User:IlL/Allemañisch

From Linguifex
Jump to: navigation, search

Wortebouch (Lexicon)
IlL/Allemañisch/Swadesh list

IlL/Allemañisch (d'allemañische Sprâçe /d‿al.me.ɲis p˭jaʊs/ or d'Allemañisch) is a High German language spoken in Lõis's Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria. It is inspired by Burmese and French.

Numbers: ein, zwei, drî, feaur, finf, sechs, siben, acht, neun, zên /eɪ̯ŋ, θwe, zi, føː, fiːf, seː, sə.bu, aɪ̯ʔ, nyŋ, θaɪŋ/

Final stops become glottal stops after a vowel, vanish otherwise

Todo

Some sentences:

  • Ich spreche fon de Leaube und de Haz. [əx p˭jɛx fu də løb un də has]
  • Ist'z daz du behaltes ez fur mir ? [it˭as t˭u bəhaltʰ əs fy mi]
  • Wir leaubons him, darum wir fîrons sîn Inwîung. [wi løbu hiŋ dɔjuŋ wi fiju siŋ iŋwijuŋ]
  • Ez git an mir Hunger. [əs k˭ət am mi huŋi]
  • Hwaz ist'z daz ez ? [w̥að itað əs] "What is it?"

Sound changes:

  • "pin-pen merger" (to /i/) before final weakening

Some words:

  • de Deaumout /døy.moʊʔ/ = meekness, humility, submission
    • deaumoutig /døy.moʊ.ti/ = meek, humble
  • de Hnacken /n̊a.k˭u/ = neck
  • nein /neɪŋ/ = no; neau /nø/ = not
  • denken /diŋ.kʰu/ = think
  • de Stein /t˭eɪŋ/ = stone
  • de Schlange /l̥aŋ/ = snake
  • de Himel /hi.məl/ = sky
  • d'Eauligheit /ø.li.kʰeɪʔ/ = eternity
    • eaulig /ø.li/ = eternal
  • driñ /zi/ = in (preposition)
  • de Schneau = snow

Phonology

Unusually for an L-European language, IlL/Allemañisch has phonemic voiceless nasals and resonants. Also unusual is the aspirated sibilant /sʰ/ (written sch or tr).

Orthography

Cl = /Cw/?

r = /j/; kr, gr = /tɕ, dʑ/; k, g, ch + front vowel = /s, z, s/; ch = /x/

s = /s/; z = /θ/; sch/tr = /sʰ/; str = /tɕ˭/; dr = /z/

(sc)hm, (sc)hn, (sc)hl, (sc)hr /m̥, n̥, l̥, ʃ/

  • dez Hlauz /l̥aʊs/ = lot, fate

a = /a/, â = /aʊ/, âr = /aɪ/, au, aun, ou = /o~oʊ/

e = /ɛ/ (/ə/ in unstressed syllables), ê = /aɪ/, eau, eaun = /ø/

eu = /y/

é, en, én = /e~eɪ/

i = /ə/

î, in = /i/

u, un, an = /ɔ/

û = /u/

Consonants

IlL/Allemañisch consonants
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal voiceless /m̊/ /n̊/
voiced /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/
Stop plain /pʰ/ /tʰ/ /tɕʰ/ /kʰ/ /ʔ/
tense /p˭/ /t˭/ /tɕ˭/ /k˭/
voiced /b/ /d/ /d͡ʑ/ /g/
Fricative voiceless /f/ /θ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /h/
voiced [v] [ð] /z/
aspirated /sʰ/
Approximant voiceless /w̥/ /l̥/
voiced /w/ /l/ /j/
  • /h/ may be written as either h or ch; it is pronounced [x] after consonants.

Vowels

vowels: /a ə i u y ɔ~aʊ ɛ~aɪ e~eɪ o~oʊ ø~øy/, ~ denotes alternation.

The Allemañisch alternation is conditioned by the following rule:

  • diphthongs before /ʔ, s, ŋ/ OR before nasals
  • monophthongs otherwise?

The alternants are marginally phonemic, e.g. before consonants that don't alternate like /l, h/.

It originally came from the rule "diphthongs in closed syllables, monophthongs in open syllables" (plus diphthongization before /n, s/). This alternation operates after r, -nj > j and attendant vowel coloring.

Prosody

Stress

Intonation

Phonotactics

Morphophonology

Liaison

Alternations upon suffixation

Morphology

Nouns

Indefinite article:

  • a/n', az, et /ə~n‿, əs~ə.ð‿, əʔ~ə.tʰ‿-/ (c.sg., n.sg., pl)

a is used before consonants, n' before vowels

Definite article:

  • de/d', dez, deu /d(ə), dəs~də.ð‿, dy/ (c.sg., n.sg., pl.)

Common nouns: -0/-e, -er

  • de Frau, deu Frauer /də fjo, dy fjoji/ 'woman'
  • de Hrabe, deu Hraber /də ʃap, dy ʃabi/ 'raven'

Neuter nouns: -0, -e

  • dez Kind, deu Kinde /də siŋʔ, dy sint/ 'child'

Neuter n-stem nouns: -e, -en

  • dez Name, deu Namen /dəs nam, dy namu/ 'name'

Adjectives

Adjectives: predicative -0, attributive -e

  • Er stark. /e t˭ajʔ/ 'He is strong.' (cf. Venetian Hebrew spoken in the vicinity.)
  • a starke Mañ /ə t˭ɛk me/ 'a strong man'

Verbs

Like Yiddish, Allemañisch uses past participles instead of simple past forms in the past tense; however the auxiliary sîn was lost unlike in our timeline's German or Yiddish.

Infinitive:

  • machen /maxu/

Imperative:

  • mache ! /max/ 'do!' [no number distinction]
  • machons-wir ! /maxuwi/ 'let's do!'

Present simple:

  • ich mache /əx max/
  • du maches /du max/
  • er/seu/ez machet /eː max/
  • wir machons /wiː maxu/
  • irl machet /il max/
  • deul machent /dyl max/

Present progressive:

  • ich bî machen
  • du bî machen
  • er bî machen
  • wir bî machen
  • irl bî machen
  • deul bî machen

Past:

  • ich ha gemachet /əx hagəmax/
  • du has gemachet /du hak˭əmax/
  • er/seu/ez hat gemachet /eː hak˭əmax/
  • wir hans gemachet /wiː hɔŋəmax/
  • irl hat gemachet /il hak˭əmax/
  • deul hant gemachet /dyl hɔŋəmax/

Future tense:

  • ich will machen, du willt machen, ...

Question marker: ist'z daz = /it˭as/ (e.g. Ist'z daz du leaubes mir ? /it˭as t˭u løp mi/ 'Do you love me?')

Inversion for questions is allowed for pronominal subjects only: e.g. Leaubes-du mir ? /løp t˭u mi/

  • leaube-ich /løbəx/
  • leaubes-du /løpt˭u/
  • leaubet-er /løpte/, leaubet-eu /løpty/, leaubet-ez /løptis/
  • leaubons-wir /løbuwi/
  • leaubet-irl /løptil/
  • leaubent-deul /løpt˭yl/

The past tense auxiliary han is inverted as follows:

  • habe-ich /habəx/ (different from uninverted form ich ha)
  • has-du /hat˭u/
  • hat-er /hate/, hat-eu /haty/, hat-ez /hatis/
  • hans-wir /hɔŋwi/
  • hat-irl /hatil/
  • hant-deul /hɔndyl/

The verb nêmen 'to take' is used as a passive auxiliary:

  • ich nême /əx nɛm/
  • du nimes /du nim/
  • er nimet /e nim/
  • wir nêmons /wi nɛmu/
  • irl nêmet /il nɛm/
  • deul nêment /dyl nɛm/

The past forms are ha genomet, has genomet, ... in the passive sense.

Class 1 strong verbs

Infinitive:

  • bîzen /bisu/ 'to bite'

Imperative:

  • bîze ! /bis/

Present simple:

  • ich bîze /əx p˭is/
  • du bîzes /du bis/
  • er/seu/ez bîzet /eː bis/
  • wir bîzons /wiː bisu/
  • irl bîzet /il bis/
  • deul bîzent /dyl bis/

Past:

  • ich ha gebizet /əx hagəbəs/
  • du has gebizet /du hak˭əbəs/
  • er/seu/ez hat gebizet /eː hak˭əbəs/
  • wir hans gebizet /wiː hɔŋəbəs/
  • irl hat gebizet /il hak˭əbəs/
  • deul hant gebizet /dyl hɔŋəbəs/

Class 2 strong verbs

Infinitive:

  • fleaugen /føgu/ 'to fly'

Imperative:

  • fleauge ! /føg/

Present simple:

  • ich fleauge /əx føg/
  • du fleauges /du føg/
  • er/seu/ez fleauget /eː føg/
  • wir fleaugons /wiː føgu/
  • irl fleauget /il føg/
  • deul fleaugent /dyl føg/

Past:

  • ich ha gefloget /əx hagəfɔg/
  • du has gefloget /du hak˭əfɔg/
  • er/seu/ez hat gefloget /eː hak˭əfɔg/
  • wir hans gefloget /wiː hɔŋəfɔg/
  • irl hat gefloget /il hak˭əfɔg/
  • deul hant gefloget /dyl hɔŋəfɔg/

Class 3 strong verbs

Infinitive:

  • trinken /tɕiŋku/ 'to drink'

Imperative:

  • trinke ! /tɕiŋk/

Present simple:

  • ich trinke /əx tɕiŋk/
  • du trinkes /du tɕiŋk/
  • er/seu/ez trinket /eː tɕiŋk/
  • wir trinkons /wiː tɕiŋku/
  • irl trinket /il tɕiŋk/
  • deul trinkent /dyl tɕiŋk/

Past:

  • ich ha getrunket /əx hagətɕuŋk/
  • du has getrunket /du hak˭ətɕuŋk/
  • er/seu/ez hat getrunket /eː hak˭ətɕuŋk/
  • wir hans getrunket /wiː hɔŋətɕuŋk/
  • irl hat getrunket /il hak˭ətɕuŋk/
  • deul hant getrunket /dyl hɔŋətɕuŋk/

Class 4 strong verbs

Infinitive:

  • sterben /t˭eːbu/ 'to die'

Imperative:

  • sterbe ! /t˭eːb/

Present simple:

  • ich sterbe
  • du sterbes (no stem vowel change unlike in German)
  • er/seu/ez sterbet
  • wir sterbons
  • irl sterbet
  • deul sterbent

Past:

  • ich ha gestorbet
  • du has gestorbet
  • er/seu/ez hat gestorbet
  • wir hans gestorbet
  • irl hat gestorbet
  • deul hant gestorbet

Copula

The copula is wesen in the infinitive. Inverted forms of the copula exist, but only for pronominal subjects.

Inverted copula:

  • em-ich = /eməx/
  • eres-du = /it˭u/
  • ist-er = /it˭e/
  • eront-wir = /ʊŋwi/
  • eret-irl = /it˭il/
  • sint-deul = /sindyl/

Past tense copula:

  • ich was
  • du wast
  • er was
  • wir wârons
  • irl wâret
  • deul wârent

Inverted:

  • was-ich /wasəx/
  • was-du /wast˭u/
  • was-er /wase/
  • wârons-wir /waɪwi/
  • wâret-irl /waɪjil/
  • wârent-deul /waɪndyl/

Pronouns

The personal pronouns are as follows:

(The 2pl and 3pl nominative forms irl and deul are etymologically from *ir alliu 'you all' and *diu alliu 'they all'.)

case 1sg. 2sg. 3sg. 1pl. 2pl. 3pl.
'he' 'she' 'it' (n.)
nom. ich
/əx/
du
/du/
er
/e/
seu
/sy/
ez
/is, əs/
wir
/wi/
irl
/il/
deul
/dyl/
obj. mir
/mi/
dir
/di/
im
/iŋ/
ir
/i/
uns
/us/
euch
/yx/
deim
/deɪŋ/
poss. mîn
/miŋ/
dîn
/diŋ/
sîn
/siŋ/
unser
/usi/
eucher
/yxi/
deir
/de/
  • In questions that use inversion, eu /y/ is used instead of seu.

mîn, dîn, sîn are inflected as follows:

  • sg. common mîn /miŋ~mi.n‿-/, sg. neuter mîz /mis~mi.ð‿-/, pl. mîne /min/

Syntax

IlL/Allemañisch is SVO (not V2) and zero-copula.

Negation

The negative particle neau /nø/ is placed after a verbal phrase but before a predicative adjective:

  • Ich haze dir neau. /əx haz di nø/ "I don't hate you."
  • Ez neau grauz genoug. /əs nø dʑoʊs gənoʊʔ/ "It's not big enough."

Constituent order

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

UDHR, Article 1

Alle Meñschen sint geboren frî und gelîch an Wirde und Rechte. Deul nêment begâben mit Verstand und Gewizen, und ûf deim zu benêmen an einander mit a Geist von Brouderligheit.

/al miŋsʰu siŋ gəboju fji un gəlix ɔŋ wiːd un jeɪt ‖ dyl nɛm bəgɔbu məʔ fit˭ɔŋd‿u gəwəðu | un uf deɪŋ θu bənɛmu ɔŋ enandi məʔ ə geɪʔ fu bjodilikʰeɪʔ/

Other resources