User:IlL/Netagin3

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Netagin (ärək Nätagin ) is one of the major languages of Verse:Tricin, native to the island nation of Ponetegu. It is a triconsonantal language loosely inspired by Hebrew and PIE.

This page describes Classical Netagin. See also Modern Netagin.

Some gib

User:IlL/Netagin/Lexicon

Sound changes from ANtg

  • a > a
  • ā > å
  • ay, i > e
    • i > è in stressed syllables in construct state
  • ī > i
  • aw, u > o
    • u > ò in stressed syllables in construct state
  • ō > ö
  • propretonic or pretonic short vowels reduce to ă (depending on state, part of speech)
  • ū > u

Todo

  • Get rid of gender
  • Make the grammar as different from Hebrew as possible
  • Get rid of Windermere words

Words

Swadesh list

Roots

  • s-r-ć: to heed, to obey
  • y-r-z: to hear
  • ŋ-c: be in front
  • w-s-g: similar
  • n-þ-g: sing
  • n-s-d: learn
  • m-r: go
  • w-x-s: love
  • b-n-s: hide
  • l-z-f: poke
  • z-ħ-m: praise, honor
  • ŋ-þ-w: new
  • x-3-f: reason
  • h-ŋ-c: empty, null
  • ħ-d-x: warm
  • c-ŋ-t: garden, horticulture
  • g-m-z: letter, element
  • ŋ-b-ś: compassion, sympathy
  • f-ś-r: agree, blend
  • n-b-ś: courage
  • þ-f-x: know
  • y-r-f: roll
  • f-c-m: read
  • l-x-r: write
  • z-r-b: true, firm
  • ś-d-l: half, split
  • f-s-t: step, stage
  • ʔ-b-l: mind
  • w-t-f: die
  • þ-ŋ-b: measure
  • z-m-z-m: hesitate
  • s-w-ħ: king, rule
  • ħ-c-g: value
  • ʔ-t-r: punish
  • g-b-n: say
  • k-l-k-l: tile
  • b-s-ŋ: clan, family
  • b-c-3: force, coerce
  • r-ʔ-b: criticize
  • f-s-k: beast
  • k-l-d: agree
  • z-l-n: comfort, solace
  • ʔ-ś-þ: light, color
  • y-d-ś: compare, similar, metaphor
  • s-f-l: dear
  • w-d-r: equal, same
  • ħ-g-r: different
  • m-g-þ: assign
  • k-b-ć: shield, fortress
  • k-z-r: hand over
  • c-b-s: show, exhibit
  • ħ-r-x: open
  • þ-k-s: good, great
  • ħ-n-b: use
  • s-n-l: help
  • f-þ-ʔ: proud
  • s-f-n: bold
  • x-r-r: young
  • x-l-n: eternity
  • l-n: come
  • l-r-y: wait
  • n-m-y: fall
  • k-z-n: stop, settle
  • b-r-c: speak
  • ś-n-ħ: near
  • ħ-t-r: swim
  • ś-r-g: develop, evolve
  • r-x-m: dwell
  • ć-h-k: cold
  • d-ħ-s: strong
  • t-k: to sit on
  • s-b-d: form, become
  • ŋ-z-ʔ: pure
  • d-ŋ-n: lowly, debased, humiliate
  • ŋ-þ-ħ: stretch, deform
  • r-ŋ-b: precious
  • b-ħ-d: round
  • z-n: grasp
  • f-n-3: shine, radiate
  • n-k-d: soft
  • z-n-k: bite
  • g-l-n: straight

Phonology

Consonants

Netagin has 22 root consonants:

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
Plosive voiceless p /p/ t /t/ tj /c/ k /k/ kw /kʷ/
voiced b /p~b/ d /t~d/ dj /c~ɟ/ g /k~g/ gw /gw/
Approximant w /w/ r /ɾ/, l /l/ y /j/
  • /ɾ/ is realized as [r] when geminated.

Lenition

A form of lenition occurs after vowels (even across word boundaries), but is not transliterated.

Vowels

a ă å è e i ò o ö u

Stress

In native words primary stress can only fall on the ultimate, or less commonly the penultimate syllable.

Processes

The obstruents /p t k tʰ kʰ f θ x/ are lenited to [b d g t k v ð ɣ] after a vowel and after voiced sounds (including lenited obstruents, and except /ɾ/). This is called ʔankadö in Netagin.

Morphologically, sequences /rC/ often turn into geminates, due to historical assimilation.

Orthography

Netagin is written in a native left-to-right abjad.

Consonants

Some of these letters are used as matres lectionis (usually where root consonant letters became treated as part of the vowel).

Vowels

Morphology

See also: Netagin/Declension and Netagin/Gzarot

The Classical Netagin noun system is typical of "old" Talman languages: nouns, which have gender, inflect for number and state; verbs take both subject and object affixes and display changes according to their syntactic environment.

Netagin uses a consonantal root system like the Semitic languages. Most roots have three consonants but some may have two or four, the latter mostly in reduplicated or onomatopoeic roots.

Prepositions

Prepositions inflect for person as in Celtic and Semitic languages.

  • ʔaŋ- = to, for
  • să- = in, at
  • ră- = with (comitative)
  • xaŋ = for
  • hid = towards
  • faC- = from
  • zo = on
  • xed, xidd- = with (instrumental)
  • feś, fiśś- = between, among
  • derå = because of
  • dön = around, about
  • kel = over, above
  • noc = in front of, before
  • căþin = without

Nouns

Nouns are traditionally divided into two genders (masculine, feminine), but a four-gender analysis ({masculine, feminine} × {animate, inanimate}) is more common in modern linguistics. There is an inverse number suffix (one for each gender): animate nouns have an unmarked singulative and the inverse number suffix in the collective while inanimate and mass nouns have the inverse number suffix in the singulative and an unmarked collective.

There is also a construct state, which is often marked with stem changes.

Nouns have a definite article ʔes-.

Classical Netagin has also innovated a sex-based gender system with masculine and feminine genders:

  1. Ancient Netagin had an honorific distinction which required agreement in verbs and adjectives.
  2. In Late Ancient Netagin, the honorific developed into its own gender, often being used for big, sacred, specialized, or abstract things, in addition to people of high social status.
  3. The word for "lady", bī3ō, became the normal word for "woman" (like how Frau, formerly "lady", became the normal word for "woman" in German).
  4. Thus, the former honorific agreement (in the third person) analogized to all women and became the feminine gender.

This led to many "great", "majestic", "sacred" or "specialized" objects being feminine in Classical Netagin.

Example declensions:

Sample nouns
Singular Plural
absolute construct absolute construct
Masculine, animate xod xod xuddå xuddå
Masculine, inanimate yărefå yirfå yaref yăref
Feminine, animate ʔèlsö ʔèlsön ʔălåsöb ʔèlsöb
Feminine, inanimate tăʔennöb tăʔennöb tăʔennö tăʔennön

The demonstratives are ŋo 'this' and ri 'that'. With nouns, demonstratives may either precede or follow the noun but there's a difference in connotation. For example, "this bird" is either ʔes-xod ŋo or ŋo ʔes-xod, but the latter has the force of "this very bird".

Pronominal suffixes

Adjectives

Adjectives come after the noun and agree with nouns in gender and number [not in definiteness as in Semitic].

Declension

Nouns and adjectives have various mishkalim, or patterns, that have different declension paradigms.

Adjectives in -in decline as follows:

năþågin 'Netagin'
Singular Plural
Masculine animate năþågin năþåginå
Masculine inanimate năþåginå năþågin
Feminine animate năþågiyö năþågiyöb
Feminine inanimate năþågiyöb năþågiyö

Degree

Degree is indicated with affixes, as in European languages.

  • -åm = "very"

"than":

Pronouns

Singular Plural
1 ʔaxd ʔaxxå
2 ʔan
yarö (hon.)
ʔannå
yaröd (hon.)
3 heh (m)
han (f)
hènnå
hannöd (f)

Verbs

Binyanim

There are 12 binyanim, which tend to (but not always) have the following meanings:

  • Binyan 1 verbs are verbs denoting intransitive actions ("come"), as well as stative verbs ("be cold") and some monotransitives. It is often considered the most basic form.
  • Binyan 2 contains many monotransitive verbs, ("eat") including causativizations of Binyan 1 verbs ("make happy").
  • Binyan 3 consists of verbs denote reflexive/reciprocal action ("get dressed", "kiss each other"), or change of state ("thicken").
  • Binyan 4 contains causatives of transitive verbs ("feed") (and of some Binyan 2 and Binyan 3 verbs). Causatives of statives in the imperfective aspect may denote active maintenance of a state (as opposed to changing a state in the perfective aspect).
  • Binyan 5 is roughly equivalent to the German prefix be- (applicative).
  • Binyan 6 - telic, intensive
  • Binyan 7 - telic
  • Binyan 8 - "X a little, almost X"
  • Binyan 9 - "X in advance, X for oneself" (from the middle voice)
  • Binyan 10 - frequentative, "-le"
  • Binyan 11 verbs tend to express gradual processes.
    • Ex. ħădådex 'warm up (literally or romantically)'.
  • Binyan 12 - "mis-X, over-X"


Binyan Imperfective Perfective Active
Participle
Passive
Participle
Verbnoun
1 1å2a3 -i12a3 1ö2e3 1e2o3 1å2e3, 1ă2i3
2 1a2ö3 -a12u3 1å2i3 1å2u3 1å2å3
3 ʔa12i13 -å12e3 bi11u2å3 þi11u2å3 ʔa12o3
4 ʔa1å2e3 -ă1e2u3 ba12a3 þa12å3 ʔa12a3ö
5 þa12u3 -uþ1å2e3 buþ1å2o3 þuþ1å2o3 þa12ö3ö
6 ʔi1:å2a3 -u1:e2o3 bu1:e2o3 þu1:e2o3 ʔu1:å2e3
7 ʔiþþă1å2o3 -uþþă1å2e3 buþþă1å2o3 þuþþă1å2o3 þiþþă1å2ī3
8 ʔi21å2e3 -i21e2o3 bu21å2o3 þu21å2o3 ʔu21å2e3
9 1as2o3 -u1is2o3 bu1as2o3 þu1as2o3 þu1as2e3
10 1ă2å2a3 -i12å2o3 bu12å2o3 þu12å2o3 þu12å2e3
11 1ă2å2e3 -i12e2o3 bu12e2o3 þu12e2o3 þi12å2e3
12 1i31a2o3 -i1i31e2o3 bu1i31å2o3 þu1i31å2o3 1i31å2e3

1 Shortens to e when a suffix is added.

Trigger

Every verb inflects for a trigger. When a trigger is used, focus shifts to the noun marked with the yi case marker.

The triggers are:

  • agent
  • patient
  • locative
  • instrumental
  • ablative
  • allative
  • comitative
  • benefactive
  • malefactive

Affixes

Present tense affixes
Singular Plural
1 -x -xå
2 -an
-ar (polite)
-nå
-ar (polite)
3 -∅
(hon.)

-öb (hon.)

ʔabnes 'steal'
Singular Plural
1 ʔabnesx ʔabnesxå
2 ʔabnesan
ʔabnesar (polite)
ʔabnesnå
ʔabnesar (polite)
3 ʔabnes
ʔabnesö (hon.)
ʔabneså
ʔabnesöb (hon.)

Past tense affixes
Singular Plural
1 x- x-å
2 n-
n-r (hon.)
n-å
n-r (hon.)
3 h-
h-ö (hon.)
h-å
h-öb (hon.)

ʔabnis 'steal'
Singular Plural
1 xibbenos xibbenoså
2 nibbenos
nibbenosar (hon.)
nibbenoså
nibbenosar (hon.)
3 hibbenos
hibbenosö (hon.)
hibbenoså
hibbenosöb (hon.)


Moods

ħatre = swim! (2sg)

ħatarnån = swim! (2pl)

ħatargun = swim! (polite, all numbers)

Ergative affixes

Ergative affixes are prefixes: they're placed before the subject prefixes if there are any.

Numbers

n nth n each/at a time n-fold; n-ad 1/n
0 ħaŋic băhåŋuc - - -
1 böd băhåbud budbåd halálédh -
2 ħez băħuz ħuzħåz gaḥáḥéz géḥáz
3 tuŋ bătuŋ tuŋtåŋ tzebhábhél tzibál
4 mikåś bămåkuś măkuśkåś meqháqhétz miqátz
5 fazzim băfåzum făzumzåm pezázémh pizzámh
6 ʔaŋbån băŋåbun ŋăbunbån lebhábhén libán
7 kacăd băkåcud kăcudcåd qetzátzédh qittzádh
8 xolås băxålus xăluslås ceˁáˁéš céˁáš
9 riffuy băråfuy răfuyfå rephápheh ripeh
10 þabiŋ băþåbuŋ þăbiŋbåŋ ḥacháchébh ḥicábh
11 śǎdul băśådul śăduldål - -
12 zårux băzårux zăruxråx - -
144 gamån băgåmun gămunmån - -
1728 yeŋăs băyåŋus yăŋusŋås

Derivational morphology

  • 1a2ă3, 1e2ă3, 1o2ă3 = noun
  • 1a2å3, 1a2ö3 = adjective, noun?
  • 1a22u3 = adjective relating to personal qualities
  • ta12u3 = noun
  • ʔi12å3 = agent noun
  • 1å2a3, 1å2e3 = noun
  • 1ö2a3 = noun
  • 1i2a3, 1i2i3, 1i2u3 = noun
  • (stolen from hebrew) 1a2a3ö, 1a2i3ö, 1a2u3ö = nouns
  • 1i22a3, 1u22a3
  • 1a22e3 = desire for X
  • -in = adjective suffix
  • -åm = augmentative
  • -id (f) = abstract noun, collective

Syntax

Classical Netagin uses Austronesian alignment.

Case markers

The two case markers are:

  • ʔes = indirect case
  • yi = direct case

Preverbs

When preverbs such as negation or subordinate conjunctions are used, the verb takes the "opposite" aspect of unpreceded verbs:

  • låxx 'I come (imperfective)', så xalån 'I do not come (imperfective)', niþ xalån 'if I come (imperfective)'
  • xalån 'I came (perfective)', så låxx 'I did not come (perfective)', niþ låxx 'if I came (perfective)'

Relative clauses

Netagin relative clauses often use the verbal noun instead of a finite verb (cf. the flavor of your choosing).

Sample texts

Tower of Babel

Xad, să-rög ʔes-gåser böd băric da-yħenå bikå.
then in-all DEF-world one language and word-PL same-PL.M
Sem sa-fătinăhå ʔaŋ-þimmuś, kurac haroz yihå dă-hikzăʔå rån.
but in-migrate-3PL to-east, plain 3.PFV-find ERG-3PL and-3.PFV-dwell-PL there.
Dă-hibrăså, "ʔAce, 3ammå ʔaŋ-yăgåþ ogăn dă-ŋaþþilnån heh siħþåy." Dă-ʔemmad ʔu-fenuś huþħånăbå yis-yinnåk dă-ʔu-xåwde huþħånăbå yis-wăŋår.

Miscellaneous

Poetry

Netagin poetry is similar to Hebrew piyyutim in structure. They come in quantitative meters and tend to rhyme.

Meters:

  • SLLL SLLL (hazaj)
  • LLSLLL LLSLLL