Thedish

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Thedish
þiúsk
Pronunciation /θʲuːsk/
Created by IlL
Setting Jarþe
Spoken natively in Thedeland
Region Western Europe
Native speakers 90 million  (2015)
Language family
Indo-European
Writing system Thedish script
ISO 639-3

Thedish (THEED-ish; natively þe þiúske mál /θə ˈθʲuːskə maːɫ/; from Proto-Thedic *þiudьskъ) is a Germanic language spoken in Jarþe's Thedeland (our Germany, Austria and Italy). Its speakers are called Thedes. Thedish is intended to have a pseudo-Irish and pseudo-Slavic aesthetic.

Contents

TODO

Use Atče Glasatь for loans

Look at OE/Dutch for more vr- words

Try to express things with Germanic roots, but without calquing

Orthography

Native script

The native script, called þe þiúske vryt is a descendant of the Latin alphabet.

Cyrillization

А́ла маньскан синь буран фри́ ок яван а́н вурѳе ок а́нряғтам. Си́ синь бежа́вд мид фарстанда ок сини́дя́се ок ѳурван бедри́ван ын гашт ня́вьста им андань бра́ѳерхыдар.

Phonology

Thedish phonology is characterized by pairs of hard and soft consonants.

Consonants

Labial Dental/Alveolar Lateral Postalveolar Velar Glottal
hard soft hard soft hard soft soft hard
Nasal m m n
Stop voiceless p p t k k (ʔ)
voiced b b d g g
Affricate c ts tsʲ cz
Fricative voiceless f f s s þ θˠ þь θʲ sz ʃ chь, hь ç ch x h h
voiced v v z z ż ʒ
Resonant r ɾ ɾʲ l ɫ j j

/tʃ, ʒ, ʃ/ are soft alternants of /k, g, x/ in native Thedish. /kʲ, gʲ, ts, tsʲ/ are mainly found in foreign loans.

Voiceless stops are aspirated unless after /s/, as in English and German.

Final /b(ʲ) d(ʲ) g(ʲ)/ are most often devoiced: dag [dak] 'day'.

Word-final or preconsonantal /p(ʲ) t(ʲ) ts(ʲ) tʃ k(ʲ)/ undergo preaspiration, but not prevocalic /p(ʲ) t(ʲ) ts(ʲ) tʃ k(ʲ)/: e.g. nat [naht] 'wet', but nate hiár [natə çɑːr] 'wet hair'.

Orthographical notes:

  • The ь is replaced with an i when followed by a vowel (the i is pronounced as palatalization).
  • The soft sign ь and the palatalizing i soften every consonant in the cluster that precede it by default. (However, consonants do not soften before cz, ż, sz.) The hard sign ъ prevents the softening of consonants to the left of the hard sign.
Notes
  • Hard /θ/ is strongly velarized [θˠ]. Soft /θʲ/ may be [θ].
  • In fast speech, hard /ɾ/ tends to become [ɹ] word-finally.
  • Soft /ɾʲ/ may be [r̝] like Czech ř.

Epenthesis is triggered in rC or lC clusters:

  • arm [ˈaɾəm] 'arm; dear'
  • stark [ˈstaɾəʰk] 'strong'
  • vurd [ˈvʊɾəd̥] 'word'
  • salt [ˈsaɫəʰt] 'salt'
  • żalv [ˈʒaɫəv] 'yellow'

Vowels

There are five phonemic vowel qualities with length. y y can be considered non-palatalizing allophones of i í.

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /ɪ/ í /iː/ (y /ɨ/) (y /ɨː/) u /ʊ/ ú /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ é /eː/ (e [ə]) o /ɔ/ ó /oː/
Open a /a/ á /ɑː/

Word-initially i and í are pronounced [jɪ] and [jiː].

Dialects

Different Thedish dialects mainly vary in grammar and vocabulary.

  • Standard Southern Thedish (Nomichþiúsk), spoken in the southern half of the peninsula, is the variety described in this article.
  • Southern Thedish, spoken in Sicily and the southernmost pasts of the peninsula, retains the accusative case in nouns, adjectives and articles, lost in other dialects.
  • Central Thedish lost the genitive case. Some vowel reflexes are also different: erþa 'earth' > jerþe (Standard jarþe), sövъn '7' > seven (Standard sieven).
  • Western Thedish
  • Upper or Northern Thedish (Bórьsk or Uverþiúsk) is spoken in a region near Austro-Bavaria. It is grammatically more similar to Ufirlandisg and is nigh-unintelligible to other speakers.

Example words

  • 'man':
    • Standard, Western, Southern mán
    • Northern viar, Central vier
  • 'big':
    • Standard, Non-Southern mór
    • Southern grót
  • 'to be painful':
    • Standard, Central darien
    • Southern smiarten
    • Western bólien
    • Northern derь, derie
  • 'clothing':
    • Non-Northern klyþ (m)
  • 'very, a lot':
    • Standard, Central svinþ
    • Southern syr
    • Western óczenь
    • Northern unvenь
  • 'bright':
    • Standard, Non-Southern bán
    • Southern briacht
  • 'snake':
    • Standard, Northern, Western nadre (f)
    • Southern slange (f)
    • Central snake (m)

Morphology

Nouns

Like German, Thedish has 4 cases (ptásier):

  • Nominative (þí onmastcze)
  • Accusative (þí étijatcze)
  • Dative (þí dotcze)
  • Genitive (þí żenьcze)

However, nominative and accusative are only distinguished in pronouns. There are two genders, masculine (mánlik or arsiènich) and feminine (vívlik or þiálich); the neuter has merged with the masculine.

  • The dative plural always ends in -em.
  • The genitive plural always ends in -en.
  • Nouns with the nominative plural in -er are always feminine. The converse is usually true except for a few nouns.
  • For the masculine genitive singular, -es is used if the final consonant is t, d, s, z, þ or their soft counterparts. Otherwise -s is used.

Articles

Thedish uses the indefinite article a and the definite article þe.

Definite article
case singular plural
m. f.
nom. þe þí þí
dat. þem þier þím
gen. þes þier þier


Indefinite article
case singular
m. f.
nom. a, an ne
dat. nem ner
gen. nes ner

Before vowels, an is used instead of a.


þiz 'this'
case singular plural
m. f.
nom. þiz þize þize
dat. þizem þizer þizem
gen. þizes þizer þizer

Declined likewise are:

  • jén 'that'
  • ál 'all'
  • ylьk 'each'
  • the possessive determiners mín; þín; is; jar; unsier, unsь-; úrer, úr-; jar; sín

Masculine consonant nouns

vulf (m.) 'wolf'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þe vulf þí vulfe
Dative þem vulf þím vulfem
Genitive þes vulfs þier vulfen


bazь (m.) 'berry'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þe bazь þí bazie
Dative þem bazь þím baziem
Genitive þes bazies þier bazien


sun (m.) 'son'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þe sun þí sunie
Dative þem sun þím suniem
Genitive þes suns þier sunien

n-stems

Declined like attributive adjectives. These nouns are masculine, except for nominalized feminine adjectives.

name (m.) 'name'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þe name þí namen
Dative þem namenь þím namem
Genitive þes namenь þier namen

Also: andie 'end', ave 'river', biare 'bear', funie 'fire', fytie 'wheat', hiarte 'heart', knave 'servant', mage 'throat', óge 'eye', óre 'ear', szúe 'sky', ukse 'ox', vatie 'water', yriene 'copper'. [ave can also be declined like a feminine noun.]

Feminine nouns

Nouns of this declension type are always feminine in modern Thedish. Nouns with certain suffixes like -eng (deverbal noun) or -hyd (abstract noun) and loanwords that were feminine in the source language also belong in this class.

naze (f.) 'nose'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þí naze þí nazer
Dative þier naze þím nazem
Genitive þier nazer þier nazen


miark (f.) 'girl'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þí miark þí miarker
Dative þier miark þím miarkem
Genitive þier miarker þier miarken


óre (f.) 'clock'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þí óre þí órer
Dative þier óre þím órem
Genitive þier órer þier óren


sundie (f.) 'vice'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þí sundie þí sundier
Dative þier sundie þím sundiem
Genitive þier sundier þier sundien


starcze (f.) 'strength, starch'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þí starcze þí starczer
Dative þier starcze þím starczem
Genitive þier starczer þier starczen


útriakneng (f.) 'bottom line, result'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þí útriakneng þí útriaknenger
Dative þier útriakneng þím útriaknengem
Genitive þier útriaknenger þier útriaknengen


hond (f.) 'hand'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þí hond þí hondier
Dative þier hond þím hondiem
Genitive þier honder þier hondien

Grab bag

mán (m.) 'man'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þe mán þí mánier
Dative þem mán þím mánem
Genitive þes máns þier mánen


r-stem: fadier (m.) 'father'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þe fadier þí fadrie
Dative þem fadrie þím fadriem
Genitive þes fadiers þier fadrien

Also: bráþier 'brother'.

r-stem: mádier (f.) 'mother'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative þí mádier þí mádrier
Dative þier mádier þím mádriem
Genitive þier mádrier þier mádrien

Also: sviestier 'sister', duchtier 'daughter'.

Adjectives

Declension

Predicative adjectives use the bare stem.

For attributive adjectives, the following declension is used regardless of gender or definiteness (the following is the declension of hóch 'high, tall'):

Attributive declension for hard-stem adjectives
case singular plural
nom. a/þe hóche mán
ne/þí hóche piane
(þí) hóchen mánier
(þí) hóchen pianer
dat. nem/þem hóchenь mán
ner/þier hóchenь piane
(þím) hóchem mánem
(þím) hóchem pianem
gen. nes/þes hóchenь máns
ner/þier hóchenь pianer
(þier) hóchen mánen
(þier) hóchen pianen

Soft-stem adjectives such as skónь 'beautiful' are declined similarly.

Attributive declension for soft-stem adjectives
case singular plural
nom. skónie skónien
dat. skónienь skóniem
gen. skónienь skónien

Degree

The comparative and superlative are formed with the suffixes -ier and -ьst (k, g, ch + -ьst > -czest, -żest, -szest; cz, ż, sz + -ьst > -czest, -żest, -szest; d/t/z/s + -ьst > d/t/z/s + -iest): svát, svátier, svátiest 'sweet, sweeter, sweetest'.

Predicate forms for superlatives are rare: usually þe/þí X-ste is used predicatively. Example: Mín tat isь þe baste = 'My dad is the best'. When used adverbially, superlatives use -ьst.

Other degree words:

svinþ, óczenь (Western) = 'very'

= 'too'

jám X als = 'as X as'

X-ier nisь = 'more X than'

þe/þí X-ьste av = 'the most X of'

þe/þí ál-X-ьste or þe/þí X-ьste av álem = 'the most X of all'

miénier X = 'less X'

miénьst X = 'least X'

There are a few irregular adjectives, which are listed in the table below.

Meaning Positive Comparative Superlative
"good" gád, vial (adv.) batier baste
"bad" kak virsier* virьste*
"much, many" miczel, micz (not declined) myr myste
"few, little" miénier miénьste

Pronouns

Personal

The 2pl úr is also used as a polite 2nd person pronoun.

The neuter pronoun et survives as a dummy pronoun: þídech riagnedь et 'Today it rained'.

case 1sg. 2sg. (familiar) 3sg. 1pl. 2pl. 3pl. reflexive impersonal interrogative
m. f.
nom. ik þú er bír úr - sum for
acc. mik þik jan í unsь ú í sik sumen fan
dat. mir (pronounced mír) þir (pronounced þír) jam jar unsь ú ím sir (pronounced sír) sume fam
gen. mín þín jazer jarer unsier úrer jarer sín sín fizer

The form bír comes from earlier vír which assimilated to the verb ending -em in inverted constructions: jatem bír 'we eat' < *jatem vír.

The impersonal pronoun sum in the nominative case can be used as the 1st person plural in impersonal speech: Sum gáþ! 'Let's go!' (lit. one goes)

Genitive pronouns can be used as postposed possessive pronouns for indefinite nouns: Ik kánie a fríend jazer. 'I know a friend of his.'

Possessive pronouns

To form possessive pronouns, "determiner" endings are added to the genitive of the personal pronouns; the stems of unsier and úrer become unsь- and úr- when a suffix is added. The reflexive sín is used to refer to a third person subject in the same clause, while jaz or jar refer to 3rd person subjects other than the subject.

Possessive pronouns in predicative position are the masculine nominative form of the pronoun: Þe siag isь unsier! 'Victory is ours!'

Possessive pronouns
case singular plural
m. f.
nom. mín
þín
sín
jaz
jar
unsier
úrer
fiz
míne
þíne
síne
jaze
jare
unsie
úre
fize
míne
þíne
síne
jaze
jare
unsie
úre
fize
dat. mínem
þínem
sínem
jazem
jarem
unsiem
úrem
fizem
míner
þíner
síner
jazer
jarer
unsier
úrer
fizer
mínem
þínem
sínem
jazem
jarem
unsiem
úrem
fizem
gen. míns
þíns
síns
jazes
jares
unsies
úres
fizes
míner
þíner
síner
jazer
jarer
unsier
úrer
fizer
míner
þíner
síner
jazer
jarer
unsier
úrer
fizer

Demonstrative

  • þiz = this; jén = that
  • þat = (anaphoric) that
  • for, fan, fam = who; fiz = whose; fat = what
  • fanь = when
  • = how; = like this/that, so, thus
  • fár = where; hiér = here; þár = there
  • fanьs, hienьs, þanьs = from where, from here, from there
  • fidier, hidier, þadier = to where, to here, to there
  • fár + preposition = where- + preposition; hiér + preposition = here- + preposition; þár + preposition = there- + preposition
  • fárup = why
  • filьk = which
  • salьk = such
  • ylьk = (one's) respective
    • Álmán háþ ylьke probliámen. = Everyone has their own problems.
    • Sum skál liáten ú riachnes biaren án úrem ylьkem biedrívengem. = Each of you will be held accountable for your own actions.
  • ál = all, every
  • byþe, byþem, byþer = both
  • álþing, álmán = everything, everyone
  • kniét, kniétfilьk = some (non-specific)
  • kniétfat, kniétfor, kniétfár... = something, someone, somewhere (non-specific) [< *ik ne wait hwat 'I don't know what' etc.]
  • jeþich = some (specific)
  • jeþfat, jeþmán, ... = something, someone (specific)
  • nýþing, nýmán = nothing, no one

Adpositions

Prepositions taking both the dative and the accusative

When governing the dative, these prepositions indicate location; when governing the accusative they indicate destination.

  • afte = after
  • án = (high register) on, upon; to, unto
  • biefur = before, in front of
  • yr = before (temporally)
  • at = at
  • in = in
    • in þem > im
  • siúþen = after
  • uvier = over
  • up = on
  • út = outside of, out of

Prepositions taking the accusative

  • furь = for
  • gaszt = towards
  • sunder = without
  • þruch = through
  • um = around
  • viþ = against

Prepositions taking the dative

  • av = off, from
  • = of, at, in, also used like German bei to indicate 'at someone's place'
  • mid (pronounced mi before þ) = with
    • mid þem > mim
  • ta = to
    • ta + þem, þier > tam, tar
  • úter = except

Prepositions taking the genitive

  • atstad = instead of
  • saker = because of
  • fíl = during

Verbs

Verbs have undergone some simplifications. For example:

  • There is one set of personal endings for both thematic and athematic verbs.
  • The past subjunctive has disappeared as a distinct form except viárie 'were, would be' and żenie 'would'. Modal verbs often use the past form for the past subjunctive.

Weak verbs

For the past dental suffix -ti- is added if the stem ends in a voiceless consonant (other than t(i) or d(i)); -edi- is added if the stem ends in a t(i) or d(i) or a hard consonant other than k, g, ch; -di- is added otherwise. Past participles are similar, with -d or -t.

Hard weak
lióven 'to love'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present indicative lióve lióver lióveþ lióvem lióveþ lióvenь
subjunctive lióve lióver lióve lióvem lióveþ lióvenь
past lióvedie lióvedie lióvedie lióvediem lióvedieþ lióvedienь
imperative - lióv! / lióve! - - lióveþ! -
present participle lióvend
past participle lióved

Other examples: maken 'make', lirnen 'learn'

Soft weak
varmien 'to warm'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present indicative varmie varmier varmieþ varmiem varmieþ varmienь
subjunctive varmie varmier varmie varmiem varmieþ varmienь
past varmiedie varmiedie varmiedie varmiediem varmiedieþ varmiedienь
imperative - varmь! / varmie! - - varmieþ! -
present participle varmiend
past participle varmied

Other examples: orvydien 'work'; hórien 'hear'; lyrien 'teach'; sażen 'say'; ertalien 'tell, recount'; ránien 'execute, set into motion'; bránien 'burn (transitive)'; lażen 'lay'; vunszen 'wish'

Some verbs with velar/palatal stems, e.g. brinżen, bráchtie, brácht 'bring'; bużen, buchtie, bucht 'buy'; þanczen, þáchtie, þácht - 'think' form a small subclass of soft stem thematic verbs.

Strong verbs

Broad/slender messed up strong verbs a bit.

Strong class 1
bíten 'to bite'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present bíte bítier bítieþ bítem bíteþ bítenь
subjunctive bíte bíter bíte bítem bíteþ bítenь
past bit bit bit bitem biteþ bitenь
imperative - bítь! / bítie! - - bíteþ! -
present participle bítend
past participle biten

Also: színen, szin, szinen 'shine', dríven, driv, driven 'act', klíven, kliv, kliven 'stick, cling', smíten, smit, smiten 'kill', vríten, vrit, vriten 'write', vríþen, vriþ, vriþen 'weave'.

Strong class 2
czúzen 'to choose'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present czúze czúzier czúzieþ czúzem czúzeþ czúzenь
subjunctive czúze czúzer czúze czúzem czúzeþ czúzenь
past czór czór czór czórem czóreþ czórenь
imperative - czúzь! / czúzie! - - czúzeþ! -
present participle czúzend
past participle czuren

Also: biúden, biód, biuden 'offer, bid', biúgen, bióg, biugen 'bow', fliúgen, flióg, fliugen 'fly', fliún, flió, flióen 'flee, escape', friúzen, friór, friuren 'freeze', liúzen, liór, liuren 'lose'

Strong class 3
binden 'to tie, to bind'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present binde bindier bindieþ bindem bindeþ bindenь
subjunctive binde binder binde bindem bindeþ bindenь
past biand biand biand biandem biandeþ biandenь
imperative - bindь! / bindie! - - bindeþ! -
present participle bindend
past participle biunden

Also: bieżinen, bieżan, bieżunen 'begin'; briénen, brián, briónen 'burn (intransitive)'; drinken, driank, driunken 'drink'; finden, fiand, fiunden 'find'; grinden, griand, griunden 'grind'; riénen, rián, riónen 'flow, run'; springen, spriang, spriungen 'jump, burst, explode'; simben, siamb, siumben 'sing'; þrimben, þriamb, þriumben 'compel'.

Strong class 4

In Thedish, Proto-Germanic class 3b strong verbs have merged with class 4 strong verbs.

biaren 'to carry, to give birth'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present biare bierier bierieþ biarem biareþ biarenь
subjunctive biare biarer biare biarem biarþ biarenь
past biár biár biár biárem biárþ biárenь
imperative - bierь! / bierie! - - biareþ! -
present participle biarend
past participle biuren

Also: briaken, briák, briuken 'break', niamen, niám, niumen 'take', piamen, piám, piumen 'come', driasken, driásk, driusken 'thresh', stiarven, stiárv, stiurven 'long (for)', sviaren, sviár, sviuren 'swear', viarpen, viárp, viurpen 'throw', biangen, biáng, biungen 'to fear'

Strong class 5

Strong class 5 merges completely with strong class 6. The only difference is the softness of the initial consonant.

żaven 'to give'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present żave żevier żevieþ żavem żaveþ żavenь
subjunctive żave żaver żave żavem żaveþ żavenь
past żáv żáv żáv żávem żáveþ żávenь
imperative - żevь! / żevie! - - żaveþ! -
present participle żavend
past participle żaven

Also: driapen, driáp, driapen 'hit', ferżaten, ferżát, ferżaten 'forget', liazen, liáz, liazen 'read', jaten, ját, jaten 'eat'. The verb sión, siáv, sión 'see' is irregular. There are also the j-present verbs bidien, biád, biaden 'beg, pray', lieżen, liág, liagen 'lie'

Strong class 6
graven 'to dig'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present grave gravier gravieþ gravem graveþ gravenь
subjunctive grave graver grave gravem graveþ gravenь
past gráv gráv gráv grávem gráveþ grávenь
imperative - gravь! / gravie! - - graveþ! -
present participle gravend
past participle graven

Also: slagen, slág, slagen 'to beat, to hit', standen, stánd, standen 'stand', vaksen, váks, vaksen 'grow', vasken, vásk, vasken 'wash'.

Strong class 7

halden, hyld, halden - to hold

fálen, fyl, fálen - to fall

liáten, lít, liáten - to let

sliápen, slíp, sliápen - to sleep

biegrán, biegry, biegrán - to become

Preterite-present verbs

viten 'to know'
viten 'to know'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present vyt vyt vyt vitem viteþ vitenь
subjunctive vite viter vite vitem viteþ vitenь
past vistie vistie vistie vistiem vistieþ vistienь
imperative - vyt! / vyte! - - viteþ! -
present participle vitend
past participle vist
kónen 'can, be able to'
kónen 'can'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present kán kán kán kónem kóneþ kónenь
subjunctive kóne kóner kóne kónem kóneþ kónenь
past kóndie kóndie kóndie kóndiem kóndieþ kóndienь

Similarly skólen 'shall' (skóldь 'should')

þurven 'to have to'
þurven 'to have to'
Tempus ik þú er/sí bír úr
present þarv þarv þarv þurvem þurveþ þurvenь
subjunctive þurve þurver þurve þurvem þurveþ þurvenь
past þurvdie þurvdie þurvdie þurvdiem þurvdieþ þurvdienь
dóren 'dare'
dóren 'dare'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present dóre dórer dóreþ dórem dóreþ dórenь
subjunctive dóre dórer dóre dórem dóreþ dórenь
past durstie durstie durstie durstiem durstieþ durstienь

The present has regularized. The past/conditional tense is still irregular from common use:

  • Fí durstie þú... = How dare you...
  • Ik durstь yncz erbaren þí anfer. = I wouldn't dare reveal the answer.
mogen 'may, have a possibility of'
mogen 'have a possibility of'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present mag mag mag mogem mogeþ mogenь
subjunctive moge moger moge mogem mogeþ mogenь
past mochtie mochtie mochtie mochtiem mochtieþ mochtienь

The subjunctive of mogen is used for wishes like English may:

  • Moge unsier land niamen víszt mid horielózem rícznesem = May our country be blessed with boundless riches
máten 'be permitted to'
máten 'be permitted to'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present mát mát mát mátem máteþ mátenь
subjunctive máte máter máte mátem máteþ mátenь
past mástie mástie mástie mástiem mástieþ mástienь
vín 'want'
vín 'want'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present vím víþ vínь
subjunctive vilie vilier vilie viliem vilieþ vilienь
past vildie vildie vildie vildiem vildieþ vildienь

Other irregular verbs

bión 'be'
bión 'to be'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present jém jér isь sim siþ sinь
subjunctive bió biór bió bióm bióþ biónь
past vaz vast vaz viárem viáreþ viárenь
past subjunctive viárie viárie viárie viáriem viárieþ viárienь
imperative - bió! - - bióþ! -
present participle biónd
past participle viáren
dán 'do'
dán 'to do'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present dár dáþ dám dáþ dánь
subjunctive dár dám dáþ dánь
past dié diést dié diém diéþ diénь
imperative - dá! - - dáþ! -
present participle dánd
past participle dán
gán 'go, (future tense auxiliary)'
gán 'to go, (future tense auxiliary)'
tense ik þú er/sí bír úr
present gár gáþ gám gáþ gánь
subjunctive gár gám gáþ gánь
past indicative żang żang żang żangem żangeþ żangenь
past subjunctive1 żenie żenie żenie żeniem żenieþ żenienь
imperative - gá! - - gáþ! -
present participle gánd
past participle żangen

1 Grammaticalized as a counterfactual marker.

Also: fán, fiang, fiangen - to get, to obtain

Syntax

Thedish word order is V2 but is more similar to Icelandic than German.

Fanь ik vakse up, ví ik biegrán ne lyriernie.
When I grow up, I want to become a teacher.

Negation

The negative particle is yncz and is used like negative particles in typical Germanic languages.

Drincz yncz þe vatie, er isь fúl!
Don't drink the water, it's dirty!

Possession

Usually the genitive is placed after the noun: þí żáve míns fadiers 'my father's gift', but genitive before noun is acceptable too when the noun is definite and animate: míns fadiers żáve.

For predicative possession Thedish, in addition to using hán 'to have' like other Germanic languages, can use a construction similar to Irish: Et sinь at mír tvy sunie. "I have two sons." (lit. There are two sons at me, like Irish Tá dhá mhac agam)

Passive

The passive can be formed by using either piamen 'to come' or niamen 'to take', followed by the past participle of the verb. The two choices of auxiliary are in free variation.

For example, Þe káke piám jaten. or Þe káke niám jaten. means 'The cake was eaten.'

Or, one may use the impersonal pronoun sum as the subject. This is used when the object is behind a preposition and hence the verb cannot be passivized.

Simple tenses

Simple present

The simple present denotes habitual actions or generally true facts, like the English simple present.

Ik biange mik av nadrem.
I'm afraid of snakes.

Simple past

The simple past is like the English simple past.

Subjunctive

The subjunctive is used in subjunctive clauses specifying a wish or a requirement.

Ik ví þat er blyve mid mír.
I want him to stay with me.

Imperative

Exactly what it says on the tin.

Compound tenses

Progressive

Progressive tenses denote ongoing actions. An Irish-like construction is used: the auxiliary bión is used (which carries the tense), and the lexical verb becomes at 'at' + infinitive. In formal Thedish, the direct object of the verb takes the genitive.

  • Ik jém at jaten þe apel. "I am eating the apple."
  • Þe hund vaz at þróten jan. "The dog was threatening him."

Perfect

The perfect is used like the English perfect; it uses the auxiliary hán + past participle.

  • Ik há jaten þe apel. "I have eaten the apple."

Future

Clauses

Conjunctions

  • ok = and
  • = or
  • nierь = but
  • þóch = although
  • fanь = when
  • þá, als (literary) = when
  • ydier... oþ... = either... or...
  • niádier... nok... = neither... nor...
  • saker = because
  • þat = that (can be used with moge + infinitive (present) or mochtь + infinitive (past) for purpose clauses)
    • Ik biesmulte et, þat anþere mogen ferstanden. = 'I'm explaining it so that others may understand.'
    • Ik biesmultedie et, þat anþere mochtien ferstanden. = 'I explained it so that others might understand.'
  • iv = if (used for conditions that could be true)
  • sadь = if (used for counterfactual conditions)
  • þánь = then
  • nisь = than
  • þus = so, thus
  • als = as
  • sáls = like
  • alsá = thus, therefore

Relative clauses

Thedish relative clauses use the relativizer þat, and a resumptive pronoun when the head is in an oblique argument.

The þár- words are used for prepositional objects that are inanimates; the personal pronouns are used for animates.

  • Þí piane þat ik żáv jar fáde þankedie mir. = 'The woman I gave food to thanked me.' (lit. the woman that I gave her food)
    • Or: Þí piane jar ik żáv fáde þankedie mir.
  • þe urd þat ik rián þárav or þe urd þárav ik rián = 'the place I ran from'

Inverted "if" clause

Like in German. In formal Thedish, the verb, if in present tense, is put in the subjunctive.

Exclamatory inversion

Brá, isь sianyrьsk ogel!
Boy, is Old Irish complicated!

Numbers

0-10: siúver, yn, tvy, þrí, fiór, finf, siaks, siém, acht, nión, tién /sɨ:r, ɨːn, tvɨː, θʲrʲiː, fʲoːr, fʲɪnf, sʲaks, sʲe:m, axt, nʲoːn, tʲeːn/

11-19: ylьf, tvalьf, þrítién, fiórъtién, finfъtién, siaksъtién, siefъtién, achtién, nióntién /ɨːlʲɪf, tvalʲɪf, θʲrʲiːtʲeːn, fʲoːrtʲeːn, fʲɪnftʲeːn, sʲakstʲeːn, sʲɛftʲeːn, axtʲeːn, nʲoːnʲtʲeːn/

20-90: tvyntich, þrítich, ... achtich, nióntich /tvɨːnʲtʲɪx, etc./

21, 22, ...: yn-án-tvyntich, tvy-án-tvyntich, ...

100: hunderþ /hʊndərθ/

Ordinal numbers are formed with -te or -þe (weak declension): siúverþe, yrste, tvyþe, þridie, fiórþe, finfþe, ...

Plural numerals tvy, þrí, fiór, ... have genitive forms tvyer, þríer, fiórer, .... Formal Thedish may use the dative forms tvym, þríem, fiórem, ....

Vocabulary

A sentence made entirely of Celtic vocabulary (except function words and prefixes):

Þe druke map isь at ferbytren þe móre ave. = the bad boy is crossing the big river.

Derivational morphology

  • -ъ- is often used in compound words.
  • bie-: "be-", forms applicatives
  • -bier: '-able'
  • -czen (m): diminutive
    • þe kotczen 'kitten' < þe kot 'cat'
  • -dám (m): "-dom"
    • kuniengdám = kingdom
    • þe júdendám = Judaism
  • end-: 'de-, dis-'
    • endyren: 'dishonor'
  • er-: telic
  • fer-: "for-"
  • fur-: "fore-"
  • -fól: "-ful"
    • fóliefól: "complete" < fólie 'fullness; fill'
  • ge-: intensifies a verb or derives an adverb; collective nouns
    • A false example: geliór ('galore', from Irish go leor)
  • -hyd /-iːd/: -ness, -hood
    • sialvhyd: 'identity'
  • -ich: "-y"; forms adjectives of the form '[adj]-[noun]ed'
    • ynóżich: 'one-eyed' < yn 'one' + óge 'eye'
    • kaldhiertich: 'coldhearted'
  • -iel: forms nouns
    • þe lapiel: 'spoon'
    • þe katiel: 'kettle'
  • -izen: "-ize", from PGmc -isōną
  • -elen: "-le", German -eln (frequentative verbs)
  • -lóz: "-less"
    • andielóz: 'endless' < þe andie 'end'
  • -ling (m): "-ling"
  • -lik: "-ly"; forms adjectives from noun
    • dażlik 'daily' < þe dag 'day'
    • vurdlik 'literal' < þe vurd 'word'
  • mis-: "mis-"
    • misdiád: "misdeed, misdemeanor"
  • -nes (f; pl. -nesier): forms nouns from verbs
  • -nie: feminine suffix
    • þí lyriernie 'teacher (female)' < þe lyrierь 'teacher'
    • þí fuksnie 'vixen' < þe fuks 'fox'
  • sam-: equi-, con-, together
  • -sam: "-some"
    • ynsam 'lonely' < yn 'one'
    • gefiársam 'dangerous' < þí gefiár 'danger'
    • vysam 'woeful' < þe vy 'woe'
  • -sk: "-ish"
  • -skapie: "-ship", forms collective nouns for groups of people
    • simbskapie = chorus
  • tier-: German zer-
  • tví-: "twi-"
  • un-: "un-" (negation or opposite)
    • þí unróe 'unrest, unease'
  • ur-
    • þe urdylь 'decision' < dylь 'part'
  • -eng/-ieng: forms nouns from verbs
    • þí sriáleng 'radiation' < sriálen 'shine, radiate'
    • þí hytieng 'heating' < hytien 'to heat'
  • -lív = -ery, -erei

Phrasebook

  • Hyl! = 'Hello!'
    • Hyl þir! = 'Hello!' (informal AND to one person)
    • Hyl ú! = 'Hello!' (formal OR to more than one person)
  • Gáde murgen/dag/jévend/nachtie! = 'Good morning/afternoon/evening/night!'
  • Vilьpiumen! = 'Welcome!'
  • ónetú (formal OR to more than one person) / óneþir (informal AND to one person) = 'please' (lit. may it please you/if it pleases you)
  • Þank! = 'Thank you!'
  • Rió isь mir. = 'I'm sorry.'
  • Rió'sь. = 'Sorry.'
  • Fí hyteþ úr? = 'What is your name?'
  • Ik hyte ... = 'My name is ...'
  • Fanьs piameþ úr? = 'Where are you from?'
  • Ik piame av... = 'I'm from ...'
    • Angland. = 'England'.
    • Þiúskland. = 'Thedeland.'
    • Yreland. = 'Ireland.'
    • Kamberland. = 'Wales.'
  • Spriakeþ ú ... = 'Do you speak ...'
    • ... angelьsk? = '... English?'
    • ... jélienьsk? = '... Greek?'
    • ... árebьsk? = Arabic?
    • ... valьsk? = '... Medh Chêl?'
    • ... karniesk? = Cornish?
    • ... tiurьsk? = '... Türiit?'
  • Já. = 'Yes.'
    • Já, úr máteþ. = 'Yes, you may.'
  • Ny. = 'No.'
  • Ik spriake yncz þiúsk. = 'I can't speak Þiúsk.'
  • Mát ik ú þúten? = 'May I address you informally (i.e. using þú)?'
  • Isь þat sanþ? = 'Is that true?'
  • Óneþ ú... / Ónenь ú... = 'Do you like...'
  • mír óneþ... / mír ónenь... = 'I like...'
  • mír żenie ónen... = 'I would like...'
  • Míne hond isь in varmenь vatienь. = My hand is in warm water.
  • Mín stiúl isь in míner hond. = My pen is in my hand.
  • mín druchtien/míne fróje = sir/miss (polite way to address strangers)

Names

TODO: P-Celtic, Greek and Hebrew names

  • Biarhard (m.) ("bear-hard"; ~ Bernard)
  • Gardie (f.) (~ Gerðr)
  • Gyr- ("spear")
    • Gyrhard (~ Gerhard)
    • Gyrnod (~ Gernot)
    • Gyrъhildь (~ Gerhilde)
  • Hazel /hazəɫ/ (f.) ("hazel")
  • Hildie /çɪlʲdʲə/, -hildь (f.) (< hildiz "battle")
  • Kól (m.) (From a Celtic word for "hazel")
  • Machtildь (f.) ("mighty in battle"; ~ Matilda, Mechthild)
  • Onlyv (m.) (~ Olaf)
  • Priten (m.) (~ Brittany)
  • Sanþie /ˈsanθʲə/ (f.) ("truth")
  • Siag- ("victory")
    • Siagfriuþ, Siaghildь, ...
  • Svyn /svɨːn/ (m.) (*swainaz "servant"; ~ Sveinn/Sven)
  • Þuner (m.) (*Þunraz)
  • Váden /vaːdən/ (m.) (~ Odin)
  • Vulf /vʊɫəf/ (m.)

Days of the week

  • miándag = Monday
  • tiúsdag = Tuesday
  • vánsdag = Wednesday
  • þórsdag = Thursday
  • frídag = Friday
  • lórdag = Saturday
  • sóndag = Sunday

Elements

Elements are masculine.

  • vatiestuf = hydrogen
  • heli = helium
  • liþi = lithium
  • palьstuf = nitrogen
  • súrstuf = oxygen
  • natri = sodium
  • liúchtiestuf = phosphorus
  • sviál = sulfur
  • yriene = copper
  • siulver = silver
  • tin = tin
  • fítgulþ = platinum
  • gulþ = gold
  • piksiulver = mercury (element)
  • bliú = lead

Sample texts

Featured language banner

Þiz spriakmál vaz ynst furrichtied.
This language was once featured.
Þank jazer upmiáter pojotiáter, fínhyder ok davlikhyder geczór sum ta furrichtien jan.
Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage features, it has been voted as featured.

VENI, VIDI, VICI

Ik piám, ik só, ik siagdie.
I came, I saw, I conquered.

UDHR, Article 1

Álgemynie Útriádeng þier Manьskenánriachten
Útgliþ 1
Ále mánьsken sinь buren frí ok javen án vurþie ok ánriachtem. Sí sinь bieżávd mid ferstand ok riachtkánie ok þurven biedríven yn gaszt niávьste im andenь bráþierhyder.
[ˈɑːɫə ˈmɑːnʲskən sʲɪnʲ ˈbʊɾən fʲɾʲiː ək ˈjavən ɑ:n ˈvuɾʲθʲɪ k ˈɑ:nʲɾʲaxtəm || sʲiː sʲɪnʲ bʲɪˈdʒɑːvd mʲɪd fərˈstand ək rʲaxtkɑːnʲə | ək ˈθˠʊɾəvən bʲɪˈdʲɾʲiːvən iːn gaʃt ˈnʲɑːfʲstə jɪn andə ˈbrɑːθʲɪɾiːdəɾ]
All human beings are free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Schleicher's Fable

Þe száp ok þí ruse

A száp sunder vóle siáv ruse: yn at tiúchen a þunge vage, yn at biaren ne móre lost, ok yn at snióm biaren a mánьsk. Þe száp sażdie þím rusem: "Þe hiarte isь mir syr, fanь ik sióe a mánьsk at dríven ruse án." Þí ruse sażdienь: "Lusnie, száp, þe hiarte isь unsь syr saker þiz hám bír sióen: a mánьsk, þe druchtien, makeþ sir a varme klyþ út þier szápen vóle, ok þe száp háþ niót vóle myr." Als þe száp hóriedie þiz, flióch er þruch þí miédve.

Gettysburg Address

Achtich-sieven járe isь et, after unsьre fadrie gebarenь án þizem jarþedylie a niúe þióde, tiúszt in fríhyd, ok ervíszt þier belóvnes þat ale manьsken sinь skafen javen.

Mín fadierland isь míne arm'

National anthem of Thedeland

Mín fadierland isь míne arm',
Jam ik mín hiarte żav',
...