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Ash

1,311 bytes added, 14 April
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|-
! Glottal
| {{IPA|/ʔ~h/}}
|-
! Nasal
{| class="wikitable"
| {{IPA|//ˈwat.haʔa.ka//}}| → {{IPA|/ˈwahˈwaʔ.ta.ka/}}
| → {{IPA|[ˈʔɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐ.ʁɐ]}}
| → ''oahdaga'' "during the day"
! {{IPA|//h-//}}
| [ħ.P]
| [ʔħ.P͡F]
| /ʔ.ᴰN/
|}
|}
Deixis occurs in the form of isolated nominals ''ee'' and ''oo'' as well as verbal and possessive prefixes ''e-'' and ''o-''. Neutral deixis sometimes surfaces epenthetically Despite their conventional romanisation ''ee'' and ''oo'' are not pronounced *[-i̯eː-] and *[-u̯oː-]. They are respectively irregularly reduced forms of *''eyye'' and *''owwo'' that tend to blend into the next word, often as [-e̞(ː)ɪ̯]~[-e̞j-] and [-o̞(ː)ʊ̯]~[-o̞w-], but also with the glide assimilating, leading to forms such as [-ɪw-] and [-ʊj-]. This also goes for the proximal-proximal reflexive prefix ''aee-'' due (reduced from *''eye-'') and the distal-distal counterpart ''oo-'' (reduced from *''owo-''). However, in converbs such as the locative ''eeda'' "here" the underlying form is different and so the pronunciation is the expected [-i̯eː.ðɐ] (compare this to phonotactic constraints''ee go'' [-e̞ːɪ̯‿ɣʊ]~[-e̞ːɪ̯‿ɣo̞], but where the clitic is attached to the free-floating nominal and not underlyingly explicitly markedthe root). They can be thought of as *''ey'' and *''ow'' but due to their exceptionality and for consistency with the use of ''e'' and ''o'' for semivowels elsewhere (as in ''ae'' and ''ao'') it has been decided that they be spelled the way they are.
===Conjunct and disjunct verbs===
{{gloss
|phrase=emmõõ bo ao ehbadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞ ˈʔɑːʊ̯ je̞ħˈpɑʔje̞ħˈpɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=PROX-POSS-head TOP:CRESC ao PROX-TV-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ
|translation=Ao is braiding my hair
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahba e<u>hh</u>ee
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ je̞çˈçi̯eː]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog PROX-<u>TV</u>-see.ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is looking at the dog
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahba e<u>ss</u>ee
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ jɪɕˈɕi̯eː]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog PROX-<u>INV</u>-see.ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is being watched by the dog
|{{gloss
|phrase=ehhees
|IPA=[ʔe̞çˈçi̯eːsɕʔe̞çˈçi̯eːɕ]
|gloss=PROX-TV-see.ACT.IND-CONJ
|translation=I am looking at them
|{{gloss
|phrase=essees
|IPA=[ʔɪɕˈɕi̯eːsɕʔɪɕˈɕi̯eːɕ]
|gloss=PROX-INV-see.ACT.IND-CONJ
|translation=they are looking at me
|{{gloss
|phrase=oadnaga ao go aosãã ma
|IPA=[ˈʔɔ̯ɑʔ.ᵈn̠ɐ.ʁɐ ʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷo̞ ʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ʔɐʊ̯ˈz̠ɑ̃ː‿mɐ]
|gloss=shine.TRANS.IND-CVB:DUR ao TOP:ACT REFL.DIST-LOC:LIQ.STAT/ACT.IND NEG
|translation=Ao doesn't wash in the morning
|{{gloss
|phrase=emmõõ bo ee ehbadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ ˈje̞j‿je̞ħˈpɑʔˈje̞j‿je̞ħˈpɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=PROX-POSS-head TOP:CRESC PROX PROX-TV-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ
|translation=you are braiding my hair
|{{gloss
|phrase=emmõõ bo ee eebadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ ˈje̞j‿je̞ɪ̯ˈβɑʔˈje̞j‿je̞ɪ̯ˈβɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=PROX-POSS-head TOP:CRESC PROX PROX-REFL.PROX-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ
|translation=I am braiding my hair
{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahba od<u>sãmm</u>oyya
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̃mˌmʊj.jɐ]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog DIST-TV-<u>water</u>-consume.CAUS.IND
|translation=Ao was giving the dog water to drink
{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahba mee<u>da</u> odsãmmoyya
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ ˈmi̯eːˈmʲi̯eː.ðɐ wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̃mˌmʊj.jɐ]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog fire-<u>CVB:LOC</u> DIST-TV-water-consume.CAUS.IND
|translation=Ao was giving the dog water to drink by the fire
{{gloss
|phrase=[oo oahdaga bahba go ossoena]<sub>1</sub> [ee oahdaga esseenas]<sub>2</sub>
|IPA=[ˈʔo̞w‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐ.ʁɐ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʷo̞ pɐ‿ɣo̞ wʊs̠ˈs̠ʊːɪ̯.n̠ɐ ˈje̞w‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħˈjɪw‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐ.ʁɐ jɪɕˈɕi̯eː.n̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=[DIST shine.ACT.IND-CVB:DUR dog DIST-INV-consume.CAUS.TRANS.IND]<sub>1</sub> [PROX shine.ACT.IND-CVB:DUR PROX-INV-see.TRANS.IND-CONJ]<sub>2</sub>
|translation=[today I saw]<sub>2</sub> [the dog that (you) fed yesterday]<sub>1</sub>
{{gloss
|phrase=bahba go oada esseenas no?|IPA=[ˈbɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʷo̞ pɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ jɪɕˈɕi̯eː.n̠ɐz̠‿ᵈn̠ʊ]
|gloss=dog TOP:ACT shine.STAT.IND PROX-INV-see.TRANS.IND-CONJ Q
|translation=have you seen the white dog?
==Locative verbs==
An important part of Ash grammar is an extensive set of so called locative verbs which are used almost like a noun classification system and cover location, motion and related concepts while providing specific information about the referent at hand, such as specifying whether liquid is involved. These also have reduced clitic forms used as topic markers. Some topic markers also exist that do not correspond to a locative verb, such as the oral ''o'', instead related to the active transitive verb ''oo'' "eat". Some locative verbs also retain non-locative meanings, such as the aerial ''see'', which in conjunction with the oral classifier, as ''osee'', means to "blow".
These are some of those verbs:
{| class="wikitable"
! LemmaLocative! Topic
! Gloss
! Semantic range
|-
| ''laa''
| ''la''
| :STAT
| General stative (indefinite or permanent)
|-
| ''goo''
| ''go''
| :ACT
| General active (temporary or dynamic)
|-
| ''sãã''
| ''sa''
| :LIQ
| Water and other liquids
|-
| ''see''
| ''se''
| :AER
| Air and weather
|-
| ''boo''
| ''bo''
| :CRESC
| Growth (hair, plants et c.)
|-
| ''doo''
| ''do''
| :PART
| Particles (powder, sand, dust, smoke, spores et c.)
|-
| ''mee''
| ''me''
| :PYR
| Fire (by extension core or centre)
|-
| ''baa''
| ''ba''
| :INST
| Hand and instrumental (things held; implements and tools)
|-
| —
| ''o''
| :ORAL
| Mouth and food
|}
|gloss=POSS-head TOP:STAT
|translation=head (on the body)
}}
 
|{{gloss
|phrase=՚mmõõ go
|IPA=[ʔm̩ˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵑɡʷʊ]
|gloss=POSS-head TOP:ACT
|translation=head (detached from the body)
}}
{{gloss
|phrase=emmõõ bo ao ehbadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞ ˈʔɑːʊ̯ je̞ħˈpɑʔje̞ħˈpɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=PROX-POSS-head TOP:CRESC ao PROX-TV-hand.FREQ.IND-CONJ
|translation=Ao is braiding my hair
{{gloss
|phrase=ao go bahba go ooda egoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʷo̞ pɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwu̯oː.ðɐ jɪˈɣʷu̯oːjɪˈɣu̯oː]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog TOP:ACT DIST-CVB:LOC PROX-CVB:LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao and the dog are over there
}}
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go ՚lgoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷo̞ ʔɬ̠̩ˈkʷu̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ʔɬ̠̩ˈku̯oː]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT AND-LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao moves (away)
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go ՚ŋgoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷo̞ ʔŋ̩ˈɡʷu̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ʔŋ̩ˈɡu̯oː]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT VEN-LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao moves (hither)
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go negoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷʊ ɲɪˈɣʷu̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ɲɪˈɣu̯oː]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT SUB-LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is below
|{{gloss
|phrase=ao go nelgoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷʊ ɲɪɬˈkʷu̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ɲɪɬˈku̯oː]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT SUB-MOT-LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao moves down
|{{gloss
|phrase=nendsãndsada
|IPA=[ɲᶡɪn̠ˈd̠͡z̠ɑ̃n̠ɲɪn̠ˈd̠͡z̠ɑ̃n̠.d̠͡z̠ɐ.ðɐ]
|gloss=SUB-VEN-LOC:LIQ.FREQ.IND-CVB:LOC
|translation=by the (bottom of the) waterfall<br />(lit. "where water comes gushing down")
|{{gloss
|phrase=neldsãndsada
|IPA=[ɲᶡɪɬɲɪɬ.t̠͡s̠ɑ̃n̠.d̠͡z̠ɐ.ðɐ]
|gloss=SUB-AND-LOC:LIQ.FREQ.IND-CVB:LOC
|translation=by the (top of the) waterfall<br />(lit. "where water goes gushing down")
{{gloss
|phrase=<u>dodsa</u> go nõŋgo oŋgoone?|IPA=[ˈd̠o̞ʔˈd̠o̞ħ.t̠͡s̠ɐ‿ɣʷʊ t̠͡s̠ɐ‿ɣʊ ˈn̠õ̞ŋ.ɡʷo̞ wʊŋˈɡʷu̯oːɡo̞ wʊŋˈɡu̯oː.ɲɪ]
|gloss=<u>smoke.FREQ.IND</u> TOP:ACT Q-CVB:DUR DIST-VEN-LOC:ACT.TRANS.OPT
|translation=when does the <u>train</u> arrive?
|{{gloss
|phrase=bahba go ewoe no
|IPA=[ˈbɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʷʊ pɐ‿ɣʊ jɪˈwʊːɪ̯‿n̠ʊ]
|gloss=dog TOP:ACT PROX-consume.ACT.OPT Q
|translation=maybe the dog is hungry
{{gloss
|phrase=ao go ahbada esdsoes
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʷo̞ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ˈʔɑħ.pɐ.ðɐ jɪɕˈȶ͡ɕʊːɪ̯ɕ]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT appa-CVB:LOC PROX-INV-LOC:DOM.STAT/ACT.OPT-CONJ
|translation=I'm on my way to visit Ao in Appa
|phrase=ahbada esoonas
|IPA=[ˈʔɑħ.pɐ.ðɐ jɪˈz̠u̯oː.n̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=appa-CVB:LOC PROX-LOC:DOM.TRANS.IND-CONJ
|translation=I've moved to Appa
}}
{{gloss
|phrase=meyya bahba go
|IPA=[ˈmᵇe̞jˈme̞j.jɐ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʷʊpɐ‿ɣʊ]
|gloss=fire-CVB:SEMB dog TOP:ACT
|translation=a brown dog
|{{gloss
|phrase=bahba go oada
|IPA=[ˈbɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʷo̞ pɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ]
|gloss=dog TOP:ACT shine.STAT.IND
|translation=a white dog
|{{gloss
|phrase=meyya bahba go oada
|IPA=[ˈmᵇe̞jˈme̞j.jɐ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʷo̞ pɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ]
|gloss=fire-SEMB dog TOP:ACT shine.STAT.IND
|translation=a light brown dog
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