Talmic

From Linguifex
Jump to: navigation, search
Talmic/Lexicon
Talmic/Swadesh list

The Talmic languages (/ˈtɑːlmɪk/ TAHL-mik) are a subfamily of the Quame languages, spoken in the Talma region in Etalocin in the planet of Tricin. Their last common ancestor is Proto-Talmic (Eevo: Ymá-Talmib).

History of Talmic studies

History of the term

The Talmic family was referred to as the "Cēm languages" (Skellan: brits Ceem) in earlier Talman works, after the Thensarian word cēm for "one" inherited in all known Talmic languages at the time. After the discovery of other Quihum languages such as Naquian, the definition expanded to other Quihum languages, until Proto-Quihum was reconstructed with more accuracy and the family was renamed Quihum (Skellan: brits Cłillym or hølltu Cłillym). The designation Talmic (Skellan: Talmiv) is now applied to the branch, after the name of the Talma region where most of the Talmic languages are native to.

Todo

  • -nəm = patientive
  • sθan- = gather
    • sθannəm = gathering
      • Skellan sdann = (mathematics) set
    • ~ sta- in stāmom?
  • add 0 grade, lengthened grade.
    • -ssōs = another noun suffix
    • 0 grade often > ə-grade but Cl, Cr > Cli-, Cri-
    • lengthened grades: ā ī ū > ó ī ū
  • a Talmolang with j > š > sj > ɬ
  • σ ζ instead of qw Gw?

Phonology

Proto-Celtic gibberish with some added consonants and vowels

Consonants

Proto-Talmic reconstructed consonants (Panzux)
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar Uvular Labiouvular Glottal
Nasal *m *n
Plosive voiceless *t *k *kʷ *q *qʷ
voiced *b *d *g *gʷ
Fricative voiceless *s *h
voiced *ʁʷ
Resonant *l *r *y *w

Vowels

a e i o u ā ē ī ō ū

Diphthongs:

ai ei oi ui aw ew iw ow

Thensarian reflexes

  • a e i o u ə > a e i o u y
  • ō > ū in word-final syllables; ā elsewhere (gives too much aw in Skellan?)
  • ou > ō
  • oi > oe
  • ui > ui
  • ew > eo
  • iw > iu
  • ai, au > ae, ao

Morphology

Proto-Talmic was a fusional, head-initial language with a number system consisting of singulative, collective and plurative numbers. It had an ablaut system much like that of Indo-European.

Nouns

Masculine nouns

(Just one paradigm)

δoirom 'bird'
Singulative Collective Plurative
Absolute δoirom δeδoirom δoirīs
Construct δoirai δeδoirai δoirinnə


Possessed forms of δoirom - 'bird'
Number→
State↓
Singulative Plurative
Construct δoirot δoirinnət
1sg possessor δoiron δoirinnən
2sg.m possessor δoirossi δoirinnəssi
2sg.f possessor δoirossiu δoirinnəssiu
3sg.m possessor δoirotiu δoirinniu
3sg.f possessor δoirotī δoirinnī
3sg.n possessor δoirota δoirinna
1exc possessor δoirosmə δoirinnəsmə
1inc possessor δoiroswi δoirinnəswi
2pl possessor δoiroka δoirinnəka
3pl possessor δoirotōr δoirinnətōr

Feminine nouns

gʷondā 'body'
Singulative Collective Plurative
Absolute gʷondā gegʷondā gʷondār
Construct gʷondāt gegʷondām gʷondās


Possessed forms of gʷondā - 'body'
Number→
State↓
Singulative Plurative
Construct gʷondat gʷondāsat
1sg possessor gʷondan gʷondasan
2sg.m possessor gʷondassi gʷondasassi
2sg.f possessor gʷondassiu gʷondasassiu
3sg.m possessor gʷondatiu gʷondasiu
3sg.f possessor gʷondatī gʷondasī
3sg.n possessor gʷondata gʷondasa
1exc possessor gʷondasmə gʷondasasmə
1inc possessor gʷondaswi gʷondasaswi
2pl possessor gʷondaka gʷondaseka
3pl possessor gʷondatōr gʷondasōr

Neuter nouns

tektəs 'child'
Singulative Collective Plurative
Absolute tektəs tetektəs tektəen
Construct tektəes tetektəes tektəer


Possessed forms of tektəs - 'child'
Number→
State↓
Singulative Plurative
Construct tektət tektəerət
1sg possessor tektən tektəerən
2sg.m possessor tektəssi tektəerəssi
2sg.f possessor tektəssiu tektəerəssiu
3sg.m possessor tektiu tektəeriu
3sg.f possessor tektī tektəerī
3sg.n possessor tektəta tektəera
1exc possessor tektəsmo tektəersmo
1inc possessor tektəswi tektəerswi
2pl possessor tektəka tektəerka
3pl possessor tektōr tektəerōr


jenaqʷs 'water' (n.)
Singulative Collective
Absolute jenaqʷs jenenaqʷs
Construct jenaqʷes jenenaqʷes


stuφs 'fire' (n.)
Singulative Collective
Absolute stuφs stestuφs
Construct stuφes stestuφes

Adjectives

Masculine:

mukʷtam 'dark'
Singulative Collective Plurative
Indefinite mukʷtam memukʷtam mukʷtaīs
Definite mukʷtoi memukʷtoi mukʷtannə

Feminine:

mukʷtam 'dark'
Singulative Collective Plurative
Indefinite mukʷtā memukʷtā mukʷtar
Definite mukʷtāt memukʷtām mukʷtās

Neuter:

mukʷtam 'dark'
Singulative Collective Plurative
Indefinite mukʷtas memukʷtas mukʷtān
Definite mukʷtās memukʷtās mukʷtār


Verbs

Object markers

Object affixes
Singular Plural
1 in- me-
1 + 2 - twe-
2 ri- ke-
3 bi- be-

TAM + subject markers

Collective subjects agree with singular (subject or object) verb affixes.

Root ablaut occurs in some stems in verbs and derived nouns. Ablauting verbs follow one of the patterns below (modulo compensatory lengthening); the present stem is in what is called the "a-grade" in Quihum linguistics, and the preterite stem has the "i-grade".

  • present stem a - preterite stem e - VN a
  • present stem ā - preterite stem ē - VN a
  • present stem o - preterite stem i - VN ə
  • present stem ō - preterite stem ī
  • present stem ō - preterite stem ē
  • present stem oi - preterite stem ei
  • present stem ou - preterite stem iu
  • present stem au - preterite stem eu

Progressive
Person ʁaismān "I swim"
(vowel stem)
kaφsən "I eat"
(ablaut stem)
1SG *ʁaismān *kaφsən
2SG *ʁaismār *kaφsər
3SG.M *ʁaismām *kaφsəm
3SG.F *ʁaismāsim *kaφsəsim
3SG.N *ʁaismā *kaφs
1EX *ʁaismāmē *kaφsmē
1IN *ʁaismānt *kaφsənt
2PL *ʁaismāskʷe *kaφsəskʷe
3PL *ʁaismāt *kaφsət

Habitual
Person ʁaismān "I swim"
(vowel stem)
kaφsən "I eat"
(ablaut stem)
1SG *ʁeʁaismān *kekaφsən
2SG *ʁeʁaismār *kekaφsər
3SG.M *ʁeʁaismām *kekaφsəm
3SG.F *ʁeʁaismāsim *kekaφsəsim
3SG.N *ʁeʁaismā *kekaφs
1EX *ʁeʁaismāmē *kekaφsmē
1IN *ʁeʁaismānt *kekaφsənt
2PL *ʁeʁaismāskʷe *kekaφsəskʷe
3PL *ʁeʁaismāt *kekaφsət

Preterite
Person ʁaismān "I swim"
(vowel stem)
kaφsən "I eat"
(ablaut stem)
1SG *ʁaismānnem *keφsənnem
2SG *ʁaismārəg *keφsrəg
3SG.M *ʁaismāsəm *keφsəsəm
3SG.F *ʁaismāstis *keφsəstis
3SG.N *ʁaismāso *keφso
1EX *ʁaismāmer *keφsəmer
1IN *ʁaismānter *keφsənter
2PL *ʁaismāskʷer *keφsəskʷer
3PL *ʁaismāter *keφsəter

Subjunctive
Person ʁaismān "I swim"
(vowel stem)
kaφsən "I eat"
(ablaut stem)
1SG *ʁaismānai *kaφsnai
2SG *ʁaismārai *kaφsrai
3SG.M *ʁaismāmjor *kaφsmjor
3SG.F *ʁaismāsjor *kaφsəsjor
3SG.N *ʁaismāwr *kaφsjor
1EX *ʁaismāmai *kaφsmai
1IN *ʁaismāntai *kaφsəntai
2PL *ʁaismāskʷai *kaφsəskʷai
3PL *ʁaismātjor *kaφsətjor

Imperative
Person ʁaismān "I swim"
(vowel-stem)
kaφsən "I eat"
(ablaut stem)
2SG *ʁaismā! *kaφsə!
1IN *ʁaismāntē! *kaφsəntē!
2PL *ʁaismāskʷē! *kaφsəskʷē!


Derivational morphology

Affixes

Some derivational affixes are:

  • -nəm (n.) = patient suffix
  • -ā- = verbalizer (from *-əx̌-; just for the Proto-Celtic gibbiness)
    • What if *-əx̌- meant something else in PQuih?
    • Roshterian -ia-/-i- - fossilized suffix in many verbs
  • -ākos (n.) = verbal noun (from *-əx̌- verbalizer + *-kas = older VN suffix)
    • Roshterian -iac
  • -akt(V)- = adjectivizer
    • Roshterian -ait

Ablaut patterns

Syntax

The emphatic particle *-is was commonly suffixed to the verb, as seen directly in Thensarian and the fact that Rostherian kept most verb affixes intact.