Thurish

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Thurish /ˈθɚrɪʃ/ THER-ish (natively þawrysko, þawrysk gwered /θəwˈrɨsk gwered/ or more formally þawrysk wordrad; þawrysk is cognate to Russian север 'north') is a Balto-Slavic language spoken in our Norway and Sweden (its speakers are called "the Thurs" in English). It evolved in a sprachbund with English, Brythonic languages and Hivatish. It's the most spoken Balto-Slavic language in the Unbegotten timeline. It has some non-SAE features, such as split-ergativity (conditioned by tense as in Hindi).

Thurish is a stem-Slavic language, meaning that it is descended from a dialect of early Proto-Slavic but not Common Slavic. Some palatalization had already occurred by Proto-Thurish (meaning the stage immediately after the hypothetical split from our Slavic) but later sound changes turned the palatalized consonants into geminates or "Greekified" them (lj > ľľ > ɬ; nj > ňň > jn; śj, tj > śś, ćć > θ, etc.).

Thurish has lost the Balto-Slavic pitch accent system. Some vowel reflexes differ by accent; the PBS acute makes vowels RTR and thus has RTR-like effects on vowels (i > e, u > o, a > o in some cases; lack of acute conditions aR > eR). Stress is weakly final.

It is inspired by Welsh, Greek, and Hebrew.

PBS *dōra, *źemē, *waljā, *źwēris > *dōrə, *źemmē₁, *wallā, *ẑē₁rɨ > duar, jemne, gwəllo, ghieră /duər, jɛmnɛ, gwəɬɔ, ʀiərɨ/ "gift, earth, pleasure, animal"

dear? dêr? = tree (derwan > *dē₂r)

  • dʰer-mos > dermas 'is suitable' > derm "good" (~ firmus, dharma)

Ăh gworðon þawryske derm /əx gwɐr'ðɔn θəwrɨs'kɛ 'dɛrɛm/ = I speak Thurish well

giwiþ = to live

TODO: Russian/Hebrew-esque vowel reduction

Phonology

Voiceless stops are aspirated; historical voiced stops may be devoiced

Declension

Warhinysko has 5 cases: nominative, accusative, oblique-ergative, genitive, and vocative. The oblique-ergative was formed from a merger of the PBS dative, instrumental and locative cases.

Thurish has lost IE grammatical gender. However, like in Slavic languages, there is an animacy distinction: the accusative case is the same as the genitive for animate nouns and the same as the nominative for inanimate nouns.

  • Llawbdon mina jenos = I love my wife (animate)
  • Llawbdon min wordrad = I love my language (inanimate)

o-stem declension

gwylek = wolf guolo = head morr /mor̥/ = sea
singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative gwylek gwylke guolo guolos morr morre
Genitive gwylka gwylku guolos guolu morra morru
Accusative gwylka gwylku guolo guolos morr morre
Oblique-Ergative gwylki gwylkăn guole guolon morri morrăn
Vocative gwylky! gwylke! guolă! guolos! morry! morre!

Segolates

"Segolates" come from PBS CVCC- stem nouns. Some segolates (the ones that have fixed accent in PBS) do not change their stems in the plural.

gwéren = raven gwarnó = crow
singular plural singular plural
Nominative gwéren gwrané gwarnó gwarnós
Genitive gwerná gwranú gwarnós gwarnú
Accusative gwerná gwranú gwarnós gwarnú
Oblique-Ergative gwerní gwranán gwarné gwarnón
Vocative gwerný! gwrané! gwarná! gwarnós!

i-stem declension

u-stem declension

ma-declension

gwerrma = time (m.) karma = punishment (m.)
singular plural singular plural
Nominative gwerrma gwerrmyno karma karmyno
Genitive gwerrmyn gwerrmynu karmyn karmynu
Accusative gwerrma gwerrmyno karma karmyno
Oblique-Ergative gwerrmyni gwerrmynăn karmyni karmynăn
Vocative gwerrma! gwerrmyno! karma! karmyno!

(karma is the in-universe source of English karma; it began as a slang term borrowed from Thurish immigrants.)

Pronouns

case 1sg. 2sg. (familiar) 3sg. 1pl. 2pl., polite 3pl. refl.
he she it
nom. ăh tu săn so tăt mus wus se -
acc. myna twa ja jo tăt năs wăs jus swa
gen. myn, possessive min tyw, possessive tin ja jos ta nah wah juh syw, possessive sin
obl. myni twi jam je tam nan wan jun swi

Verbs

Thurish has three different regular verb paradigms:

  • -oþ verbs (merger of Lithuanian -oti, PS -ati and Lithuanian -ėti, PS -ěti; verbs that come from -ēʔtei become Greekified); e.g. jynoþ 'to know' (~ Pol. znać, Lith. žinoti); uðoþ 'to move' (~ Lith. judėti); ustêtoþ 'to result (from)' (~ Lith. tekėti)
  • -iþ verbs (~ Lithuanian -yti, PS -iti); e.g. ărbiþ 'to work'; gwardiþ 'to speak'
  • or -t verbs (~ Lithuanian -ti, PS -ti); e.g. nest, neþ- 'to carry'

agreement of the participle is with the direct object, unless the object is 1st or 2nd person in which case it's just "hymt es"

jynoþ 'to know':

  • Present tense: jynon, jynoh, jyno, jynom, jynoty, jynosaws
  • Present participle: jynos (sg), jynosi (pl)
  • Past participle: jynot (sg), jynote (pl)
    • Past tense: jynot es, jynote sos
  • Future tense: jynos bûsu, jynos bûs, jynos bus, jynosi bûsăm, jynosi bûsty, jynosi bus
  • Imperative: jynonu! (sg), jynoþnu! (pl)

llawbiþ 'to love':

  • Present tense: llawbdon, llawbih, llawbi, llawbim, llawbity, llawbdosaws
  • Present participle: llawbdos (sg), llawbdosi (pl)
  • Past participle: llawbit (sg), llawbite (pl)
    • Past tense: llawbit es, llawbite saws
  • Future tense: llawbdos bûsu, llawbdos bûs, llawbdos bus, llawbdosi bûsăm, llawbdosi bûsty, llawbdosi bus
  • Imperative: llawbnu! (sg), llawbiþnu! (pl)

(Some -iþ verbs undergo stem changes in some forms: b p d t h g k l r m n w > bd pt ð þ þ d t ll rr mn nn j


Conjugation of beroþ 'to give birth' (irregular):

  • Present tense: berăn, berăh, ber, berăm, berăty, beras
  • Past tense (suppletive, from *eḱs + imti, also split ergative): hymt es, hymte es

Sample text

UDHR

make vocab less slavic

Wyse llawðe sy răðis sobyne i arwyne yn sne gădynaþi i 'n snăn tiestwăn. Saws se yndărote su arrumi i săwesti i saws winyne păstămpoþ nopăr inin yn dawsi broþărtwa.

/wɨˈsɛ ɬəwˈðɛ sɨ rəˈðis sobɨˈnɛ i arʊɨˈnɛ ɨn snɛ gədɨnaˈθi i‿n snən tiəstˈwən. səws sɛ ɨndərɔˈtɛ su ar̥ʊˈmi i səwɛsˈti i səws winɨˈnɛ pəstəmˈpɔθ ˈnɔpər inˈin ɨn dəwˈsi broθərˈtwa./