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Ash

1,429 bytes removed, 13 July
Pragmatics and conventions
==Pragmatics and conventions==
 
Being a verb-heavy language, Ash often lacks direct nominal counterparts to nouns in more analytic languages, instead expressing many common (and uncommon) concepts descriptively through its rich morphological and derivational verb system rather than assigning nominal lexemes to them (although this also happens), one key factor again being the locative verbs.
 
{|
 
|{{gloss
|phrase=nendsãndsada
|IPA=[ɲɪn̠ˈd̠͡z̠ɑ̃n̠.d̠͡z̠ɐ.ðɐ]
|gloss=SUB-VEN-LOC:LIQ.FREQ.IND-CVB:LOC
|translation=by the (bottom of the) waterfall<br />(lit. "where water comes gushing down")
}}
 
|{{gloss
|phrase=neldsãndsada
|IPA=[ɲɪɬ.t̠͡s̠ɑ̃n̠.d̠͡z̠ɐ.ðɐ]
|gloss=SUB-AND-LOC:LIQ.FREQ.IND-CVB:LOC
|translation=by the (top of the) waterfall<br />(lit. "where water goes gushing down")
}}
 
|}
 
As this example demonstrates, there is no one lexicalised nominal for the concept of a waterfall, but a fitting verb is used depending on the context. Nonetheless the phrase is possible to nominalise if grammatically necessary and sometimes this does result in lexicalisation.
 
{{gloss
|phrase=<u>dodsa</u> go nõŋgo oŋgoone
|IPA=[ˈd̠o̞ħ.t̠͡s̠ɐ‿ɣʊ ˈn̠õ̞ŋ.ɡo̞ wʊŋˈɡu̯oː.ɲɪ]
|gloss=<u>smoke.FREQ.IND</u> TOP:ACT Q-CVB:DUR DIST-VEN-LOC:ACT.TRANS.OPT
|translation=when does the <u>train</u> arrive?
}}
 
In such cases there may be a clear-cut distinction between such lexicalisations and productive formations.
===Modality===
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