ˈjɪw‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐ.ʁɐ jɪɕˈɕi̯eː.n̠ɐs̠]|gloss=[DIST shine.ACT.IND-CVB:DUR dog DIST-INV-consume.CAUS.TRANS.IND]<sub>1</sub> [PROX shine.ACT.IND-CVB:DUR PROX-INV-see.TRANS.IND-CONJ]<sub>2</sub>
|translation=[today I saw]<sub>2</sub> [the dog that (you) fed yesterday]<sub>1</sub>
}}
{{gloss
|phrase=bahbo bahba go oada esseanas esseenas no?|IPA=[ˈbɑ̞ħˈbɑħ.pʊ ɣo̞‿ˈwɔ̯ɑ̞ːpɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ‿jɪɕˈɕɛ̯ɑːðɐ jɪɕˈɕi̯eː.n̠ɐz̠‿ᵈn̠ʊ]
|gloss=dog TOP:ACT shine.STAT.IND PROX-INV-see.TRANS.IND-CONJ Q
|translation=have you seen the white dog?
====Evidentiality====
Reduced forms of some verbs can function as evidential markers, such as ''yae'' for observation and ''ga'' for hearsay.
{| class="wikitable"
|-
| ''ebadsa''<br />"weaving"
| ''ebadsa yae''<br />"(evidently) weaving"| ''ebadse ebadsa ga''<br />"(allegedly) weaving"
|}
==Locative verbs==
An important part of Ash grammar is an extensive set of so called locative verbs which are used almost like a noun classification system and cover location, motion and related concepts while providing specific information about the referent at hand, such as specifying whether liquid is involved. These also have reduced clitic forms used as topic markers. Some topic markers also exist that do not correspond to a locative verb, such as the oral ''o'', instead related to the active transitive verb ''oo'' "eat". Some locative verbs also retain non-locative meanings, such as the aerial ''see'', which in conjunction with the oral classifier, as ''osee'', means to "blow".
These are some of those verbs:
{| class="wikitable"
! LemmaLocative! Topic
! Gloss
! Semantic range
|-
| ''laa''
| ''la''
| :STAT
| General stative (indefinite or permanent)
|-
| ''goo''
| ''go''
| :ACT
| General active (temporary or dynamic)
|-
| ''sãã''
| ''sa''
| :LIQ
| Water and other liquids
|-
| ''see''
| ''se''
| :AER
| Air and weather
|-
| ''boo''
| ''bo''
| :CRESC
| Growth (hair, plants et c.)
|-
| ''doo''
| ''do''
| :PART
| Particles (powder, sand, dust, smoke, spores et c.)
|-
| ''mee''
| ''me''
| :PYR
| Fire(by extension core or centre)|-| ''baa''| ''ba''| :INST| Hand and instrumental (things held; implements and tools)|-| —| ''o''| :ORAL| Mouth and food
|}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ammõõ ՚mmõõ bo
|IPA=[ʔm̩ˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ]
|gloss=POSS-head TOP:CRESC
|{{gloss
|phrase=ammõõ ՚mmõõ la
|IPA=[ʔm̩ˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ⁿd͡ɮɐ]
|gloss=POSS-head TOP:STAT
|translation=head (on the body)
}}
 
|{{gloss
|phrase=ammõõ go
|IPA=[ʔm̩ˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵑɡʊ]
|gloss=POSS-head TOP:ACT
|translation=head (detached from the body)
}}
{{gloss
|phrase=emmõõ bo ao ehbadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞‿ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯‿je̞ħˈpɑ̞ʔʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞ ˈʔɑːʊ̯ je̞ħˈpɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]|gloss=PROX-POSS-head TOP:CRESC ao PROX-TRTV-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ
|translation=Ao is braiding my hair
}}
Unstressed locatives are not applied also apply to the pronominal-like nominals ''ee'' "this", ''oo'' "that", ''nõõ'' "what" and ''maa'' "none".
===Conjunction===
{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahbo bahba go ooda egoo|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈβɑ̞ħˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pʊ ɣo̞‿ˈwu̯oːpɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwu̯oː.ðɐ‿jɪˈɣu̯oːðɐ jɪˈɣu̯oː]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog TOP:ACT DIST-CVB:LOC PROX-CVB:LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao and the dog are over there
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go algoo՚lgoo|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣo̞‿ʔɬ̠̩ˈku̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ʔɬ̠̩ˈku̯oː]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT AND-LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao moves (away)
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go aŋgoo՚ŋgoo|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣo̞‿ʔŋ̩ˈɡu̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ʔŋ̩ˈɡu̯oː]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT VEN-LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao moves (hither)
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go negoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ɲɪˈɣu̯oː]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT SUB-LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is below
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go nelgoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ɲɪɬˈku̯oː]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT SUB-MOT-LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao moves down
}}
|}
===Use with adverbialsconverbs===
Adverbial Converbial location is generic and locative verbs can be used to specify the meaning.
{|
|{{gloss
|phrase=ahda sãã
|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ħˈʔɑħ.t̠ɐ ˈz̠ɑ̞̃ːˈz̠ɑ̃ː]|gloss=oceansea-CVB:LOC LOC:LIQ.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=(be) in the ocean; at sea
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ahda laa
|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ħˈʔɑħ.t̠ɐ ˈɮɑ̞ːˈɮɑː]|gloss=oceansea-CVB:LOC LOC:STAT.STAT/ACT.IND|translation=(be) by the oceansea
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=nendsãndsada
|IPA=[ɲᶡɪn̠ˈd̠͡z̠ɑ̞̃n̠ɲɪn̠ˈd̠͡z̠ɑ̃n̠.d̠͡z̠ɐˌðɐd̠͡z̠ɐ.ðɐ]|gloss=SUB-VEN-LOC:LIQ.FREQ.IND-CVB:LOC
|translation=by the (bottom of the) waterfall<br />(lit. "where water comes gushing down")
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=neldsãndsada
|IPA=[ɲᶡɪɬɲɪɬ.t̠͡s̠ɑ̞̃n̠t̠͡s̠ɑ̃n̠.d̠͡z̠ɐˌðɐd̠͡z̠ɐ.ðɐ]|gloss=SUB-AND-LOC:LIQ.FREQ.IND-CVB:LOC
|translation=by the (top of the) waterfall<br />(lit. "where water goes gushing down")
}}
{{gloss
|phrase=<u>dodsododsa</u> go nõŋgo oŋgoone?|IPA=[ˈd̠o̞ʔˈd̠o̞ħ.t̠͡s̠ʊ ɣʊ t̠͡s̠ɐ‿ɣʊ ˈn̠õ̞ŋ.ɡo̞‿wʊŋˈɡu̯oːɡo̞ wʊŋˈɡu̯oː.ɲɪ]|gloss=<u>smoke.FREQ.NOMIND</u> TOP:ACT Q-CVB:DUR DIST-VEN-LOC:ACT.TRANS.OPT
|translation=when does the <u>train</u> arrive?
}}
|phrase=ewoes
|IPA=[ʔɪˈwʊːɪ̯ɕ]
|gloss=PROX-consume.ACT.OPT-CONJ
|translation=I want/need to eat; I am hungry
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ewoe no?|IPA=[ʔɪˈwʊːɪ̯ n̠ʊʔɪˈwʊːɪ̯‿n̠ʊ]|gloss=PROX-consume.ACT.OPT Q
|translation=perhaps I should eat something
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=bahbo bahba go ewoe no?|IPA=[ˈbɑ̞ħˈbɑħ.pʊ ɣʊ‿jɪˈwʊːɪ̯ n̠ʊpɐ‿ɣʊ jɪˈwʊːɪ̯‿n̠ʊ]|gloss=dog TOP:ACT PROX-consume.ACT.OPT Q
|translation=maybe the dog is hungry
}}
{{gloss
|phrase=ao go ahbada esdsoes
|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ːʊ̯ ɣo̞‿ʔɑ̞ħˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ˈʔɑħ.pɐˌðɐ‿jɪɕˈȶ͡ɕʊːɪ̯ɕpɐ.ðɐ jɪɕˈȶ͡ɕʊːɪ̯ɕ]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT appa-CVB:LOC PROX-INV-LOC:DOM.STAT/ACT.OPT-CONJ
|translation=I'm on my way to visit Ao in Appa
}}
|phrase=sooda
|IPA=[ˈd̠͡z̠u̯oː.ðɐ]
|gloss=LOC:DOM.STAT/ACT.IND-CVB:LOC
|translation=(at) home
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=soogosooga|IPA=[ˈd̠͡z̠u̯oː.ɣʊʁɐ]|gloss=LOC:DOM.STAT/ACT.IND-CVB:DUR
|translation=[when ](at) home
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ahbada esoonas
|IPA=[ˈʔɑ̞ħˈʔɑħ.pɐˌðɐ‿jɪˈz̠u̯oːpɐ.ðɐ jɪˈz̠u̯oː.n̠ɐs̠]|gloss=appa-CVB:LOC PROX-LOC:DOM.TRANS.IND-CONJ
|translation=I've moved to Appa
}}
===Colour terms===
While most descriptive attributes are expressed through stative verbs, colours are expressed through comparative adverbsconverbs, likening the appearance of the referent to something else, such as ''mee'' "fire" → ''meyya'' "red; yellow; orange; brown" or ''ao'' "sea" → ''ayya'' "blue; green". These are combined with locative verbs.
{{gloss
|phrase=meyya bahbo bahba go|IPA=[ˈmᵇe̞jˈme̞j.jɐ ˈβɑ̞ħˈβɑħ.pʊ ɣʊpɐ‿ɣʊ]|gloss=fire-CVB:SEMB dog TOP:ACT
|translation=a brown dog
}}
The exceptions are brightness and darkness which are still expressed through stative verbs, which can also be combined with the comparative adverbs converb to specify the hue.
{|
|{{gloss
|phrase=bahbo bahba go oada|IPA=[ˈbɑ̞ħˈbɑħ.pʊ ɣo̞‿ˈwɔ̯ɑ̞ːpɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ]
|gloss=dog TOP:ACT shine.STAT.IND
|translation=a white dog
|{{gloss
|phrase=meyya bahbo bahba go oada|IPA=[ˈmᵇe̞jˈme̞j.jɐ ˈβɑ̞ħˈβɑħ.pʊ ɣo̞‿ˈwɔ̯ɑ̞ːpɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ]
|gloss=fire-SEMB dog TOP:ACT shine.STAT.IND
|translation=a light brown dog
532
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