User:IlL/Bhadhagha

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IlL/Bhadhagha
an Snàchamh
Pronunciation [a snʰa:kʰamʰ]
Created by IlL, Praimhín
Setting Verse:Smøøh
Region Talma
Language family
Quihum
  • Talmic
    • Thensaric
      • Tigolic
        • IlL/Bhadhagha
Writing system Talmic script
ISO 639-3 qee


Snachian (native name (an) Snhàchamh /snʰa:kʰamʰ/, or bhò Snhàchamh) is a Talmic language spoken on the island nation Snàcha off northern Talma. It's inspired by Scottish Gaelic and Irish orthography.

Todo

  • Lanna [srasandhacht] de h-aofrann cheallò = I'm a specialist in cello playing
  • 's laobh = is there? (interrogative)
  • camhna, sos, car = woman, man, person
  • dèic (VN), deàmha (present tense, nonpronominal subject) = eat
  • construct state
  • get rid of /ŋ/
    • initial ŋ- > g-
    • non-initial single ŋ > n
    • non-initial geminate ŋŋ > ng
  • Tigol ae, ao > ao, ò
  • hÈarsamha fhìor am ghachan ri haongàlòin = The king approved the composer's work
  • Snachian ~ Naquian? *snakw- 'home, land, native'

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Lateral Velar Glottal
Nasal plain m m n n
geminate nn
breathy voiced mh nh
Stop tenuis p p t t c k
aspirated ph th ch
prenasalized bp ᵐp dt ⁿt gc ᵑk
voiced b b d d g g
breathy voiced bh dh gh
voiced prenasalized mb ᵐb nd ⁿd ng ᵑg
Fricative plain f f s s h h
aspirated fh fʰ [v] sh sʰ [z]
prenasalized mhf ᵐf nhs ⁿs
Liquid plain r r l l
geminate rr ll
breathy voiced rh lh

Mutations

Lenition: Initials "lenite" as in Irish orthography, but null initials get an h-. Initial n, l, r, sp, st, sc, sm, sn, sl, sr are lenited to nh, lh, rh, sph, sth, sch, smh, snh, slh, srh.

Eclipsis: Initials "eclipse" as in Irish orthography, but f, s (if not in one of sp-, st-, sc-) eclipse to mhf, nhs.

fh, sh, xh are often pronounced [v, z, ɮ] word-medially.

Vowels

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/ ì /iː/ u /u/ ù /uː/
Mid e /e/ è /eː/ o /o/ ò /oː/
Open a /ɐ/ à /aː/

Diphthongs are all read as written: ai ao ae aoi aei ia ua iai uai èi ei ài aì eo ea èa eoi eà eài èu iu iù iùi oì oi òi ui ùi

a in an unstressed syllable becomes e if the previous vowel ends in an /i/.

Prosody

Stress

Intonation

Phonotactics

Morphophonology

Morphology

Pronouns

Singular Plural
1 àmh
2 (familiar) hiar sèid
2 (polite) Sthàna
3 (masculine) u àr
3 (feminine) i
3 (inanimate) ci

Independent pronouns can be used as topics and direct objects.

As topic:

Nà tiann arainn oitheadh?
1SG why on-1SG suffer.VN
Why must I suffer?

Prepositions

Prepositions are inflected, as in the ancestral Thensarian. The pronoun Sthàna is not fused with the preposition, however.

The sequences le + an and de + an contract to len /lɛn/ and den /dɛn/.

The 1sg and 2sg forms of prepositions are stressed on the last syllable; all other forms have initial stress.

Inflection of prepositions
me you (sg.) him her it us you (pl.) them relative
ar 'on' arainn arais or ari arè arad arac arar aram
de-L, d'- 'in, at' dèinn dèis diù diad diac diar diam
ful 'around' fulainn fulais fulu fuili fulè fulad fulac fular fulam
geil 'from' geilinn geilis gela geili geilè geilid geilic geilir geilim
go 'with' guainn gòis guì guad guac guar guam
le 'to' linn leis leo lèi liod lioc lior liom
nae 'with (instrumental)' naìnn naìs nae naì naed naec naer naem
ri 'of' rìnn rìs riù rìod rìoc rìor rìom

Nouns

The plural of nouns is always -a/-e if the noun ends in a C, or -nn if the noun ends in a V.

  • scain 'a friend', scaine 'friends'
  • bùta 'a cave', bùtann 'caves'

There are some irregular plurals:

  • sos 'a man', sois 'men'

Snachian lost grammatical gender.

The definite article is an-L for singular nouns and na-N for plural nouns. One may drop the definite article in the singular (leaving behind just the lenition), and also in the plural (leaving behind the eclipsis) if the initial C of the noun is "eclipsable" (i.e. is one of ∅, p, t, c, b, d, g, f, s). If the noun cannot eclipse, the na is always used: na scaine 'the friends'.

Colloquial Snachian may also drop the plural suffix for definite plural nouns: na scain or mbùta for na scaine or (na) mbùtann is often heard.

Personal names and place names do not always obey mutation rules.

The Thensarian relativizer rin turned into a genitive marker: (an) schain ri Aodhàn (Aodhàn's friend). It can be omitted in casual Snachian: schain Aodhàn.

Adjectives

Adjectives inflect similarly to nouns.

Attributive adjectives agree in mutation with the noun if the noun is definite. For example: "a black cat" is sàr flumh and "the black cat" is (an) shàr fhlumh.

Copula

Snachian has a copula laidh which inflects as follows:

Present tense: lanna, lair, lù, laì, lac, lamh, laid, lar, laobh -- and laidh for nonpronominal subjects

Past tense: g'lanna, g'lair, g'lù, g'laì, g'lac, g'lamh, g'laid, g'lar, g'laobh -- and g'laidh for nonpronominal subjects

Future tense: lathanna, lathair, ...

Examples: Lanna dùbhòinn (I'm a teacher), Lù ìon (It's blue)

As in Welsh, the copula is also used with progressive verbs:

Dhùbhòin lù d'èinteach. (The teacher is sleeping.)
Lamh de nachtach fhòdhan. (We're hunting the game.)

Verbs

The Snachian verbal system is very different from that of its ancestor Tigol. A modern Snachian verb has only three principal parts: the present analytic, the future analytic, and the verbal noun.

Snachian analogized the analytic forms of verbs to all persons, and fused the personal pronoun with the verb:

molaigh ná -> molanna "I thank"
molaigh fiar -> molair "thou thankest"
molaigh hú -> molù "he thanks"
molaigh hí -> molaì "she thanks"
molaigh cé -> molac "it thanks"
molaigh -> molaigh or mola "... thanks" (with nonpronominal subjects)
molaigh gámh -> molamh "we thank" (both exc. and inc.!)
molaigh séid -> molaid "ye thank"
molaigh hár -> molar "they thank"
molaigh mé -> molam "... who/that thank(s)"
Impersonal: molaobh "one thanks"

The past tense is marked by a séimhiú on the verb as in Irish, except that the suffixes are the same as in the present tense. This comes from a construction that translates to "it was the case that ...". Even non-lenitable consonants get aspirated in casual Snachian, though in the written language a particle is used when the first consonant isn't lenitable.

The future tense is derived from the Old Snachian future tense:

moltanna, moltair, moltù, moltaì, moltac, moltamh, moltaid, moltar, moltam, moltaobh

The verbal noun is extremely irregular in Snachian. One somewhat common way of deriving verbal nouns is with a prefix (ao+N) but other verbal nouns may use the suffixes -ach, -t, -ta/-te, or -st. Verbs loaned from Camalic simply use the stem as the verbal noun. Some verbal nouns are suppletive.

Perfect tenses use the construction tainn ('after', often pronounced tann) followed by the verbal noun.

Verbs are negated with cha or chan, from a Tergetian word meaning "emptiness". In the past tense, cha do-L is used.

The imperative uses the bare present tense stem; imperative sentences are in the form verb + object.

Syntax

Snachian is a head-initial, topic-comment language with V2 order. It is wh-in-situ.

Faulty accusative

The "faulty accusative" (which is also used in Welsh and Modern Standard Arabic) particle is am, which is used for both definite and indefinite nouns. It is inserted before a noun after a head verb when there's a phrase between the head verb and the noun.

For example:

Shos h-aonca tua am u? (The head is h-aonca; am is used because there is a constituent, tua, between h-aonca and u.)
DEF.man PST-feed-NPRO who AM he
Who fed the man?

Compare (with no am):

Shos laidh tua tann aoncach ___ u? (The head is aoncach)
DEF.man COP who after feed-VN he
Who has fed the man?
Shos h-aoncù ___ tua? (The head is h-aoncù)
DEF.man PST-feed-he who
Whom did the man feed?

Topic-prominence

The man thanks the teacher = Shos molù dhùbhòin (lit. the man, he thanks the teacher), or Dhùbhòin mola shos am u (lit. the teacher, the man thanks him)

The teacher thanks the man = Dhùbhòin molù shos (lit. the teacher, he thanks the man), or Shos mola dhùbhòin am u (lit. the man, the teacher thanks him)

Not all sentences have topics.

Relative clauses

Relative clauses work similarly. The resumptive pronoun mi is used to refer back to the head of the relative clause.

Dhùbhòinn ri mhola shos am mi - The teacher who the man thanked (lit: the teacher REL the man thanked RES)

Dhùbhòinn ri mholam shos - The teacher who thanked the man (lit: the teacher REL RES thanked the man)

Shois ri h-aoncam àr - The men who fed them (lit: the men REL RES fed them)

Shois ri h-aoncar mi - The men who they fed (lit: the men REL they fed RES)

To negate relative clauses, rinne is used instead of *ri cha.

The structure of a non-restrictive relative clause is: HEAD (topicalized) + COMMENT, just like an independent clause with a topic, except that the resumptive pronoun is used.

Aongàlòin h-aoncam nà, lù tainn rìoladh.
The composer, who fed me, has left.

Complement clauses

The complementizer is mha; complement clauses, by default, are VSO and have no topic.

Linn càid mha dheàmha shaobh ri Praimhìn am shmodh.
I know that Praimhìn's dog ate the bone.

It is not impossible to topicalize in a complement clause however:

Ducnanna mha Shèineamh lac nòs agus Rhostaramh lac nuighil.
I think Tsjoen is easy whereas Roshterian is hard.

One can also use le + subject to introduce a complement clause:

Thobha Aladh liù am chrìgh.
Aladh said he had gone.

Vocabulary

Snachian vocabulary is purist and any loans are always adapted to Snachian phonology.

  • -aim/-im = female suffix

Example texts

The North Wind and the Sun

[to be edited]

Shìomcholl agus hAnn

Other resources